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Building a scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs in Baghdad secondary schools

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research Article - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4

Building a scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs in Baghdad secondary schools

Safa Ali Gareb1* and Maysa Nadim Ahmed
*Correspondence: Safa Ali Gareb, Master Student, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
1Master Student, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq

, Manuscript No. RIPED-00023-2022-01;

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to build a scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating students with special needs in secondary schools in Baghdad. To achieve the goal of the study, the descriptive approach was used in the survey method for its suitability to the research problem. The research community included physical education teachers in Baghdad secondary schools for the academic year (2021 - 2022), in order to measure the study variable (the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers toward integrating people with special needs (physically), the two researchers made a process of building the required scale according to the steps and procedures of building the scale, After that, the honesty of the paragraphs was ascertained through the results of the coefficients of the scientific base for them by carrying out statistical treatments for them. The two researchers concluded by developing a scientific research tool concerned with measuring the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically). The two researchers also recommend the necessity of adopting the built and prepared scales as scientific research tools in measuring the psychological tendencies of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), and the scale of the personal characteristics of the research sample.

Keywords

Psychological attitudes. Physical education teachers. People with special needs. Baghdad secondary schools

Introduction

The development of the desired attitudes is a basic and important goal of education in its various educational stages, and this is no less important than acquiring scientific knowledge and developing their skills, as physical education seeks to restore physical compatibility with people with special needs so that they can reach an appropriate level according to the conditions of their disability and benefit from what they have From the capabilities to rehabilitate them socially and psychologically in preparation for their participation, interaction and integration with society so that they do not feel that they are a crippled human force. Among the previous studies that dealt with such a study is the study (Aref. 2015), which concluded that teachers’ attitudes are positive toward integrating disabled students with ordinary students in the physical education lesson. As well as the study (Al-Rubaie. 2020), found that leadership personality traits have a positive impact on the success of the educational process and the impact on students' behavior.

The two researchers emphasized the importance of physical education teachers' attitudes towards integrating people with special needs physically because of their effective impact in organizing their lives, employing their abilities and energies, and directing them in the correct and optimal manner in order to harmonize with their normal peers.

Research objective: Building a scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating students with special needs in secondary schools in Baghdad.

Research Methodology and Field Procedures

Research methodology: The researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method for its relevance to the nature of the problem and the study to be investigated.

Community and sample research: The research community of physical education teachers in Baghdad high schools for the academic year (2021- 2022) was determined, and their number was (80) elements (male and female teachers) belonging to Baghdad high schools, and (5) elements (male and female teachers) were selected as an exploratory sample from within the research community. They were selected (Al-Samoud Preparatory School for Girls, Umm Al-Qura Preparatory School), which numbered (2,3) elements (teacher and school) and at a rate of (56.25%) of the surveyed community. A sample of building and preparing scales was chosen in the exclusive comprehensive method for each research community, with a total of (80) elements (male and female teachers) as a sample for building a scale of psychological attitude toward integrating people with special needs physically, and a sample of preparing a scale of personality traits for the same research sample and formed a percentage (100%) of the original community and sample An application experience with (80) elements (male and female teachers).

The researchers used the following means of collecting information, devices and tools (references and sources, questionnaire, interviews, scales, stopwatch, Casio hand calculator, Lenovo computer).

In order to measure the study variable (the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically)), this requires the two researchers to carry out a process of building the required scale according to the following steps and procedures:

Planning for building the scale and defining the goal and purpose of building it: The aims of building a scale of attitudes for physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) is to develop scientific measuring tools, the purpose of its construction is to identify the attitudes of physical education teachers towards people with physical disabilities, and in the light of the definitions and theoretical frameworks of the concept (psychological attitudes), the researcher sought to divide the concept into fields and formulate and collect paragraphs concerned with measuring that variable, as the two researchers adopted one of the theories of (social interaction) as a theoretical framework in the formation of areas and the formulation of the paragraphs concerned with measuring psychological attitudes towards integrating people with special needs (physical) in the research sample.

