Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 4
Comparing the Impact of Using the Command and the Reciprocal Style on the Accuracy of the Backhand Low Serve Skill in Badminton GameDr. Omar Jamil AL-Jaafreh1* and Dr. Mona Nawwash Yosef Almaaitah2
*Correspondence: Dr. Omar Jamil AL-Jaafreh, Associate Professor, Physical Education Department, Faculty of Sport Science, Mutah University, Jordan, Email:
This study aimed to investigate and compare the effects of employing the command style and the reciprocal style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton. The experimental method was used, and the study sample consisted of 40 students from the Department of Physical Education, enrolled in badminton and table tennis courses. The participants were purposefully selected and divided into two equivalent experimental groups: the first experimental group (20 students) used the command style, and the second experimental group (20 students) used the reciprocal style. Pre-tests were conducted, followed by the implementation of the instructional program for duration of 6 weeks, with three weekly teaching units, each lasting 60 minutes. Post-tests were conducted, and the necessary statistical analyses were performed.
The results revealed that the first experimental group (command style) showed improvement in post-test performance compared to pre-test performance, indicating the effectiveness of the command style in enhancing the learning of accuracy in the backhand low serve skill. Similarly, the second experimental group (reciprocal style) demonstrated enhanced post-test performance compared to pre-test performance, highlighting the effectiveness of the reciprocal style in enhancing accuracy in the backhand low serve skill. Furthermore, the results showed that the second experimental group (reciprocal style) outperformed the first experimental group (command style) in terms of average performance in the post-test, emphasizing the efficacy of the reciprocal style in improving accuracy in the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
In conclusion, the study recommended using the command style for teaching and developing accuracy in the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
Command style. Reciprocal style. Backhand low serves. Badminton
Comparación del impacto del uso del comando y el estilo recíproco en la precisión de la habilidad de saque bajo de revés en el juego de badminton
Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar y comparar los efectos de emplear el estilo de comando y el estilo recíproco en la precisión de la habilidad de saque bajo de revés en bádminton. Se utilizó el método experimental, y la muestra de estudio estuvo constituida por 40 alumnos del Departamento de Educación Física, matriculados en cursos de bádminton y tenis de mesa. Los participantes fueron seleccionados a propósito y divididos en dos grupos experimentales equivalentes: el primer grupo experimental (20 estudiantes) utilizó el estilo de comando y el segundo grupo experimental (20 estudiantes) utilizó el estilo recíproco. Se realizaron pruebas previas, seguidas de la implementación del programa de instrucción con una duración de 6 semanas, con tres unidades didácticas semanales, cada una con una duración de 60 minutos. Se realizaron post-tests y se realizaron los análisis estadísticos necesarios.
Los resultados revelaron que el primer grupo experimental (estilo de comando) mostró una mejora en el desempeño posterior a la prueba en comparación con el desempeño previo a la prueba, lo que indica la efectividad del estilo de comando para mejorar el aprendizaje de la precisión en la habilidad de saque bajo de revés. De manera similar, el segundo grupo experimental (estilo recíproco) demostró un mejor desempeño posterior a la prueba en comparación con el desempeño previo a la prueba, lo que destaca la efectividad del estilo recíproco para mejorar la precisión en la habilidad de saque bajo de revés. Además, los resultados mostraron que el segundo grupo experimental (estilo recíproco) superó al primer grupo experimental (estilo de comando) en términos de rendimiento promedio en la prueba posterior, lo que enfatiza la eficacia del estilo recíproco para mejorar la precisión en la habilidad de saque bajo de revés. en bádminton.
En conclusión, el estudio recomendó utilizar el estilo de comando para enseñar y desarrollar la precisión en la habilidad de saque bajo de revés en bádminton.
Palabras clave: estilo de mando, estilo recíproco, saque bajo de revés, bádminton.
Comparando o impacto do uso do comando e do estilo recíproco na precisão da habilidade de saque baixo de backhand no jogo de badminton
Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar e comparar os efeitos do emprego do estilo de comando e do estilo recíproco na precisão da habilidade de saque baixo de backhand no badminton. Foi utilizado o método experimental, sendo a amostra do estudo composta por 40 alunos do Departamento de Educação Física, matriculados nos cursos de badminton e tênis de mesa. Os participantes foram propositalmente selecionados e divididos em dois grupos experimentais equivalentes: o primeiro grupo experimental (20 alunos) utilizou o estilo de comando, e o segundo grupo experimental (20 alunos) utilizou o estilo recíproco. Foram realizados pré-testes, seguidos da implementação do programa instrucional com duração de 6 semanas, com três unidades semanais de ensino, cada uma com duração de 60 minutos. Foram realizados pós-testes e realizadas as análises estatísticas necessárias.
