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Administrative Delegation and Motivation and Its Relationship to Effective Decision-Making for Heads of Departments in Physical Education and Sports Sciences Faculties in Iraq

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Full Length Research Paper - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 1

Administrative Delegation and Motivation and Its Relationship to Effective Decision-Making for Heads of Departments in Physical Education and Sports Sciences Faculties in Iraq

Abdulla Ahmad Muhammad and Diyar Fakhrulddin Mohammed
*Correspondence: Mohammed Ahmed Saber, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kirkuk University, Iraq, Email:
1College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kirkuk University, Iraq
College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Kirkuk University, Iraq
2Department of Physical Education, AlQalam University College, Kirkuk, Iraq

Received: 06-Jan-2023 Published: 24-Feb-2023

Abstract

The study aimed to identify the level of decision-making, delegation and motivation, and to identify the relationship between decision-making, delegation and motivation among heads of departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq for the academic year 2021-2022 AD.The sample was intentionally selected from the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq, consisting of (54) heads of departments, the researchers used the survey method from the basic methods in the descriptive research, due to its suitability to the nature of the study. The study reached the following results: The results showed an average level related to the axes of delegation of authority, as well as the results showed the average level of the motivational axes, as well as the results showed the average level of decision-making. The results showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between delegation of authority and decision-making, and between motivation and decision-making among the heads of departments of the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq. The researchers recommends the need to pay attention to delegation in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences because of its positive impact in facilitating work and speed of achievement, improving the performance of heads of departments, and holding training courses for department heads in various departments and colleges related to the importance of delegation.

Keywords

Delegation. Motivation. Decision making.

Introduction

Perhaps one of the most prominent features of this era is the spread of scientific and technical knowledge and its increasing growth, which requires the availability of qualified, administrative and human forces in institutions so that it can know and perform the tasks entrusted to it efficiently and effectively. Delegation is one of the administrative skills that can be learned, and it is of great importance to achieving the distinguished success of managers and administrative leaders. (Al-Sharif, 2011, p. 207).

Delegation of authority is considered a necessity necessitated by the organization process, whenever it is not possible for one person to do all the work necessary to manage education and achieve the goals of the organization, then with the expansion and expansion of administrative work it becomes not possible for one

person to exercise all the authority to make decisions in the organization (Mutawa, 2003, p. 14).

The study of incentives is a means to know how to satisfy the needs of workers, so if the leadership wants to increase the productivity and efficiency of its workers, it must identify their motives and develop their needs in order to provide them with appropriate incentives and motivate them to the desired behavior (Al-Qadi, 2008, p. 10).

Decision-making is considered one of the essential tasks in the administrative work, hence the decision-making process was described as the heart of management and the core of the administrative process, and the amount of success achieved by organizations depends to a large extent on the ability of the efficiency of its leadership to take appropriate decisions, which increased the importance of decision-making due to the problem of the multiplicity and complexity of its goals in modern administrative organizations, and the closeness of conflict between these goals sometimes. The administrative process should focus on the basis and methods of making decisions, as well as on the basis and procedures for their implementation (Al-Saud, 2006, p. 30).

What distinguishes higher education institutions is that the administrative and educational matters in them are managed in a collective manner in which the academic departments represent the cornerstone. Whereas the head of the department is an important element and the link between senior management and the needs of students, so it is necessary to develop him professionally and provide him with administrative knowledge, tasks, works and duties that he needs to provide the best service to the university. The great burdens and difficulties in dealing with all problems lie on the shoulders of deans and assistants in universities, and delegation has become necessary and represents the right path that allows heads of the departments to participate actively in taking responsibility and solving problems. The study came to answer the following questions:

1. What is the level of decision-making ability, delegation and motivation of heads of the departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq?

2. Is there a relationship between decision-making, delegation, and motivation of heads of the departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq?

Research Objectives

1. Identifying the level of decision-making ability, delegation and motivation among heads of the departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq.

2. Identifying a relationship between decision-making, delegation and motivation among heads of the departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq.

Research Methodology

The researchers used the survey method from the basic methods in the descriptive research due to its suitability to the nature of the study. Study population and sample the study population is the heads of departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences as a community to conduct the current research. And the sample of the study, where the sample was chosen by the intentional method from the heads of departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq, consisting of (54) heads of departments. The researcher distributed (44) questionnaires to the study sample, then took a sample of (10) from the original community of the study, in order to standardize the questionnaire, distributed as shown in Table 1 as follows (Table 1).

Table 1: Description of the basic research sample and the pilot study.