Identifying the fields of the scale: After the theoretical frameworks for the concept of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers were adopted and adopted towards integrating people with special needs (physically) in the formation of areas and the formulation of the paragraphs of the scale, the two researchers divided the scale into its primary elements so that each element represents a specific field or dimension and after reviewing the sources and literature The two researchers were able to identify (4) fields for the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) (see appendix 1), in order to identify the honesty of those fields, the two researchers resorted to presenting them to a group of experts and specialists, (see appendix 2) in psychology, testing and measurement, within a questionnaire, in which the importance of each of the specific fields was determined, and after collecting the forms and processing instructions, their data statistically, and extracting the value of relative importance When summing half the maximum value of the experts’ agreement with half the value of the range (importance) contained in the form, the relative importance value is dividing the importance by the maximum value of the agreement multiplied by a hundred (Hussein. 2011).

This can be explained as follows:

• Maximum value of the agreement = number of experts x importance = 15 x 10 = 150

• Half of the maximum value of the agreement = 150/2 = 75

• Half of the importance = 10/2 = 5

• Importance value = half the range + half the maximum value = 75 + 5 = 80

• The relative importance value = 80/150 x 100 = 53.33%.

After the forms were collected, the data was unloaded and processed, the areas that got less than (80) of importance, or less than (53.33%) of relative importance were excluded by taking the opinions of (15) experts and specialists, and Table (1) shows that (Table 1).

Table 1: Shows the degree of importance and relative importance of the fields of the scale of the attitudes for physical education teachers.

No. Fields degree of importance relative importance Nomination accepted
Yes No
1 Social 140 93%  
3 Educational 110 73%  
4 Psychological 120 80%  
6 Competitive 50 33%  

Collecting, preparing and drafting paragraphs: In order to collect, prepare and formulate an appropriate number of paragraphs concerned with measuring the areas of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs, the two researchers sought to review the sources, literature and previous studies, and then formulated (30) paragraphs concerned with measuring psychological attitudes of teachers of education Sports (see appendix 3) and presented to (17) experts and specialists (see appendix 4) in sports psychology, measurement and evaluation for the purpose of evaluating and judging the honesty of each paragraph in measuring what was set for its measurement, making the necessary observations if necessary, as well as expressing an opinion on the honesty of the answer alternatives approved for the scale, and after collecting the forms and unloading the data and analyzing the opinions of experts and specialists about the honesty of Paragraphs, they suggested deleting and changing a section of the paragraphs either to repeat them in meaning with other paragraphs or because they are not suitable for measuring what they were set for and modifying and transferring the other section from one field to another. They also suggested that the answer alternatives be (quadruple) (always, often, sometimes, never) to measure the interpretational attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) and in light of this, the opinions of experts and specialists were taken into account on the adoption of the proposed answer alternatives, and then a section of the paragraphs was modified and the other section was deleted as a result of the experts’ agreement on that, and through the use of the experts’ agreement ratio and the test ( chi-2) On the honesty of the paragraphs and the retention of the paragraphs that received an agreement percentage (75%) of experts or more, and whose calculated value (chi-2) is greater than its tabular value of (3.84) at the level of significance (0.05) and the degree of freedom (1),as it retained (30) a paragraph concerned with measuring the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) distributed by (10) paragraphs concerned with measuring the social field (10) paragraphs concerned with measuring the educational field (10) paragraphs concerned with measuring the psychological field, and table (2) shows that (Table 2).