Os resultados revelaram que o primeiro grupo experimental (estilo de comando) apresentou melhora no desempenho pós-teste em relação ao desempenho pré-teste, indicando a eficácia do estilo de comando em aprimorar o aprendizado de precisão na habilidade de saque baixo de backhand. Da mesma forma, o segundo grupo experimental (estilo recíproco) demonstrou desempenho pós-teste aprimorado em comparação com o desempenho préteste, destacando a eficácia do estilo recíproco em melhorar a precisão na habilidade de saque baixo de backhand. Além disso, os resultados mostraram que o segundo grupo experimental (estilo recíproco) superou o primeiro grupo experimental (estilo comando) em termos de desempenho médio no pós-teste, enfatizando a eficácia do estilo recíproco em melhorar a precisão na habilidade de saque baixo de backhand em badminton.
Em conclusão, o estudo recomendou o uso do estilo de comando para ensinar e desenvolver precisão na habilidade de saque baixo de backhand no badminton.
Palavras-chave: estilo de comando, estilo recíproco, saque baixo de backhand, badminton.
Physical education is one of the knowledge fields that extend beyond cognitive objectives in its teaching goals. In the present time, the teaching process relies on how educational experiences are managed by competent teachers who possess expertise in teaching methods. They are capable of transforming their lessons into an atmosphere of interaction, harmony, and alignment that resonates with the preferences, inclinations, and tendencies of learners.
Teaching methods are closely linked to the objectives and content of the curriculum being taught. The chosen teaching style should align with the set objectives, whether they are long-term or short-term. It also varies based on the content being taught. The theoretical subjects in the field of physical education require teaching methods different from those used for practical subjects. However, there are certain characteristics and procedures that must be present in any method to be considered effective. Thus, the best teaching method is the one that achieves the specified objectives. (Al-Sharifi & Al- Zubaidi, 2006(
The Command Style is considered the first method among Muska Muston's teaching methods. This style relies solely on commands, where the teacher directs the students in what he deems appropriate for teaching. In this approach, the teacher plays the primary role, and the student's actions should be prompted by the teacher's cues. The teacher takes on all three roles in this style: planning, execution, and assessment. Additionally, the teacher makes all decisions, including determining the location, positions, timing, start, end, rhythm, and breaks. (Mohammed, 2018(
The Reciprocal Style is also considered a direct method that involves the learner taking on more decision-making during the learning process. The learner becomes more engaged and active in assessment decisions by providing feedback to a peer who performs the skill. The learner observes their performance, corrects their mistakes, and discusses their performance. Then, roles are exchanged, making the observer the performer, and the performer the observer. This leads to a reciprocal interaction where both roles are alternated between the observer and the performer. (Belbasi & Mouloud, 2010).
Badminton is considered one of the emerging sports that has started to spread widely. This necessitates understanding the appropriate teaching method for learning the fundamental skills of this game. Since there are various teaching methods, each with its own objectives and characteristics, they play a role in error correction and treatment, and they have the ability to accelerate the learning process. Therefore, understanding these methods and finding the best approach for teaching skills can lead to progress and advancement in this sport. (Ahmed & Kazir, 2007(
Serving in badminton is one of the fundamental skills and is considered the key to playing and excelling in competitions. The short serve is particularly prevalent in the game, used to start each exchange of shots. It involves using the backhand to place the shuttlecock in a position that makes it difficult for the opponent to return with power or score a point directly. (Bani Said, 2018( Study problem:
As the researchers worked as instructors for practical racket sports courses (including badminton, table tennis, tennis, and squash) within the College of Sports Sciences, they noticed the prevalent use of the Command Style in teaching skills during practical sessions; the instructor assumes full responsibility for all instructional aspects. Considering the unique nature of badminton and its reliance on peer assistance during skill execution, the researchers recognized the importance of investigating the Reciprocal Style that might be suitable for learning the backhand low serve skill compared to the currently prevalent Command Style.
