Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Gender Differences in Boccia Underhand Throw Biomechanics


Singgih Hendarto*, Rumi Iqbal Doewes, Satria Yudi Gontara and Manshuralhudlori

The study purpose was determined gender differences in the boccia underhand throw biomechanics. The research method was used a cross sectional study. The 6 boccia athletes were sampled consisting of 3 male and 3 female. The research instrument was used a throw accuracy test. Movement analysis was recorded using a camera placed on the side of the throwing arm and associated with the throw direction. The movement analysis was divided into two stages, namely the arm swing stage and the throw results, and then analyzed using Kinovea software. For gender differences in the biomechanics of boccia underhand throw, an independent t-test was carried out. At the arm swing stage, female players were greater in backswing angles (175 for female, 155.67 for male, p = 0.122), front-swing angles (148 for female, 140 for male, p = 0.570), and power (19.88 J/s for female, 16.93 J/s for male, p = 0.248), while male players were greater in the angle of throwing arm inclination (27 for male, 22.67 for female, p = 0.563), angle of non-throwing arm inclination (17 for male, 14.67 for female, p = 0.834), and angle of shoulder inclination when releasing the ball (18.33 for male players, 18 for female players, p = 0.969). The average performance of boccia underhand throws is better for female than male as seen from the throws results. The ball distance from the target is longer for male players (0.10 meters for male players vs. 0.04 meters for female players, p = 0.260). This study contributes new data to characterize the performance of female and male players of boccia cerebral palsy. The study concluded that in order to achieve the accuracy of throwing results on the underhand throw technique, female players needed a large swing angle and power while male players needed the right body tilt.


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