Table 2: Shows the agreement of experts and the values of (chi-2) about the honesty of the items of the Attitude Scale for physical education teachers.


no.
Fields Paragraph sequence Number of paragraphs Number of agree Percentage Number of disagree Percentage value chi-2 Nomination accepted
calculated 
tabular 
Yes No
1 Social 1-4-7-10-13-16-19-22-25-28 10 17 %100 Zero Zero 17 3.84 Ö  
2 Educational 2-5-8-11-14-17-20-23-26-29 10 16 94% 1 6% 13.23 Ö  
3 Psychological 3-6-9-12-15-18-21-24-27-30 10 17 %100 Zero Zero 17 Ö  
Totals     30                

In order to ensure the honesty of the amendments made by the researcher to the paragraphs, she presented them again to a group of experts and specialists to confirm the honesty of the amendments, and after collecting the forms, unpacking their data, and extracting the value of the (Kendall) agreement coefficient among the experts’ opinions, the results showed that the value of the (Kendall) agreement coefficient amounted to (0.94) for the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), which indicates that The experts approved by (94%) the honesty of the psychological attitudes paragraphs for physical education teachers. After that, the scale was presented to the linguistic expert to modify the wording of the scale’s paragraphs in a way that does not contradict its linguistic integrity.

Setup Scale Instructions

In order to complete the initial picture of the scale (the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs) and to be applied to the individuals of the research sample, the researcher set instructions for the scale as follows:

• Not mentioning the name.

• The need to answer honestly and accurately.

• You are not entitled to use another colleague to answer.

• Answer all paragraphs.

• Put a tick (√) in front of each paragraph and in the field that applies to you.

In these instructions, the researcher took into account the concealment of the true purpose of the scale, as the name of the scale was not mentioned in order to obtain accurate data. The instructions also included an example of how to answer the paragraphs, and Annex (5) shows the instructions of the scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically). With its (30) paragraphs after adding (3) paragraphs for the objectivity of the response, that is, one paragraph for each field. The researcher gave a double sequence to each paragraph, as the first section of it refers to (paragraph sequence) and the second section refers to the field in preparation for their survey on a sample of the testers.

Exploring the scale: For the purpose of knowing the clarity of the instructions,paragraphs and answer alternatives by the members of the research sample,as well as determining the time required to answer the paragraphs of the scale and to identify the difficulties that the researcher may face when applying the scale to the members of the construction sample and thus avoiding them, and on Wednesday 27/10/ 2021 The scale exploring the members of the exploratory sample, which numbered (5) (school) members belonging to my schools (Al- Samoud Preparatory School for Girls, Umm Al-Qura Preparatory School) with (2,3) subjects, respectively, belonging to the secondary schools of Tarbiyat Baghdad from within the research community, as indicated previously within Table (1), it was found from the exploratory experience that the instructions were clear by the tested individuals and that the time taken to answer the items of the scale was between (5-10) minutes, and that the answer alternatives and the items were clear for physical education teachers and thus the scale became with its instructions and paragraphs And its answer alternatives are ready to be applied to the members of the construction sample.

Applying the scale to the members of the construction sample: After completing the procedures that pave the way for implementing the scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), consisting of (3) areas and (30) items after adding (3) items to the objectivity of the response , which was applied to the construction sample of (80) subjects (male and female teachers) on Monday, 8/11/2021. After completing the implementation of the scale application, the researcher collected the individuals’ forms in preparation for identifying the objectivity of the testers’ responses and then analyzing the data statistically.

Statistical analysis of paragraphs: The quality of the standards depends on the paragraphs that make up them. It is necessary to analyze each paragraph and reveal its efficiency, and to keep the paragraphs that fit the logical foundations for which it was built (Hamid and Bahi. 2000). there are several methods for analyzing scale items, including the two-peripheral group method for extracting the item discrimination coefficient, which is “the item’s ability to distinguish individual differences between the two testers” (Al- Zoghbi. 2007). And the internal consistency coefficient “which provides us with evidence of the homogeneity of the paragraphs through the relationship of the paragraph’s degree to the total degree of the field.” to which it belongs and the relationship of the degree of the field with the degree of the total sum of the scale” (Allam, 2000). The testers or detecting the differences between the tested individuals and the method of the internal consistency coefficient by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the paragraph score and the total score of the field or style to which it belongs.