The study aims to investigate:
1. The impact of using the Command Style on learning the accuracy of the backhand low serves skill in badminton.
2. The impact of using the Reciprocal Style on learning the accuracy of the backhand low serves skill in badminton.
3. The differences in the impact of using the Command Style and the Reciprocal Style on learning the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
This study sought to answer the following hypotheses:
1- There are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) in the impact of using the Command Style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
2- There are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) in the impact of using the Reciprocal Style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
3. There are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) between using the Command Style and the Reciprocal Style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
The experimental methodology was employed due to its alignment with the nature and objectives of the current study.
The study population consisted of students from the Department of Physical Education at the Faculty of Sports Sciences, Mutah University, during the second semester of the academic year 2021/2022. The total number of students was (75), enrolled in badminton and table tennis courses (1(
The study sample comprised (40) students from the Department of Physical Education who were enrolled in badminton and table tennis courses (1).The participants were purposefully selected, and they were divided into two equivalent experimental groups as follows:
- The first experimental group (20 students) utilized the Command Style.
- The second experimental group (20 students) utilized the Reciprocal Style.
To ensure the comparability of the research groups (the first experimental group and the second experimental group) in terms of pre-test measurements, an Independent Sample t-test was conducted. The results of this test are presented in Table 1 below: (Table 1)
|Accuracy of the Backhand Low Serve Skill||first||20||9.3000||2.47301||.923||.362|
|*Statistically significant at level of (a=0.05)|
The table (1) indicates that there are no statistically significant differences between the first experimental group and the second experimental group in the variables of height, weight, age, and the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill. This suggests that the individuals in both groups are comparable in these variables before initiating the experiment.
Accuracy test of backhand low serve in badminton
Test objective: The objective of this test is to measure the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
Required equipment: Badminton rackets, shuttlecock, assistant, and a marked court with the test design.
Test execution: The serving player stands in area (x) and performs the backhand low serve with a short trajectory, ensuring that the shuttlecock clears the net and lands in the designated area. The player performs this serve 12 times.
Scoring: The score is assigned based on the landing location of the shuttlecock.
- A shuttlecock that lands on the line between two areas receives the highest score.
- The final score is the sum of the best 10 serves out of the total 12 serves, and the points are distributed as (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) as shown in Figure 1.
References: Khattab & Mahmoud (2012), Khalaf (2001), Zannoun et al. (2011)
The measurements of each area are as follows:
- Area (5 points) with a radius of (8.55) cm from the center.
- Area (4 points) with a radius of (76) cm.
- Area (3 points) with a radius of (5.96) cm.
- Area (2 points) with a radius of (117) cm.
- Area (1 point) for the rest of the serving area. (Figure 1)
To calculate the reliability of the tests and ensure their statistical validity for application on the study sample, the researchers administered the tests to a sample from outside the study population, comprising 20 individuals. The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient are illustrated in Table 2.
|Mean||Std. Deviation||N||Pearson Correlation||Sig|
|*Statistically significant at level of (a=0.05)|
It is evident from Table (2) that there is a statistically significant correlation between the test application and retest of assessing the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton. This indicates the reliability of the test.
Developed using the reciprocal style and another program was developed using the command style, aiming to achieve the objectives of the study regarding learning the backhand low serve skill in badminton. These educational programs were initially designed based on a review of various studies and references, including Al-Zuhairi and Ahmed (2019), Ali and Ramadan (2021), Bani Saeed (2018), which utilized the backhand low serve test in badminton.
The following steps were followed in preparing the educational program:
1. Review of tools: Several tools used in previous studies and research was reviewed to gather insights and knowledge.
2. Development of educational programs: Two educational programs were prepared using the reciprocal style and the command style. The skill was divided into a set of exercises, each containing technical and instructional information related to the skill. These exercises were interconnected and organized in a progressive manner from easy to difficult to ensure a structured and coordinated approach.
3. Review of previous studies: Existing studies and research related to the game of badminton were thoroughly reviewed to gather relevant information.
4. Review of teaching styles: Previous studies and research related to teaching styles were also reviewed to incorporate effective teaching methods into the programs.
5. Expert evaluation: The developed educational programs were presented to a group of experienced and knowledgeable experts in the field. Their feedback and opinions were sought regarding the programs' alignment with the set objectives, suitability for the study's sample, and potential modifications, deletions, or additions.
These steps were taken to ensure the quality, effectiveness, and appropriateness of the educational programs in achieving the study's objectives for teaching the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
Study Procedure Steps
- Designed two educational programs for the backhand low serve skill using the reciprocal and command styles, based on specialized references and scientific studies.
- Created a data collection form for personal information.
