Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 1
Constructing A Measure of Psychological Disability and Its Relationship to Some Basic Skills and Fixed Playing Situations for Youth Football Players Under (19) Years OldMuwafaq Obayes Khudhair* and Hayder Talib Jasim
*Correspondence: Muwafaq Obayes Khudhair, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Educational Directorate Karkh I / Ministry of Education, Iraq
College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Received: 05-Jan-2023 Published: 27-Feb-2023
The purpose of this paper is to constructing a measure of psychological disability for young football players under (19) years old, knowing the relationship between the measure of psychological disability and some of the basic skills of football players for youth under (19) years, and knowing the relationship between the measure of psychological disability and the fixed playing conditions of football players for youth under (19) years. The method chosen by the researcher must be suitable for solving a problem. Therefore, the researcher used the descriptive method. The research community is represented by the players of the Baghdad youth clubs teams for the Premier League under (19) years of football for the season (2021/2022), by (330) players representing Baghdad clubs, by (30) players for each club, and the researcher deliberately chose the community, and chose the youth category Under (19) years old, excluding the other categories, due to the clarity of the problem in this category and in a large way, which led to conducting the research. The research sample was divided into three groups: (the construction sample amounted to (110) players) who were subjected to special tests in constructing the psychological disability scale, and the percentage was (40%) of the parent community, (the sample of the reconnaissance experiment amounted to (6) players), and the percentage was (1.557). %) of the parent community, (the main experiment sample included (214) players), and the percentage was (57.441%) of the parent community, knowing that the research community was distributed randomly (lottery), and thus the percentage of the total sample from the research community is (100%) Where the researcher used all members of the community. Table (1) below shows the number of clubs and players for each club, the total number and the sample (construction, exploratory and main). One of the most important results reached by the researcher is that: The scale proved effective in measuring the psychological disability of the sample, the level of psychological disability is inversely related to the level of scoring, and the level of psychological disability is inversely related to the level of head butting. One of the most important recommendations recommended by the researchers is that: Using the scale to know the level of psychological disability and its impact on scoring and head-butting the ball , and psychological preparation and attention to age groups to reduce their level of psychological disability to qualify them for higher levels in the future.
Football players. Baghdad clubs. Ball
It may be that the great achievements that have been achieved in various sports were not a coincidence but rather were through proper scientific planning and the employment of specialists in sports work for all sciences in the service of achievement in sports events and games since football is one of the games that has received and continues to enjoy the broad interest in various countries of the world. Because it is one of the sports that is characterized by its spread and is special because it possesses elements of excitement and suspense because the football game is the mother game and its development is required in order to be in line with the modern football game, as it requires a high level and as much as preparation and physical, skillful, tactical and psychological performance.
However, the interest in it made the specialists in the affairs of the game seek to develop it by raising the level of players in all technical, skillful, physical, tactical and psychological aspects, in addition to developing the elements of their physical fitness.
Therefore, attention was necessary to its training curricula, especially since the requirements of the football game require high-level skill performance due to the narrow and small playing field, in addition to the need for a high level of physical capabilities in order to assist the player in implementing the tactical duties assigned to him on the field, and therefore must be taken into account The development of several aspects, including (physical, skillful, and tactical), and thus those interested in the game of football searched for everything that develops and develops these aspects. They found that the rapid development of sports games came as a result of modern scientific methods developed in sports training, which contributed to the development of physical and skill capabilities that belong to the game Football, in addition to the aspects (planning, technical, and psychological), and the success of any training process depends on the special foundations in the integrated preparation of each game to reach the player to the high level of performance, and the football game is characterized by the abundance of variables, the speed of implementation, and the correct skillful and tactical behavior in the face of these changing and varied situations And for the player to become interactive with his surroundings during exercise or competition, participation and interaction within the group, and sound understanding The right to fulfill the duties assigned to it plan by the coach and to create an integrated performance in harmony and flow with the movement of the player (individually and collectively) based on reading ideas between the coach on the one hand and the players on the other hand. The rapid pace in the football game through attacking situations or during a quick return to defensive situations is one of the most important features that distinguishes it. The football player must understand his complex and complex surroundings by making quick and accurate decisions at the same time and perhaps more than one decision without hesitation.