Colleges of physical education and sports sciences heads of departments number The total number of the study population The total number of the pilot study sample The total number of the research sample
Baghdad 3 3 - 3
Baghdad for girls 3 3 - 3
Al-Mustansiriya 3 3 - 3
Basra 3 3 - 3
Mosul 3 2 1 2
Tikrit 3 2 1 2
Diyala 3 2 1 2
Kirkuk 3 1 2 1
Samarra 3 2 1 2
Kufa 3 3 - 3
Babylon 3 3 - 3
Qasim Green 3 3 - 3
Karbala 3 2 1 2
Qadisiyah 3 2 1 2
Dhi Qar 3 3 - 3
Wasit 3 3 - 3
Al-Muthanna 3 3 1 2
Maysan 3 3 1 2
total 54 44 10 44

Data Collection Tools

The researchers relied on obtaining data and information on the theoretical side available from Arab and foreign sources that dealt with the subject of the study (books, research, similar studies and the information network (the Internet).

A number of phrases were developed and formulated to suit the purpose and sample of the study, and it was taken into account when choosing them that they all have a positive trend, and a five-point Likert scale was developed ((to a very large degree, to a large degree, to a medium degree, to a small degree, and to a very small degree). Thus, the questionnaire form (delegation, motivation and decision-making) became in its initial form before conducting scientific transactions on it for standardize.

Pilot Study

The researchers conducted a pilot study on a sample of (10) individuals from the main study sample and from within the study community, during the period from 1/5/2021 to 5/3/2022. The study aimed to identify the extent of clarity and appropriateness of formulating the phrases to the level of understanding of the sample and the conduct of scientific transactions.

Scientific Transactions of the Questionnaire

Face validity

The questionnaire was presented in its initial form with all its contents (axes and phrases) to (5) experts in the field of sports management in order to seek their views on the validity of the statements related to each axis separately, and their agreement came with a percentage ranging between (80-100%) on All the axes and phrases, and the approval of the experts on the questionnaire in its final form after modification was considered as the validity of the study tool.

Questionnaire validity: (internal consistency validity)

The validity of the internal consistency was calculated by means of the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the score of each phrases and the total score of the questionnaire, which is as shown in the following table 2:

Table 2: shows that all of its phrases have been adopted because the correlation coefficient for each of them is less than the significance level (0.05).

First axes Second axes Third axes
Phrase no. correlation
coefficient
Sig. Phrase no. correlation
coefficient
Sig. Phrase no. correlation
coefficient
Sig. Phrase no. correlation
coefficient
Sig.
1 0.907 0.00 11 0.924 0.00 18 0.714 0.02 28 1.000 0.00
2 0.757 0.01 12 1.000 0.00 19 0.808 0.05 29 0.651 0.04
3 0.750 0.01 13 0.774 0.01 20 0.908 0.00 30 0.908 0.00
4 0.651 0.04 14 0.843 0.04 21 0.908 0.00 31 0.757 0.01
5 0.684 0.02 15 0.924 0.00 22 1.000 0.00 32 1.000 0.00
6 0.907 0.00 16 0,738 0.02 23 0.757 0.01 33 0.908 0.00
7 1.000 0.00 17 0.774 0.01 24 0.657 0.03 34 0.808 0.05
8 0.688 0.02       25 0.714 0.02 35 1.000 0.00
9 0.757 0.01       26 1.000 0.00 36 0.657 0.03
10 1.000 0.00       27 0.651 0.04 37 0.908 0.00
Significant "t" at the level of 0.05

Table 2 the internal consistency between the responses of each item and the total score of the simple correlation coefficient form (Pearson) to examine the validity of the phrases of the questionnaire (Table 2).

Reliability of the questionnaire :( Cronbach's alpha)

The reliability coefficient of the questionnaire was calculated using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and it is as shown in the following table 3 (Table 3).

Table 3: The value of the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the phrases of each of the questionnaire axes, n = 10.

No. Axes Phrases Cronbach's alpha
coefficient
1 delegation 10 0.78
2 motivation 7 0.70
3 decision-making 20 0.91

Application of the questionnaire:

The researchers applied the questionnaire to the (44) study community, In the presence of the researchers and handing over the form by hand, after completing the application of the questionnaire, it was collected and interpreted the private data to be subjected to appropriate statistical treatments.

Correction and grade criterion:

To identify the degree of evaluation, the researchers relied on the arithmetic averages of the answers of the sample to be an indicator of the degree of evaluation based on the following criterion in judging the evaluation of the arithmetic averages, by dividing the evaluation degrees into three levels (high, medium, low).

1. Less than or equal to (2.33) a low indicator.

2. Greater than (2.34) and less than or equal to (3.67) as an average indicator.

3. Greater than or equal to (3.68) a high indicator.

Presentation and Discussion of the Results

After obtaining the primary data set collected from the study population using the study tool Represented in the questionnaire, the statistical treatment (spss) was used in order to obtain clear scientific answers. The results will be presented and discussed through the objectives of the study:

First objective: To identify the level of delegation, motivation and decisionmaking among the heads of departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq (Table 4).

