Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 3
Constructing and Rationing A Test for the Skill of Receiving the Serve From Above in Volleyball for Third-Year Students in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports SciencesDr. Asmaa Hikmet Fadil* and Dr. Khalil Setar Mohammed
*Correspondence: Dr. Asmaa Hikmet Fadil, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
The purpose of this paper is to constructing and rationing a test for the skill of receiving serve from above in volleyball for third-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad, and to determine grades and standard levels to test the skill of receiving from above in volleyball for third-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad for the year 2018. -2019, the descriptive approach was determined by the survey method as it is consistent in solving the research problem, and the research sample was chosen by the intentional method, represented by the third stage students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad, and their number is (73) students divided into (3) sections for female students. As for the exploratory experiment sample, it consisted of (15) female students who are from outside the research sample, and the receiving serve test from the above was applied to (58) female students. In order to determine the suitability of the test to the sample and start the construction procedures, which included finding the scientific bases for the test, the modified standard score and standard levels were extracted on the main experiment sample of 73 students, after extracting the discriminatory power and the convolution coefficient according to the procedures for legalizing the test. The following conclusions were reached building a test for the skill of receiving transmissions from above for third-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad. The recommendations were to adopt the test prepared to assess the accuracy of the receiving skill from the above for the female students, in order to identify their level of accuracy and to conduct other tests on the technical skills that were not covered in the study, emphasizing the creation of a state of competition among the students in a way that secures the development of their level of accuracy conducting periodic tests to determine the level of accuracy development for students and to see the impact of the adopted plan.
Education. Physical education. Sports sciences
Reaching the best performance in mathematical skills is the goal of every teacher, so we find him looking for the best methods and means to achieve this, in addition to searching for suitable means of measurement.
Testing and measurement play an important and effective role in evaluating performance and knowing the effectiveness of the curricula used. Through it, it is possible to determine the extent of an individual's progress in his field of specialization, as well as increase his motivation towards training in order to raise the level of performance.
The skill of receiving the serve from the above is another type of defensive skill in the game of volleyball, through which an effective and effective attack is built, so we find that every teacher seeks to acquire and perfect this skill through his educational curriculum, taking into account the accuracy in performance, which is the basis in the implementation of Plans to play correctly, and given that the tests are the means by which the level of performance can be inferred, so it was necessary to search for a test that is consistent with the actual capabilities, and in a way that achieves an objective evaluation of the student’s performance of the skill in volleyball in order to identify the weaknesses and try to find solutions she has.
The skill, through it, the accuracy of the skill’s performance is determined according to the standards and levels of the students, for the purpose of knowing the extent to which the goals set for them at this stage have been achieved, which are less focused on and for the category of students as a result of the lack of an appropriate test for accuracy for them that matches their abilities. The existing tests for accuracy are designed for players and students, and according to, Therefore, a special test was built for the accuracy of the performance of the receiving skill from the above in order to determine the level of accuracy of the students
• construct a test for the skill of receiving the serve from the above in volleyball for the third stage students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad,
• Identify the standard degrees and levels for the test of receiving the serve from the above in volleyball for the third stage students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad.
Research methodology and field procedures
Research Methodology: The researchers adopted the descriptive approach using the survey method, for its suitability in solving the research problem.
Community and sample research: The research sample included thirdyear students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad for the academic year 2018-2019. The number of them reached (73) students distributed among three sections. As for the exploratory experiment sample, it amounted to (15) female students from the third stage and they are from outside the research sample. The skill test on the rationing sample of (73) female students and extracting the discriminatory ability and the skew coefficient, in addition to extracting the grades and standard levels.
Identify the search variable: Through the review and research in the sources and previous studies, we did not find a test for the students that measured the accuracy of receiving the transmissions from the above, and accordingly, the special test for players and students was changed (Sobhi and Moneim, 1997), to suit the existing capabilities and levels of the students, The test was presented to experts and specialists to indicate its validity for measurement (Annex 1), and the validity of the skill test was determined according to two indicators:
The discriminatory ability of the test and the test difficulty coefficient by finding the skew coefficient. An exploratory experiment was conducted to ensure the suitability of the test to the level of the sample, as well as to determine the time taken for application and to identify the obstacles that may be encountered when the main application of the skill test, and the exploratory experiment was conducted on Tuesday (12/3/2019) in the indoor volleyball hall on a sample It is made up of (15) students, and it was shown that the test was appropriate for the female students.
The application was applied to the research sample, which numbered (58) female students from the third stage of volleyball for the year 2018-2019 for the period from Monday 18/3/2019 until Monday 25/3/2019.