The fun in the football game comes through the modern, fast and accurate playing style and the high-end execution of the performance, as this fun is provided by the modern playing methods. Developing the football game, and to raise the level of performance of the players as a result of the impact of the exercises on both sides (skillful and physical) of the player as well as the responses and emotions that are somewhat similar to certain situations or tactics of the match, which are important and influencing factors, and the player at any moment may develop a disability that It may hinder him from performing the roles required of him in the family, school, work, and in all sports activities and society as a whole. In addition, disability often negatively affects the psychological and social compatibility of the person.
Among the disabilities that may affect a person is psychological disability, the rates of which have increased at the present time due to the increase in work and life crises and pressures, the large number and complexity of problems, the weakness of social ties such as fellowship, friendship, neighborliness and kinship, and the weakness of social and religious values among many people such as love, brotherhood, friendship, mercy and justice. Altruism, tolerance, and psychological disability “are a continuous or temporary inability in the psyche, personality, and behavior of the individual, which negatively affects his ability to personal compatibility with himself and social compatibility with others.” Which leads to not achieving the required goals.
The researcher believes that psychological disability is the presence of one or more of the following disorders: personality disorders, mental illnesses, psychological complexes, and psychophysiological disorders, from which the individual suffers from one or more and affects his compatibility with himself first and with others second. All of this motivated the researcher to study psychological disability as one of the important things that negatively affect the player himself and the team as a whole.
Hence the importance of the research as it is an attempt that is interested in helping the players to perform the duty required of them during the match and in the correct manner, which leads to achieving good results in the match, which is consistent with modern play and leading to advancement in the reality of Iraqi clubs and youth football teams.
Through my follow-up to training units and league matches for youth under (19) years old for some Iraqi football league clubs and coaches, being a former player and faculty member in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / University of Baghdad. It was observed accurately that some players do not perform the duties entrusted to them and those assigned to them correctly, that is, there are errors in carrying out the tasks assigned to them and not performing them as required from the skill side and the tactical side, due to the lack of progression in the game from (buds, cubs, juniors, up to the stage Youth) due to weak personality and lack of self-confidence in addition to undiagnosed diseases among the players. Unfortunately, the coach or psychiatrist of the team is missing, short on the medical therapist, if any, and this is one of the reasons, and the second reason is that the training conditions differ from the competition conditions where the player is good in training and not good during the game.
In addition to other factors from the stimuli of the environment (the audience, the stadium, the opposing team, a colleague, etc.). Therefore, the researcher decided to study the problem by constructing a measure of the invaluable disability, hoping that this study would contribute to reducing the disability and performing the duties required in the match to solve this problem. In addition, its positive reflection in raising the technical level (skillful and tactical).
1. Constructing a measure of psychological disability for young football players under (19) years old.
2. Knowing the relationship between the measure of psychological disability and some of the basic skills of football players for youth under (19) years.
3. Knowing the relationship between the measure of psychological disability and the fixed playing conditions of football players for youth under (19) years.
1. There is a statistically significant relationship between the measure of psychological disability and some basic skills of youth football players under (19) years old.
2. There is a statistically significant relationship between the measure of psychological disability and the static playing conditions of youth football players under (19) years old.
1. Human field: Young football players under (19) years old in football for the season (2021/2022).
2. Time field: (9/6/2022) to (29/7/2022)
3. Spatial field: The stadiums of the Iraqi Youth League clubs under (19) years old, in football, for the season (2021/2022).
Research Methodology and field Procedures
The method chosen by the researcher must be suitable for solving a problem.
Therefore, the researcher used the descriptive method (Mahjoub. 2002).
Community and sample research:
The research community is represented by the players of the Baghdad youth clubs teams for the Premier League under (19) years of football for the season (2021/2022), by (330) players representing Baghdad clubs, by (30) players for each club, and the researcher deliberately chose the community, and chose the youth category Under (19) years old, excluding the other categories, due to the clarity of the problem in this category and in a large way, which led to conducting the research.
The research sample was divided into three groups: (the construction sample amounted to (110) players) who were subjected to special tests in constructing the psychological disability scale, and the percentage was (40%) of the parent community, (the sample of the reconnaissance experiment amounted to (6) players), and the percentage was (1.557). %) of the parent community, (the main experiment sample included (214) players), and the percentage was (57.441%) of the parent community, knowing that the research community was distributed randomly (lottery), and thus the percentage of the total sample from the research community is (100%) Where the researcher used all members of the community. Table 1 below shows the number of clubs and players for each club, the total number and the sample (construction, exploratory and main) (Table 1).
|No.||Sports clubs||total number||construction sample||Exploratory sample||Main Sample|
|percentage of community||100%||40%||1,557%||57,441%|
Means of collecting information:
• Arabic and foreign sources.