Table 4 shows that the arithmetic means ranged between (2.45-3.45) and the standard deviation ranged between (0.96-0.60) where the level of the average phrases came, and the arithmetic mean and the total standard deviation were respectively (3.03), (0.28) for the delegation axes. In an average degree, the researchers attributes that the heads of departments do not understand the importance and necessity of delegation and the conditions upon which the delegation process is based, as well as the mutual lack of trust between the deans and heads of departments until they are granted powers.

Table 4: Arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the level of delegation items.

No. phrases Arithmetic means standard
deviations
level
1 The College Deanship follows up the department head in the tasks delegated to
it periodically
3.15 0.60 average
2 The department head determines the delegated tasks 3.06 0.87 average
3 The College Deanship trusts the abilities of department heads to perform the
tasks delegated to them.
2.77 0.83 average
4 Demonstrate to the department head how to use the powers granted to them
effectively
3.22 0.96 average
5 Grant the department head enough time to carry out the tasks entrusted to him 3.18 0.89 average
6 Delegate to the department head the powers necessary to carry out his duties 3.27 0.65 average
7 All powers are granted to the department head according to ministerial
instructions
2.45 0.78 average
8 The head of the department exercises its powers during the mandate period
without interference from the college deanship
3.45 0.90 average
9 The head of the department is given the freedom to perform its tasks in the best
way
2.86 0.85 average
10 You give the department head the authority to deal with the problems you
encounter at work
2.95 0.86 average
- total 3.03 0.28 average

This is indicated by Al-Sharif (2011). Delegation is one of the administrative skills that can be learned, and of great importance to achieving the outstanding success of managers and administrative leaders. Al-Sharif, 2011, p.

This is confirmed by Al-Shafei, 2013 that there are multiple advantages of delegation that lie in achieving democracy in management by involving subordinates with superiors in the course of the administrative process, shortening time, giving the manager the opportunity for renewal and innovation, and focusing on important aspects, but there are obstacles that prevent Its effectiveness and the reduction of its desired results, such as the selfishness that controls many administrative heads, which leads them not to delegate to others, as well as the lack of self-confidence between the manager and subordinates. (Al-Shafei, 2013, p. 83) (Table 5).

Table 5 shows that the arithmetic means ranged between (3.27-2.77) and the standard deviation ranged between (0.96-0.60) (where the level of the phrases was average, and the arithmetic mean and the total standard deviation were respectively (3.08), (0.17) for the motivation axes. In an average degree, the researchers attributes the reason to the system of incentives subject to standards that are difficult to deal with, as well as the lack of budget of the Ministry of Higher Education for universities.

Table 5: Arithmetic means, standard deviations, and level for the motivation phrases.

No. phrases Arithmetic means standard deviations level
11 It has a system of moral and material incentives 3.15 0.60 average
12 Regulations and instructions help heads of departments to develop their skills
at work
3.06 0.87 average
13 Take the initiative to implement the ideas and proposals put forward by the
heads of departments to solve work problems
2.77 0.83 average
14 Provides department heads with the necessary materials for work 3.22 0.96 average
15 Justice is achieved in the system of incentives and rewards 3.18 0.89 average
16 The heads of departments feel that the deanship appreciates their efforts at
work
3.27 0.65 average
17 The heads of departments are motivated to contribute to the achievement of
the overall goals
2.93 0.78 average
- total 3.08 0.17 average

This is what Al-Zamili (2015) sees as the presence of a good incentive system that contributes to attracting individuals and satisfying their needs, enhances their continuity in work, stimulates competition in them to improve performance, and provides a positive organizational climate, which contributes to their feelings of satisfaction and organizational loyalty (Al-Zamili, 2015, p. 18) (Table 6).

Table 6 shows that the arithmetic means ranged between (4.20-3.68) and the standard deviation ranged between (0.82-0.59) (where the level of the phrases was average, and the arithmetic mean and the total standard deviation were respectively (3.88), (0.18) for the decision-making axes to an average degree. The researchers believe that there are obstacles facing the heads of departments, the lack of mutual trust with the deanship and the lack of support from faculty members.

Table 6: Arithmetic means, standard deviations, and level for the decision-making phrases.