- Developed pre-test and post-test assessment forms.
The following tools were used for measurement, considering specific procedures:
- Weighing scale: Weight was measured to the nearest kilogram, following standardized steps like wearing lightweight clothing, placing the scale on a level surface, standing straight, etc.
- Restameter: Height was measured to the nearest centimeter, with instructions including removing shoes, standing erect, feet together, and looking forward.
- Backhand low serve accuracy test: Pre-test was conducted, explaining the test procedure and addressing participants' queries for ease of application. Tests were administered in the main sports hall of the College of Sports Sciences at Mu'tah University during the period from 2/10/2022 to 6/10/2022.
Educational program implementation:
- Reciprocal Style: Implemented the educational program for six weeks, with three weekly teaching units, each lasting 50 minutes. The program was divided into three parts: Introduction (10 min), Main Part (30 min), and Conclusion (10 min). A total of 18 teaching units were conducted.
- Command Style: Similar implementation as the reciprocal style, consisting of 18 teaching units over six weeks.
Post-test: After completing the educational programs, post-test assessments were conducted during the week following the sixth week of the programs (from 20/11/2022 to 24/11/2022), under the same conditions as the pre-test for result comparison.
- Independent sample t-test: Used to analyze differences between the two groups.
- Pearson correlation coefficient: Applied to measure the correlation between application and reapplication of the backhand low serve accuracy test.
- Paired sample t-test: Employed for analyzing differences within the same group before and after the educational program.
The study followed these comprehensive steps to ensure accurate data collection, implementation of educational programs, and appropriate statistical analysis for assessing the impact of different teaching styles on the backhand low serve skill in badminton.
Results and Discussion
To address the first hypothesis, this states: "There are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) in the impact of using the Command Style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton"
To test this hypothesis, a paired sample t-test was used to examine the differences between the pre-test and post-test performances of the first experimental group. Table 3 presents the results of this analysis (Table 3).
Paired Samples Statistics
|accuracy of the backhand short serve||pre-test||10.0500||20||2.66508||-52.393||*.000|
|*Statistically significant at level of (a=0.05)|
The table 3 indicates statistically significant differences at level of (α≤0.05). Upon examining the mean scores, it becomes evident that the post-test Figure 1 performance surpasses the pre-test performance. This finding further supports the effectiveness of the command style in enhancing the learning of accuracy in the backhand short serve in the game of badminton
This result can be attributed to the extent of the contribution of using the command style in learning the backhand short serve skill in the game of badminton in the post-assessment. This is because individuals in the group that used the command style were regularly exposed to specific instructions during the lessons. The improvement observed in this group is a natural outcome of the time spent immersed in the program, which leads to enhancement in their performance levels related to the required skills. This is achieved through the provision of information, experiences, and concepts by the teacher, contributing to the achievement of the overall goal of the educational process. Additionally, the teacher's effectiveness in executing the instructional segments, including warm-up, exercises, and application, along with the significant role of feedback, greatly influenced the students' learning experience. The command style relies on immediate response to the teacher's decisions, allowing students to absorb and execute the instructor's orders, thereby providing them with opportunities for learning.
Furthermore, the effectiveness of the command style in the post-assessment can also be interpreted as a result of the strong connection between students' performance and the instructor's commands. In this style, the teacher's guidance is directly tied to the students' actions. The uniformity of instructional time across all students, coupled with the teacher's control over various aspects of the lesson, contributes to improving the students' performance. The effectiveness of the command style in enhancing students' performance aligns with a study conducted by Omar and Abdelhakim (2008), which found that the command style is beneficial for beginners in developing skills and rapidly conveying information to students, leading to performance improvement.
The command style is characterized by the teacher making all decisions, with students simply responding to each instruction. During the instructional unit, a state of harmony prevails between the learning behaviors and teaching methods in each stage. The teacher signals each movement, and the student performs it. During the application phase, students actively engage in using the decisions made by the teacher, effectively translating theoretical objectives into practical application. In this style, expectations are known, which means that both the teacher and the student are accountable for their actions. Given the nature of the backhand short serve skill in badminton, where the body's position faces the net, it becomes easier for students to use the backhand side of the racket compared to the forehand side. Consequently, teaching the backhand short serve using the command style yields faster results compared to other serving techniques.
To address the second hypothesis, this states: “There are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) in the impact of using the Reciprocal Style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton”
To test this hypothesis, a paired sample t-test was used to examine the differences between the pre-test and post-test performances of the second experimental group. Table 4 presents the results of this analysis (Table 4).