• Studies and research.
Equipment and tools used in the research:
• Chinese (LENOVO) computer.
• Camera (sone).
• Sony calculator, Chinese.
• A questionnaire to survey the opinions of experts for the purpose of identifying the most important field, see Appendix 2.
• A questionnaire to survey the opinions of experts for the purpose of identifying the most important paragraphs, see Appendix 3. • Papers and pens.
Field Research Procedures
Determine the phenomenon under study
The idea or phenomenon to be measured should be defined, and it is intended that the (characteristic, trait, ability, and skill) required to be measured be specific, precise and clear, and measurable, and a procedural definition should be given to it. And clarifying a theoretical definition that the researcher adopts in constructing the scale, "since defining the idea or phenomenon helps him to identify the main ideas that he adopts in constructing the scale" (Ahmed. 2006).
Analysis of common characteristics of the research community (target group):
The target group of the research community is the players of Baghdad youth clubs under (19) years of football, and they differ in academic achievement, experience and affiliation to the club. Appropriate and in a manner consistent with their nature and level of knowledge to understand the concepts, and prepare in dealing with them in conducting the other steps of the research, and the analysis is necessary to form the paragraphs of the scale, and to verify the researcher proceeded to the following procedures:
• Reviewing academic studies that are concerned with studying samples from the study population.
• Identifying their ages based on the data of the official records in the Iraqi Football Association and the clubs to which the player is affiliated, and it was found that they range under (19) years.
• Identifying the training age for each player and it was found that it ranges between (2-4) years.
Determine the basic skills in football for research:
The researcher looked at the studies and research related to football in order to determine the basic skills that he adopted in his research, which are:
• Heading the ball
Steps to build a psychological disability scale:
Saba Muhammad mentions, “The process of preparing standards requires sequential planning according to scientific foundations, in order to be acceptable and reliable in scientific research, taking into account the ease of application and correction, and the economic or material cost” (Abu Libdeh. 2008).
The researcher built a new scale, which is the psychological disability scale, by following the scientific procedures that adopt the construction of paper and pen scales, starting from dividing the research community, preparing fields, and drafting paragraphs to suit the target sample.
Purpose of constructing the scale:
Is the lack of availability of a special specialized measure for discrimination in psychological disability, the study relied on surveying data, and the necessity called for measuring the psychological disability of this category of youth teams with an acceptable measurement tool.
Define field of scale:
According to theoretical studies from sources, references and similar studies, the proposed fields are identified and presented to a number of experts and specialists (Ahmed. 2006).
Through the adoption of the analysis method, the researcher proceeded to follow the scientific steps in a sequential manner, as he prepared a list of independent fields related to psychological disability, after which (7) separate fields were included, and they were presented to specialists in psychology and football, and the percentage of agreement of their opinions was extracted. More than (90%) after being treated statistically (Farag. 2012), as shown in table 2 (Table 2).
|No.||field in their initial form||agreement||percentage||Notes|
|4||Interaction in the game||20||100%||Agree|
|Percentage = (100%), and the number of specialists (20)|
It is noted from table 2 that all field have been agreed upon, so that the standard contains (7) separate field to be prepared to include their respective paragraphs.
Preparing the initial scale paragraphs:
The researcher prepares the paragraphs for each axis, provided that each paragraph reflects the field in which it was placed, with identifying alternatives to the answer, and presenting it to experts and specialists. To express their views on the validity of each paragraph in measuring the phenomenon to be measured, its validity in the field in which it was developed, and the validity of the alternatives to the answer.
After classifying the phenomenon, indicating its field, defining it, and analyzing the common characteristics, individual direct personal interviews were conducted with a group of specialists in general psychology and sports / football psychology, according to the determinants of the formulation of the paragraphs of the scales of the type of paper and pen determined by (Azzu Afana) as follows: the following ( ):
• Short and not more than (20) words.
• Not past dated.
• It does not express a fact or interpret it as a fact.
• It contains a simple, non-compound idea.
• Written in clear and easy-to-understand language.