The two-peripheral group method: In order to extract the ability of the paragraphs of the psychological attitudes scale of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), there are several steps that must be followed, which are (Al-Zoghbi. 2007):

1. Arranging the scores obtained by the testers on each item in descending order from the highest score to the lowest score.

2. We take two sets of scores, the first representing the individuals who got the highest scores, and the second representing those who got the lowest scores in each paragraph.

3. We take a percentage (27%) of the upper and lower group, and this percentage represents the best percentage that can be taken because it presents us with two groups with the maximum possible size of differentiation, as the number of members of each group for the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers reached (22).

After following the steps, the scale items were analyzed by using the (T) test for independent and equal samples to test the differences between the mean of the two end groups for each item separately, as the calculated (T) value represents the discriminatory power of the item between the upper and lower groups. It has a significant discriminatory power between individuals by comparing the calculated (T) value with its tabular value (1.98) at the level of significance (0.05) and the degree of freedom (78) for the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) as shows in the Table 3 (Table 3).

Table 3: Shows the values of the discriminatory ability and the moral significance of the items of the scale of attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically).

Paragraphs Upper  group Lower  group
T  value 
Type sig 
Mean standarddeviation Mean standarddeviation
Calculated 
Tabular 
1 3.77 5.42 1.22 0.42 19.68 1.98 sig
2 3.59 0.50 1.63 0.49 13.02 sig
3 3.45 0.50 1.18 0.39 16.53 sig
4 3.60 0.49 1.25 0.42 17.20 sig
5 4.00 0.00 1.54 0.50 22.59 sig
6 3.54 0.50 1.50 0.51 13.28 sig
7 3.81 0.39 1.22 0.42 20.84 sig
8 3.90 0.29 1.45 0.50 19.56 sig
9 3.54 0.50 1.86 0.35 12.74 sig
10 3.68 0.47 1.50 0.51 14.63 sig
11 3.36 0.49 1.40 0.50 13.02 sig
12 3.63 0.49 1.22 0.42 17.30 sig
13 3.81 0.39 1.72 0.45 16.26 sig
14 3.72 0.45 1.68 0.47 14.54 sig
15 3.31 0.47 1.72 0.45 11.31 sig
16 3.72 0.45 1.68 0.47 14.54 sig
17 3.50 0.51 1.59 0.50 12.47 sig
18 3.90 0.29 1.22 0.42 24.18 sig
19 3.54 0.50 1.31 0.47 14.97 sig
20 3.77 0.42 1.09 0.29 24.18 sig
21 4.00 0.00 1.45 0.50 23.42 sig
22 3.63 0.49 1.59 0.50 13.62 sig
23 3.95 0.21 1.77 0.42 21.36 sig
24 3.86 0.35 1.36 0.49 19.38 sig
25 3.50 0.51 1.36 0.49 14.11 sig
26 4.00 0.00 1.22 0.42 30.32 sig
27 3.77 0.42 1.31 0.47 17.95 sig
28 4 0.00 1 0.00   Non dig
29 3.72 0.45 1.45 0.50 15.59 sig
30 3.59 0.50 1.59 0.50 13.18 sig

Calculation of the internal consistency coefficient: The researcher used another method to detect the efficiency of the paragraphs of the psychological attitudes scale of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) that differs from the previous method (the two peripheral groups). And the degree of the total sum of the scale in relation to the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), as the researcher extracted the values of the correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the degree of paragraphs and the total degrees of each field and the degree of the paragraph and the degree of the total sum of the scale of psychological attitudes for teachers of physical education consisting of ( 30) a paragraph for the members of the construction sample, which numbered (80) elements (teacher and teacher) of physical education teachers belonging to the Directorates of Education in Baghdad, and as a result of this procedure, the moral significance was shown in all the calculated correlation coefficients and the tables 4 show that (Table 4).