Paired Samples Statistics
|accuracy of the backhand short serve||pre-test||9.3000||20||2.47301||-30.033||*.000|
|*Statistically significant at level of (a=0.05)|
The table 4 indicates statistically significant differences at level of (α≤0.05). Upon examining the mean scores, it becomes evident that the post-test performance surpasses the pre-test performance. This finding further supports the effectiveness of the Reciprocal style in enhancing the learning of accuracy in the backhand short serve in the game of badminton.
This result can be explained by the impact of the reciprocal style on the technical performance level to achieve the desired goal of the backhand short serve skill in the game of badminton, compared to the command style used in teaching the same skill. The researchers believe that the essential need for this skill for substantial assistance during the initial learning stages is a fundamental reason for the superiority of the reciprocal style. This style relies on the exchange and cooperation of learners, facilitating the learning process. Moreover, it provides learners with the opportunity to learn assistance methods, which are crucial for enhancing the level of badminton skills throughout various learning stages.
This result can also be interpreted in terms of the features of the reciprocal style, particularly regarding feedback. Providing immediate and continuous feedback from the observing learner to the performing learner enhances learning performance and boosts self-confidence. This is especially true when learners are aware of their performance outcomes, as this acts as a motivating factor, encouraging them to put in more effort to achieve better results, especially if their performance is exceptional.
Mahjoub (2001) points out that all information that learners can acquire from various sources regarding their performance and the main objective of this information is to modify performance to reach the desired responses, which is a fundamental requirement for proper learning. The presence of two peers taking turns in observing and performing roles, as well as optimal utilization of the allocated training time for the skill, are crucial aspects of the reciprocal style. This style stands out due to its organizational nature, precise sequencing of procedures, and continuous monitoring. It is based on feedback provided by one peer to another for the purpose of correcting motor performance to achieve the desired outcome of practice.
In the reciprocal style, decision-making and control are shared between the observing and performing learners. This contrasts with creating leaders, a role required by the strategies of the reciprocal style. At the same time, learners relinquish this role to become receivers. The researchers also attribute the results to the nature of the reciprocal style, which pairs students and encourages them to maximize their time during the exercise. They exchange roles, making the performing learner consistently engaged within the framework of the required tasks. The role of the observer is challenging and requires staying connected to the lesson. This is achieved through comparing the performing learner's actions to the required skill, providing immediate feedback, and correcting errors immediately after the performance. This role allows students to exchange information between each other, whether by giving information from the observer to the performing learner (feedback) or by receiving information from the performer.
Shihab (2007) indicates that continuous assessment and providing feedback from peers during performance help understand important teaching points and detect errors, enabling corrections. Complete reliance on cooperation for learning the intended skill characterizes the reciprocal style. This collaboration between peers makes the activity more effective and engaging, as does the exchange of roles. With the presence of the skill, the learner performs consistently under the observation of their partner, maintaining a constant focus on the tasks assigned to them. The role of the observer is difficult and requires staying connected to the lesson, achieved by comparing the peer's performance to the skill and providing information and correcting mistakes immediately after the performance. This process, along with the supervising teacher's intervention during challenging times experienced by the group, has a significant impact on achieving good learning.
To address the third hypothesis, this states: “ There are statistically significant differences (α ≤ 0.05) between using the Command Style and the Reciprocal Style on the accuracy of the backhand low serve skill in badminton”
To investigate this, an independent sample t-test was employed to detect statistically significant differences between the two experimental groups – the first experimental group and the second experimental group – in the postapplication measurement. Table (5) illustrates this (Table 5).
Paired Samples Statistics
|Post-Application Measurement of Accuracy of the Backhand Short Serve||First||20||36.4500||2.48098||14.479||*.000|
|*Statistically significant at level of (a=0.05)|
The results from Table (5) indicate the presence of statistically significant differences between the first experimental group and the second experimental groups in terms of the accuracy of the backhand short serve skill in badminton in the post-application measurement. Upon examining the means, it becomes evident that the average performance of the second experimental group (reciprocal teaching style) surpasses the average performance of the individuals in the first experimental group (command teaching style) in the context of the accuracy of the backhand short serve skill in badminton.