• To be emotional sentences according to the nature of the topic.
• Reflect the direction to be measured.
• Use some words very carefully.
Taking into account that the content of the paragraph phrase is consistent with the type of its alternatives and with the independent field to which it belongs, as these procedures were taken after a procedure in the aforementioned interviews so that the researcher puts (75) paragraphs distributed over eight field of (10-12) paragraphs for each field to represent the scale In its raw form, see Appendix 1.
Determine the scale paragraphs:
The researcher formulated the items of the scale in its initial form, which numbered (75) items distributed in eight field of the scale, as in Appendix 1 and presented them to the group of experts themselves for the purpose of evaluating them and their validity in measuring psychological disability and verifying the validity of the five alternatives key, and in the light of the experts' opinions, it was deleted (45) paragraphs that got less than 90% approval, and agreement on (40) paragraphs that got 90% or more, as shown in table 3 (Table 3).
|First field pressure match||1||I accept competition when I expect to lose the match.||20||-||100%|
|2||I have the ability to face the pressure of the match.||17||2||90%|
|3||My mind is always preoccupied with the audience at the match.||14||6||70%|
|4||I have the realization of the importance of overcoming challenges through competition.||20||-||100%|
|5||I may be nervous when my performance decreases in the match.||19||1||95%|
|6||I keep my cool when I feel the pressure of the match.||13||7||65%|
|7||In the decisive match, I feel my level has risen.||17||2||90%|
|7||I have the strength and desire to overcome the pressures of competition.||12||7||100%|
|9||Sometimes my performance drops when the competition is easy.||16||4||70%|
|10||I do my best to stay competitive.||10||10||50%|
|second field is self-confidence||11||It's easy to admit my mistakes after every game.||11||9||55%|
|12||I do not expect to fail in the simplest and most difficult match.||12||7||60%|
|13||I focus on my mental skills and show them to my fellow players.||20||-||100%|
|14||My mistakes in the match do not affect my performance in the match.||19||1||95%|
|15||In the game I feel very confident.||20||-||100%|
|16||I accept praise from my colleagues and the coach without any emotion.||20||-||100%|
|17||I care about the expressions of frustration by my fellow players and the coach.||12||7||60%|
|17||I do everything I can to understand the coach's instructions.||9||11||45%|
|19||At enough mental skills that set me apart from my fellow players.||17||2||90%|
|20||I always see myself as someone who excels and stands out from the competition.||7||13||35%|
|21||I see myself as an athlete with a high level of enthusiasm and strength.||12||7||60%|
|third field is fear control||22||I feel mentally disturbed in the important competition.||11||9||55%|
|23||I get anxious before the match.||19||1||95%|
|24||It's hard for me to be provoked by the players in the match||14||6||70%|
|25||I do not hesitate to strive to win the competition.||10||10||50%|
|26||During the game I always feel calm.||20||-||100%|
|27||As a result of the nervous pressure before the match, I am afraid of a bad performance.||14||6||70%|
|27||Before the match, I feel like my body is tight.||17||2||90%|
|29||I'm afraid my performance in the match will be bad.||16||4||70%|
|30||In the game I always think about achieving my goal.||13||7||65%|
|31||I always think of the next game.||20||-||100%|
|32||Before the game, I feel a very high temperature in the body.||16||4||70%|
|33||When my name is in the squad the pulse goes up.||20||-||100%|
|Fourth domain Interaction in the game||34||In the atmosphere of the match, I feel the interaction of my thoughts.||19||1||95%|
|35||I see myself having the perception of my level of performance before the competition.||7||12||40%|
|36||During the competition I cannot interact with my teammates.||16||4||70%|
|37||I feel happy and strong when the audience cheers me on.||20||-||100%|
|37||I can play in any position in the game.||17||2||90%|
|39||In the decisive match I always feel that my performance is not stable.||12||7||60%|
|40||I always deal positively with competition conditions.||19||1||95%|
|41||I can quickly react to the atmosphere of competition.||17||2||90%|
|42||Sometimes I don't feel happy when I'm playing the game.||17||3||75%|
|43||When I play the whole game I always feel happy and happy.||10||10||50%|
|Fifth field control of focus||44||During the match I feel all my thoughts are under control.||20||-||100%|
|45||During the game I focus on all my duties more than anything.||14||6||70%|
|46||When I compete or match, I can control my nerves.||17||2||90%|
|47||I am always distracted by the coach's directions during the competition.||13||7||65%|
|47||Sometimes I lose focus when thinking about the level of the opposing team.||17||2||90%|
|49||I think a lot about my level of performance before and during competition.||20||-||100%|
|50||In the last moments of the match I feel unable to focus.||19||1||95%|
|51||I think about past mistakes and opportunities I didn't take advantage of while competing.||10||10||50%|
|52||I may be adversely affected by competition conditions.||17||3||75%|
|53||I have the ability to focus in difficult situations during competition.||11||9||55%|
|54||When my team loses I feel like I'm underperforming sometimes.||7||12||40%|
The researcher carried out the exploratory experiment in the air force club hall, on (6) players, on Thursday, corresponding to 9/6/2022. By distributing the questionnaire for the psychological disability scale, the researcher found that the response time for the scale ranged between (4-6) minutes.