Table 4: Shows the correlation values of the paragraph degree with the total sum of the scale of the attitudes for teachers of physical education and statistical significance.


Paragraphs
correlation values Type sig Paragraphs correlation values Type sig
1 **0.465 sig 16 0.151 Non sig
2 **0.401 sig 17 **0.477 sig
3 **0.418 sig 18 **0.546 sig
4 **0.516 sig 19 **0.512 sig
5 **0.299 sig 20 **0.325 sig
6 *0.271 sig 21 **0.381 sig
7 **0.462 sig 22 **0.368 sig
8 0.273 * sig 23 *0.279 sig
9 **0.320 sig 24 0.149 sig
10 **0.311 sig 25 *0.234 sig
11 **0.427 sig 26 **0.568 sig
12 **0.558 sig 27 **0.376 sig
13 *0.270 sig 28 **0.336 sig
14 **0.401 sig 29 **0.361 sig
15 *0.226 sig 30 *0.277 sig
*Significantat the significance level (0.05) of (0.202) and the degree of freedom (78)

Scientific bases of the scale: Honesty and stability are among the most important psychometric characteristics that must be available in cognitive and psychological scales, whatever the purpose of their use.

Scale honesty: The honesty of the test indicates, “The honesty or honesty that the test actually measures the function it is intended to measure without measuring another function besides it” (Mustafa and et al. 2006), and the honesty of the scale also provides us with “direct evidence of the honesty of the scale to carry out its function.” and achieving the purposes for which it was set” (Najati. 1999), and the researcher verified the honesty of the scale of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) through the content honesty index when the scale was presented in its initial form to a group of experts and specialists to approve The honesty of the scale items in measuring what they were designed for, and through the statistical analysis of the scale items, the construction honesty was verified using the internal consistency coefficient method, which is one of the most common types of honesty in the field of educational and sports research.

Scale stability: The concept of stability is one of the basic concepts in psychological and achievement scales, and it must be available in the scale in order for it to be valid for use. It means the stability of the scale “that the test is reliable and reliable, or that the individual’s score does not change substantially by repeating the measurement procedure, or the consistency of the scale results with itself.” (Kawafha. 2005), and in order to verify the stability of the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) in the Baghdad Education Directorates, the researcher used the two methods of split-half and Cronbach's alpha.

First, the split-half method: It may be difficult for the researcher to apply two equivalent tests to the tested individuals, or she may not be able to test the two testers twice with the same scale, so the researcher resorted to using the equity method, and then the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two halves of the measures (split-half stability coefficient). Which showed that the value of the correlation coefficient of the two halves of the scale of psychological attitudes has reached (0.863), and since this value represents the stability of the two halves of the scale, so the researcher sought to use the (Spearman-Brown) equation to modify and extract the value of the stability of the scales in full after applying the correction equation and obtaining the degree of stability of the scales, as The value of the stability coefficient of the Psychological Attitudes Scale was (0.926), which confirms that the scale has a high and reliable degree of stability.

Second, Cronbach's alpha method: This method aims to reach an estimated value for the stability coefficient of scales whose vocabulary scores are multiple, that is, require a questionnaire answer from among multiple alternatives. The idea of this method is based on the consistency of individuals’ responses across the scale’s vocabulary and the extent to which the items are related to each other within the scale, as well as the correlation of each item with the scale as a whole. It is the average of the internal correlation coefficients between paragraphs with the number of paragraphs that determines the alpha coefficient (Costa. P. T., 1992). In order to find the stability of Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the psychological attitudes scale for physical education teachers, the researcher relied on the data of the construction sample members, which numbered (80) elements, and using the statistical bag for social sciences (spss) the reliability coefficient was extracted, which amounted to (0.89) for the psychological attitudes scale for physical education teachers, which is a parameter high stability indicates the consistency of the paragraphs of the scale.

Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

Results and Discussion

Presenting and analyzing the reality of psychological attitudes towards integrating people with special needs (physically)

After completing the construction of the Psychological Attitudes Scale and applying it to the members of the basic research sample of (80) items (teacher and school), which included (3) areas and (28) items, the researcher then extracted the values of the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation of the degrees of physical education teachers towards integrating those with Special needs (physical) through their responses on the scale and then calculating the value of the hypothetical mean of the scale of (70) degrees, and after inferring the significance of the differences between the two means (the achieved arithmetic mean and the hypothetical mean of the scale) through the use of the (t-test) for one sample as a statistical means to achieve This purpose is to identify the reality of the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), The results related to data analysis showed that the arithmetic mean achieved for the scores of the research sample members reached (78.25) degrees and a standard deviation of (10.53) degrees. The calculated t is (7.007), which is greater than its tabular value of (1.96) at a degree of freedom (79) and below the significance level (0.05), and table 5 shows that.

Through Table 5, it is clear that the difference is in favor of the achieved arithmetic mean, and this indicates that the level of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically) is above the mean and is high compared to the hypothetical mean (Table 5).

Table 5: Shows the significance of the differences between the achieved arithmetic mean and the hypothetical mean of the measure of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically).


Sample
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
Hypothetical Mean Degree of Freedom
T  value 
Type sig
calculated 
Tabular 
80 78.25 10.53 70 79 7.007 1.96 sig

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions

The researchers concluded:

• Develop a scientific research tool concerned with measuring the psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically).

• The results showed that the research sample is characterized by a high above-average level of psychological attitudes of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically). Recommendations:

The researchers recommend:

• The necessity of adopting the built and prepared scales as scientific research tools in measuring the psychological tendencies of physical education teachers towards integrating people with special needs (physically), and the measure of the personal characteristics of the research sample.

• The need to pay attention to psychological attitudes for their positive role in increasing motivation towards achieving the goals set, whether for physical education teachers or for students.

References

Ahmed Muhammad Al-Zoghbi. 2007. The Psychology of IndividualDifferences and its Educational Applications, 1st Edition, Damascus, DarAl-Fikr, p. 274.

Costa. P. T.  1992.(Ondorhers) Psychological Assessment. Resources, p. 44 .

Hassan Ali Hussein. 2011. Evaluation of achievementmotivation according to personality type and the percentage of its contributionto the motor and skill abilities of young football players, PhD thesis, Collegeof Physical Education, Babylon University, p. 70.

Ikhlas Abdel Hamid and Mustafa Hussein Bahi. 2000. Methods ofScientific Research and Statistical Analysis in the Educational andPsychological Fields, 1st Edition, Cairo, Al-Kitab Center for Publishing, p.219.

Iyad Tariq Aziz Al-Rubaie. 2020. The leadership personalitytraits of physical education teachers and their relationship to gender,experience and the social environment from the point of view of middle schooladministrations in Baghdad Rusafa districts, Master's thesis, College ofPhysical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad. p. 95.

Izz al-Din Muhammad Aref. 2015. Attitudes of physicaleducation teachers towards integrating students with disabilities in publicschools in Jenin, Master’s thesis, College of Physical Education, An-NajahNational University in Nablus, Palestine, p. 89.

Muhammad Othman Najati. 1999. Industrial Psychology, 4thedition, Cairo, Al Haram Press, p. 215.

Salah El-Din Mahmoud Allam. 2000. Educational andpsychological measurement and evaluation (its basics and contemporaryattitudes), 1, Cairo, Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi , p. 279.

Sami Mustafa and et al. 2006. Measurement and diagnosis in special education, Amman, Dar JaffaScientific for Publishing and Distribution, p. 111.

Tayseer Mufleh Kawafha. 2005. Measurement and Evaluation (AndMethods of Measurement and Diagnosis in Special Education), 1st Edition, Amman,Dar Al Masirah for Publishing, Distribution and Printing, p. 83.

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