The progress of the group employing the reciprocal teaching method over the group using the command teaching method can be explained by the lack of student motivation to engage in practice through the command style. This is due to the teacher's decision-making during lesson execution, where the teacher carries out the lesson without involving students in providing feedback or correcting errors for their peers. As a result, practicing skill exercises in this method has become more difficult and is accompanied by feelings of monotony, boredom, and a lack of desire to perform activities at the required level. The specificity of executing the required skill within the reciprocal teaching style has led learners to eagerly practice skill performance within the instructional unit, resulting in enjoyment and satisfaction in showcasing individual potentials and capabilities for each student. This also leads to the learners feeling that lesson decisions are entirely based on themselves, relying on their previous experiences to fulfill the requirements of the required skill.
The researchers attribute this result to the fact that students working in the reciprocal teaching style make decisions during the teaching phase, whereas observing students make decisions during a post-teaching phase. Thus, the continuous provision of feedback by the observing student while the performing student carries out motor tasks improves their performance and boosts their self-confidence, as they know that each performance they undertake is immediately assessed. Feedback is among the fundamental requirements in the learning process and mastering motor skills. The information learners receive while performing motor tasks as they learn the skill is one of the most important variables in learning because it serves as a motivational factor that compels them to put in more effort to achieve better performance levels and successfully complete a greater number of motor tasks.
The researchers also attribute this to the unique feature of the reciprocal teaching style, which involves direct interaction between students (performing and observing) throughout the instructional unit. One represents the role of the teacher, while the other serves as the performer, and they alternate these roles during half of the application time for each practice session. This fosters strong relationships between peers and teachers, which play a significant role in achieving learning objectives. In an atmosphere of camaraderie, understanding, and empathy, peers gain the ability to perform tasks with greater accuracy and speed than expected.
Furthermore, the reciprocal teaching style instills a sense of safety and confidence in students, as they receive continuous feedback from their observing peers while executing motor tasks. This knowledge contributes to enhancing their performance and boosting self-assurance, as they are aware of directly accomplishing each task. Feedback is a critical factor in the learning process and mastering motor skills. The information learners receive during their motor task performance as they learn the skill is among the most crucial variables in learning. It functions as a driving force that encourages them to invest more effort in achieving higher performance levels and successfully undertaking a greater number of motor tasks.
To conclude, the researchers attribute these findings to the distinct characteristics of the reciprocal teaching style, where continuous engagement takes place between students in different roles throughout the instructional period. The cooperative relationships established among peers and teachers significantly contribute to the achievement of learning goals. The strong personal connections between classmates, fostered by an atmosphere of camaraderie, understanding, and empathy, empower students to perform tasks with higher precision and speed than expected. The reciprocal teaching style, with its direct interaction and role exchange, cultivates a sense of safety and confidence in learners due to the ongoing feedback loop between performing and observing students. This information plays a pivotal role in refining performance and boosting self-assurance, generating enthusiasm, and resulting in successful skill acquisition.
The researchers attribute these findings to the teacher's role in the command teaching style, where the teacher makes all decisions related to the instructional process, and students are not authorized to make decisions in this regard. It's worth noting that the teacher determines how to execute the performance, how students should line up, and where they should stand in a way that is deemed appropriate. This also involves maintaining control over the lesson due to the high number of students and the challenges associated with managing a class with a single teacher. This process takes time away from students, who have to wait and move to their positions when their turn comes. Furthermore, it's essential to acknowledge that we don't expect teachers and students to avoid any loss of learning time; this is practically impossible. What we anticipate and hope for is that teachers maximize their efforts to minimize wasted time and subsequently increase the allocated time for the learning process.
1. The command teaching method has a positive impact on learning the accuracy of the backhand short serve skill in the game of badminton.
2. The reciprocal teaching method has a positive impact on learning the accuracy of the backhand short serve skill in the game of badminton.
3. The reciprocal teaching method has an advantage over the command teaching method in learning the accuracy of the backhand short serve skill in the game of badminton.
Based on the conclusions drawn, the research recommends the following:
1. It is essential to use the reciprocal teaching method for learning the accuracy of the backhand short serve skill in the game of badminton.
2. Emphasize the use of the reciprocal teaching method in the process of learning various skills in the game of badminton.
3. Coaches and instructors of racket sports should focus on designing structured educational programs and selecting appropriate teaching methods to enhance students' skill levels.
4. Organize training workshops for sports coaches to familiarize them with various teaching methods suitable for different stages of education and to choose the most suitable teaching approach.
5. It's crucial to incorporate modern teaching methods in sports education for various educational levels, aligning them with the nature of the skill. Additionally, investing more time in practicing instructional units is recommended.
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