Scale constructing experience:
On Tuesday 6/14/2022: The researcher conducted an experiment to build the scale on a constructing sample of (110) players, in order to find the scientific coefficients for the scale of psychological disability.
Scientific Transactions of the Scale
Validity of the scale
Amanius Nayef points out that “after preparing the paragraphs and the instructions for answering them in their initial form, they must be carefully reviewed and subjected to logical analysis for the purpose of verifying their suitability for the scale, their representation of the fields, their clarity and logical sequence, and it is worth noting that the logical analysis of this tool is not a complementary work to it, or Rather, it is a continuous work that accompanies its design process, and precedes its appearance in its initial form, but at this stage it has a special place, with the aim of further analysis and presentation of the proposed paragraphs and their instructions to a group of specialists and experts, who have experience in the subject of the study and the development of the scale" (Mikhael. 2016),In order to verify this procedure, the researcher designed a questionnaire and presented it to a group of academic specialists to determine the validity of each paragraph logically, the type of its alternatives, the key to correcting it, and its belonging to the separate field to which it belongs and to the scale, in order to delete, merge, modify and add to it, or keep it. It is as it is to be valid according to the determinants of apparent honesty in accepting it with the agreement of their opinions on it at a rate of (70%) and more, as shown in table 4 (Table 4).
It is noted from the results of table 4 that it was agreed to amend (7) paragraphs, and no paragraph was merged, and it was agreed that the alternatives to the paragraphs would remain to represent the responses of the players on the applicability of the content of the content of each paragraph, as well as their direction remaining positive and agreement also on the key to correcting them, as shown in table 3, bringing the number of paragraphs to (40) paragraphs.
|Paragraph modification||Delete paragraph||Merged paragraph|
|The number of academic specialists (20).|
Logical validity: finding internal consistency for the field and items of the scale
The internal consistency is one of the most important things that confirm the formative validity of the scale, and in order to verify the finding of internal consistency, the researcher proceeded to adopt the degrees of application of the scale image in the previous procedure on the constructing sample amounting to (110) players, and to confirm that the field that are independent of each other belong to the scale, the researcher proceeded to verify the consistency there are three ways to process the results using the simple correlation coefficient (Person) as follows:
First, finding the simple correlation coefficients between the consistency of the total score of the field with the total score of the scale, as shown in table 5 (Table 5).
|No.||Fields||No. of Paragraphs||highest score for the field||(t) value totality of the scale||Level sig||Type sig|
|4||Interaction in the game||10||50||0.746||0.000||sig|
|Significant if (Sig) > ((0.05) at the degree of freedom (74-2) = 72, and the level of significance (0.05).|
The results of table 5 show that the eight separate field of the scale were maintained because the values of the correlation coefficients are significant at the level of significance (0.05), degrees of freedom (72), and degrees (Sig) less than (0.05) for each of all field, and with these results confirm the validity of the scale field.
Secondly: finding the simple correlation coefficients between the consistencies of the degree of weight of each paragraph with the total degree of the field, as shown in table 6 (Table 6).
|No.||(t) value Between the paragraph and the total score of the domain||Level sig||Type sig||(t) value Between the paragraph and the total score of the domain||Level sig||Type sig|
|Significant if (Sig) score > (0.05) at the degree of freedom n-2 = (152) significance level (0.05). From observing the results of Table (7), it is clear that the paragraphs that have achieved significant correlation coefficients in the paragraphs have been retained according to the internal consistency of the scales, and no paragraph has been deleted, so that the scale contains (40) paragraphs distributed over (Al Kubaisi. 2010)|
Third: find the simple correlation coefficients between the consistencies of the degree of weight of each paragraph with the total score of the scale, as shown in table 6.