No. phrases Arithmetic means standard deviations level
18 Determine the topic of the decision accurately 3.15 0.60 average
19 Gather the necessary information before making a decision 3.06 0.87 average
20 Determine the degree of importance of the decision before making it 2.77 0.83 average
21 I take into account that the decision is made in the practical interest 3.22 0.96 average
22 List possible alternatives related to the decision 3.02 0.84 average
23 Discuss the decision to be made collectively 3.06 0.19 average
24 Take care not to contradict the phrases of the decision with each other 2.93 0.78 average
25 The decision is formulated in clear terms 3.45 0.90 average
26 Consider the consistency of the decision with previous decisions 2.86 0.85 average
27 Follow the work teams approach in making administrative decisions 2.93 0.84 average
28 Involve all parties in developing operational and developmental plans and
programs for the college
3.15 0.60 average
29 Involve all levels of staff in decision-making 3.06 0.87 average
30 The content of the decision is clarified and explained to comply with it 2.75 0.81 average
31 It gives the appropriate time and opportunity to implement the decision 3.22 0.96 average
32 Following up on the implementation of the decision takes place according to the
picture drawn for it
3.18 0.89 average
33 Commitment to implement and circulate the decision 3.13 0.63 average
34 Evaluating the implementation of decisions according to declared standards 2.90 0.74 average
35 Assisting workers on ways to implement the decision 3.34 0.80 average
36 Finding and correcting decision implementation errors 2.86 0.85 average
37 Correct decisions if they have negative results 2.95 0.86 average
  Total 2.95 0.18 average

This result is consistent with the results of the study of (Qusai Fawzi Khalaf 2011 (Tamkeen) that there is a significant relationship between the degree of administrative empowerment and decision-making among educational supervisors.

Second objective: Identify the relationship between decision-making, delegation and motivation among the heads of departments in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq (Table 7).

Table 7: Correlation coefficient for decision-making and delegation of authority.

indication Sig Correlation coefficient standard deviations Arithmetic means Variables
significant 0,00 0,94 20,3 55,47 decision-making
1,94 30,88 delegation

Table 7 shows the existence of a significant correlation between decisionmaking and delegation of authority with a correlation value of (0.94) and a probability value of (0.00). This indicates that the greater the degree of delegation of authority, the greater their ability to make decisions, and vice versa for the heads of departments of the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq. This is consistent with the results of the study (Amina Salim Salem 2012) that there is a significant relationship between the degree of administrative empowerment and decision-making among educational supervisors (Table 8).

Table 8: Correlation coefficient for decision making and motivation.

indication Sig Correlation coefficient standard deviations Arithmetic means Variables
significant 0,00 0,81 20,3 55,47 decision-making
1,65 21,61 Motivation

Table 8 shows the existence of a significant correlation between decision-making and motivation with a correlation value of (0.81) and a probability value of (0.00). This indicates that the greater the degree of motivation, the greater their ability to make decisions, and vice versa, among the heads of the departments and the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq.

Conclusion

The results of the study are an average level for all axes: delegation of authority, motivation, and decision-making. The results showed the existence of a statistically significant relationship between delegation of authority and decision-making, as well as the existence of a statistically significant relationship between motivation and decision-making among heads of departments in faculties of physical education and sports sciences in Iraq. The researchers recommends the need to pay attention to delegation in the faculties of physical education and sports sciences, because of its positive impact in facilitating work and speed in achievement, and improving the performance of heads of departments. And holding training courses for heads of departments in various colleges related to the importance of delegation, and the need to pay attention to providing an incentive system for heads of departments of faculties of physical education and sports sciences, And conducting a study related to the obstacles facing the faculties of physical education and sports sciences in applying delegation and motivation to the heads of their departments.

References

Al-Sharif, Abdullah Abdel-Aziz (2011): “The Role of Delegation in Improving Administrative Practices for Educational Supervisors in Education Offices in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” Reading and Knowledge Journal.

Mutawa, Ibrahim Esmat. (2003): Educational Administration in the Arab World, Arab Papers - International, 1st Edition, Dar Al-Fikr for Printing, Publishing and Distribution, Cairo, Egypt.

Al-Qadi, Najah (2008): Dimensions of administrative empowerment among educational leaders in public universities in the northern region and its relationship to administrative training, an unpublished master's thesis, Yarmouk University, Jordan.

Al-Saud, Khalid bin Abdullah (2003): Decision-making in Crisis Circumstances, Riyadh, Al-Hamidi Printing Press.

El-Shafei, Sobhi El-Sayed (2003): The Arab Director and Administrative Delegation, Arab Director Magazine.

Qusai Fawzi Khalaf (2011): Development and application of a measure for decision-making in higher administrative bodies: a descriptive research on the administrative sub-sports federations in the representation of the Olympic Committee for the Governorate of Basra, Contemporary Sports Journal, Volume 10, Number 14, Iraq, University of Baghdad, Colleges of Physical Education Girls.

Amina Salim Salem (2012): Administrative Empowerment to Support Decision-Making Ability of Educational Supervisors in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, Unpublished Master’s Thesis, College of Education, Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia.

Al-Zamili, Muhammad Yusuf (2012): Administrative empowerment among secondary school principals in the governorates of Gaza and its relationship to their level of job satisfaction, unpublished master's thesis, College of Education, Islamic University, Gaza, Palestine.

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