The stability of the scale is one of the scientific and important foundations in the process of constructing standards, because it is a major pillar of the construction, so the test or standard must be characterized by its stability in measuring any concept or variable that aims to measure it.
A good measurement is defined by (Naji and Bastawisi) that "the results that we get from the measurement, if it is repeated more than once under the same conditions, are the absence of significant differences" (Naji and Ahmed. 1987). In order to get rid of the negatives, the stability of the scale was verified by four different methods, as follows:
This method establishes stability by dividing the expressions of the scale into two equal parts, one part that includes the individual phrases and the other for the even phrases, and finding the simple Pearson correlation coefficient between the degrees of the two parts, and the fact that the number of the phrases is an even number (40 phrases), so the researcher used the halfpartition method, individual phrases with a number 20) expressions, and an even one with a number of (20) expressions. When applying this method, it appeared that the value of the correlation coefficient is (0.575), and since this correlation refers to half of the number of expressions, it is necessary to find the value of the stability coefficient for all the expressions of the scale, so use the correlation coefficient (Spearman-Brown) (Salama. 2000), whose value was found to be (0.713), which is a high stability value.
Cronbach's alpha method
Cronbach's alpha coefficient is concerned with the degree of consistency of the paragraphs and their internal coherence in knowing the answers of the research sample. (Nunnaly, J.C. 1978). In addition, mention, "Cronbach's alpha equation is suitable for use with self-estimation measures that allow the subject to choose an answer from among several possibilities that indicate the extent of a certain behavior occurring to him." (Omar and et.al. 2010). Therefore, the researcher processed the data statistically using the alpha- Cronbach equation, and found the interpreted variance to verify the stability of the scale, as it interpreted more than (40%), and the degree of the alpha coefficient was (0.730), which is a high coefficient, and indicates very good stability, as shown in table 6.
Finding standard errors for the stability coefficients of the scale
The circumstances that accompany the process of applying the scale generate errors in the degrees that cannot be controlled by the person applying it, and these errors are of no less importance than adopting stability to express the acceptance of the scale, as these errors are inversely proportional to the correlation coefficients, that is: the higher the value of the correlation coefficient there are few values of these errors, and accordingly, the standard errors of the stability coefficient values were calculated for each of the four methods, as shown in table 7 (Table 7).
|No.||Methods for calculating stability||stability coefficients||Level sig||standard errors||Notes|
Finding the discriminatory ability of the items of the scale
It means the ability of the paragraph to distinguish between people who are characterized by a high degree from people who are characterized by a low degree in the trait, or the concept to be measured, and since the trait to be measured in this study is to build a measure of psychological disability and its relationship to some basic skills and fixed playing situations for youth football players Under (19) years old, the discriminatory power of the paragraphs means for the paragraph the ability to distinguish between one player and another who have the ability to distinguish in some basic skills and fixed playing situations from those who have a low level of the same trait. 214) a descending form, and from that, the two end groups in each group identified (27%) with (42) players, and (27%) is considered one of the preferred percentages to know the strength of the paragraph in distinguishing between the upper and lower groups (Stang, D.J and Wrightsman, L.S. 1981). And mentions that "to verify the discriminatory ability of the items of the assessment scales whose alternatives are multiple-choice items, the scores of the (T) test values must be a function between the results of the upper and lower groups."(Zaid. 2011). For the purpose of verifying the validity of discrimination for the items of the scale, the researcher sought to take into account the principle of economical scientific research procedures and avoid errors of repeating the application in measurement, evaluation and logical sequence in the procedures of statistical analysis of the items, as the image of the scale was applied after the agreement of academic specialists on it contains (75) items distributed on the scale, and on the construction sample of (110) players. Their scores on each paragraph were arranged in ascending order, and a percentage of (27%) was determined for each of the upper and lower end groups to be (42) players in each of these two groups, with a total of (74) players. Their results were treated with a t-test for uncorrelated samples, and the results were as shown in table 8 (Table 8).
|Paragraphs||Number||Groups||Mean||Std. Deviations||T value calculated||Level Sig||Type Sig||Discrimination|
|Significant if (Sig) > ((0.05) at the degree of freedom (74-2) = 72, and the level of significance (0.05).|
The results of table 6 show that the items of the scale that met the conditions for acceptance of discrimination were maintained by the statistical significance of the calculated (t) value, as the score of (Sig) < (0.05) at the degree of freedom (72) and the level of significance (0.05), and no item was deleted: Because all the paragraphs fulfilled the discrimination conditions, and with this procedure the scale continued to contain (75) paragraphs.
Level of difficulty of the scale:
In order for the researcher to make sure that all paragraphs of the scale are suitable for the research sample, he explored the normal distribution of the degrees of the sample's answers to the scale in order to check the level of difficulty of the scale by extracting the torsion coefficient of degrees, and the results appeared (10), and this indicates the suitability of the scale for the sample researched (Table 9).
Through the table, the researcher found that the torsion coefficient is within the normal limits (±3), and it was processed manually.
Objectivity of the scale
Remember (Rajaa Mahmoud Abu Allam) that “objectivity is a procedure and a characteristic, as objectivity to some means impartiality and distance from subjectivity, and objectivity from a procedural point of view is something related to data collection and analysis, and it means here that the meaning that we get using these means is one meaning, and there is no There is only one way out of it.” (Allam. 2007).
Scale in its final form (see appendix 1)
The scale, in its final form, contains eight independent and separate field, distributed among them (40) items with five alternatives (applies to always, applies to often, applies to sometimes, applies to rarely, never applies), with a correction key for their weights ( 1-5) in a positive direction, with a response time ranging between (10-15) minutes.
Shooting test (Al-Hiti 2007):
• Purpose of the test: to measure shooting accuracy.
• Tools used: seven football balls, a sign, a rope, and a goal divided into three fields.
• Performance method: (7) balls are distributed in the penalty field and the player starts running from behind the sign on the penalty arc towards the first ball, he aims and goes back around the pole, then heads for the second ball and so on with all the balls, and the shooting is higher than the level of the ground and the player is free to choose any foot, provided that the performance is done in the running position.
• Registration method: The score is calculated by the set of scores that the player gets from shooting the seven balls, as follows:
• (4) The player is awarded (3 marks) if the ball enters the two specified field (1, 3).
• (5) The player is awarded one point if the ball enters the designated field no. (2).
• (6) A player is awarded a zero if the ball goes outside the goal.
• In the event that the ball hits the crossbar or the pole, and the ball did not enter the player, the score for that specific field in which the ball hit it is calculated
- Implementation of the test: the player stands near the first ball and immediately after the start signal is given, the player runs towards the pointer to circle around it and returns towards the ball to aim it towards the goal and then returns to circle around the pointer and heads for the second ball and so on until he finishes shooting the seven balls, and it is stipulated that the goal of those balls be higher than ground level, leaving the player free to perform the test with any foot he chooses, provided that the performance is done in a running position, as for the person recording, he will be at the side of the goal to calculate the number of successful attempts and record the score of each attempt, in order to then collect the scores of those attempts.
Head-butting ball test from jumping position (Hamza 2007)
• Purpose of the test: To measure the accuracy of hitting the front of the head from the jumping position (Figure 1).
• Tools used: a ball launcher, balls, a target divided into five squares with straps, of which four are squares, the length of each side is 1 m, and a whistle.
• Performance method: The player stands on the penalty kick mark of the goal, facing the goal, and the ball thrower is placed at a distance of (12 m) (the distance and height were determined by reconnaissance experiment), from the point of executing the penalty kick towards the side line of the penalty field and is parallel to the penalty kick mark. After the whistle, the test begins with the ball being launched from the ball thrower device, after adjusting it with a measuring tape behind the device, at a height of (1.90 m) above the player, so that the player head-butts the ball from a jumping position towards the divided goal. The performance is repeated three times, i.e. the complete test score is (9) marks.
• Shooting method: The score is scored and awarded according to the difficulty of the field that the player is able to hit, and by adding the scores of the three attempts, as follows:
• The player is granted three degrees if he hits the number three field.
• The player is awarded two marks if he hits the number two field.
• The player is awarded one score if he hits the number one field.
• A zero is awarded if the ball goes outside the goal.
• The bar dividing the goal is within the designated field of the goal.
• Scores are recorded from two arbitrators, their scores are summed up and divided by two (the arithmetic mean).
The researcher did it on Thursday 27/7/2022. By conducting the main experiment by applying the image of the final psychological disability scale, in addition to the ball hitting test with the head, and the shooting test, on the main sample of the experiment amounting to (214) players, each according to his sports club, and according to the timings of their presence in these clubs, by distributing the clubs to the auxiliary work team to conduct The tests, and the main experiment continued until Monday, corresponding to 29/7/2022 (Figure 2).
Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
Results and Discussion
Presenting, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the hypothetical mean, the calculated (t) value, and the significance of the psychological disability scale (Table 10).
|Variable||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||hypothetical mean||T value
|Level Sig||Type Sig|
|Psychological disability scale||85.53||11.87||120||54.818||0.000||Sig|
|Degree of freedom (330 - 2 = 328). Significant < (0.05)|
Presenting, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, hypothetical mean, calculated (t) value, and significance for the shooting test (Table 11).
|Variable||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||hypothetical mean||T value
|Level Sig||Type Sig|
|Degree of freedom (330 - 2 = 328). Significant < (0.05).|
Presenting, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the hypothetical mean, the calculated (t) value, and the significance of the ball-butting test (Table 12).
|Variable||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||hypothetical mean||T value
|Level Sig||Type Sig|
|Degree of freedom (330 - 2 = 328). Significant < (0.05).|
Presenting, the value of the correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the psychological disability scale and the shooting and butting tests (Table 13).
|Variable||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||value of the correlation coefficient||Level Sig||Type Sig|
|Psychological disability scale||85.53||11.87||0.87||0.000||Sig|
|Psychological disability scale||85.53||11.87||0.82||0.000||Sig|
|ball butting tests||7.69||3.59|
|Degree of freedom (330 - 2 = 328). Significant < (0.05).|
Discuss Search Results
By discussing the results of the psychological disability scale, it was found (85.53) for the arithmetic mean, which is less valuable than the hypothetical mean value of (120) degrees. This indicates a decrease in the general level of psychological disability for young players under (19) years of age. Basic skills and fixed play situations (shooting and ball butting skill), As "they represent material, moral and social incentives provided by sports institutions to achieve the highest levels of satisfaction for the players and according to their efforts in performing duties and tasks, the most important of which are (salaries, incentives and rewards) so that the player feels satisfied, and this in turn leads to exerting the utmost effort, and doing everything He makes an effort to satisfy the coach and the audience, if the incentives are distributed according to a specific, fixed system that guarantees their availability in an appropriate and fair manner. (Jawad. 2000), Also, this decline is due to the same conditions that fall on all players of the age groups and national teams, and this is in addition to that they are subject to the same regulations, laws, and regulations, and this is consistent with (Ahmed Saqr Ashour), who confirms "The existence of work systems, rules and procedures for organizing work to clarify actions and their sequence in a way that facilitates work and does not hinder it, i.e. whenever this policy is characterized by flexibility, stability, integration and the availability of complete information, there is a relative guarantee."( Ashour. 2006).
As for the result of the correlation of the psychological disability scale with the basic skills and fixed playing situations (shooting and the skill of ball butting the ball), the result of the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) appeared, which are respectively with a value of (0.87), (0.82), and since the value of (.Sig) for the two correlations appeared with a value of (. (0.000) is smaller than the significance value (0.05) this is evidence of the emergence of a significant inverse correlation between the measure of psychological disability, shooting and the skill of ball butting ball). The research, knowing that this scale consists of (8) eight field with a significant impact on the level of skillful performance, and the results of the sample showed good levels in the shooting skill and the skill of ball butting, and this is evidence of the association of these results with the level of psychological disability.
Conclusions and Recommendations
According to the results, the researcher concluded the following:
• The scale proved effective in measuring the psychological disability of the sample.
• The level of psychological disability is inversely related to the level of scoring.
• The level of psychological disability is inversely related to the level of head butting.
According to the conclusions, the researcher recommended the following:
• Using the scale to know the level of psychological disability and its impact on scoring and head butting the ball.
• Psychological preparation and attention to age groups to reduce their level of psychological disability to qualify them for higher levels in the future.
• Conducting other similar studies to codify the measure of psychological disability and other age groups in football and other sports.
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