After completing the implementation of the main experiment for the purpose of construction, the results were written down for statistical analysis, and the descriptive characteristics of the sample scores were found in the skill tests, numbering (58) students, after which the skill test was applied to the sample members, which numbered (73) female students of the third stage in volleyball for the duration From Monday 4/8/2019 until Tuesday, 4/23/2019, the results were recorded for the purpose of statistical analysis. The descriptive characteristics of the sample scores were found, and it was found that they are distributed naturally in the skill tests and table (3), and also found The discriminatory ability is within the foundations of standardizing the test, and the statistical program (Spss) was used.
Scientific basis of the scale: The skill test was analyzed according to two indicators: the discriminatory ability, which represents a type of honesty, through which the validity of the test is determined, also called the peripheral comparison, which gives an important indicator in the construction of the test, which is “its ability to distinguish between those with high scores and those with low scores in the traitor the ability measured by the test” (Radwan, 2006) and as shown in table 1 (Table 1), as well as extracting the test difficulty
|Paragraphs||Group||Arithmetic mean||standard deviation||T value||Level sig||Type sig|
|Receiving the serve test from above||lower||6.4483||1.18280||-9.407||0.000||Sig|
|Significant if < of (0,05) at (30) degree of freedom|
|Arithmetic mean||standard deviation||skewness|
|Receiving the serve test from above||7.7069||1.62231||0.373|
|Receiving the serve test from above||0.853||0.924||0.892|
|Significant if < of (0,05) at (56) degree of freedom|
And to verify the stability, which means, “the ability of the test to give similar results under slightly different measurement conditions if it is repeated on the same individuals” (Al Nabhan, 2004), by using the method of testing and retesting in extracting the reliability coefficient of the skill test, but the objectivity was calculated by extracting the simple Pearson correlation coefficient between the results of two judgments and the scientific coefficients were high because the significance value is smaller than the significance level (0.05).
Before proceeding to extract the standard scores and standard levels for the test and the rationing sample, some descriptive statistics were extracted as shown in table 4 (Table 4), and it was found that the sample is moderately
|Arithmetic mean||mediator||standard deviation||skewness||standard error|
|Receiving the serve test from above||8.2192||8.000||1.966||-0.248||0.281|
|Arithmetic mean||mediator||standard deviation||skewness||standard error|
|Receiving the serve test from above||8.2192||8.000||1.966||0.248-||0.281|
|Significant if < of (0,05) at (38) degree of freedom|
The criteria mean a set of scores derived by statistical methods from the raw scores and used to compare the individual's performance level with the performance level of the group to which he belongs, as shown in table 6 (Table 6).
|Raw degree||Repetitions||Z degree||Modified Standard Score|
Presentation and identification of standard levels of skill tests, analysis and discussion:
After knowing that the sample is distributed naturally through the skew coefficient, in addition to obtaining standard degrees, the standard levels for the rationing sample were determined and for the test, receiving the serve from above , as shown in table 7 (Table 7).
|below middle (34,1343)||weak
|Receivingaccuracy test from the above||3||4.110||5||6.849||34||46.575||16||21.918||11||15.069||4||5.479|
Discuss the results
From the above, it is clear that the student's performance level was distributed within the levels (very good, above mediator, weak, very weak), and the largest percentage was within the above mediator level, which is an acceptable percentage, and this indicates the student’s ability to move the appropriate movement in directing the ball in the direction, height and distance It is appropriate, as they are more in control of the ball, if the palms are within the level of the eyes, which allows the possibility of receiving the ball better, in addition to the sense of movement, which gives a sense of the level of movement and the position of the body, and in a way that ensures that the ball is directed correctly to the specified place, “that is, coordinate the movements so that It performs the desired goal with the least possible effort” (Lazam Qassem, 2005,).This is in addition to having a personal appreciation of the ball’s trajectory, which made it easier to receive it from the above and direct the ball to the right place, and that is the result of repetition, practice and correction, “and that performance can be evaluated through kinetic behavior” (Khion .2010).
Conclusions and Recommendations
• Constructing a test for the skill of receiving serve from above for third-year students in the College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences at the University of Baghdad.
• The largest percentage of female students’ results in the receiving accuracy-test appeared from the above mediator, which indicates that the level of accuracy was acceptable to them.
• Adopting the test prepared to assess the accuracy of the reception skill from the above for female students, in order to determine their level of accuracy.
• Conducting other tests on technical skills that were not covered in the study.
• Emphasis on creating a state of competition for female students in a way that secures the development of their level of accuracy.
• Conducting periodic tests to determine the level of accuracy development for female students and to know the extent of the effect of the adopted plan.
Mohamed Sobhi Hassanein and Hamdi Abdel Moneim .1997. Scientific foundations of volleyball and measurement methods (physical-skill-cognitive-psychological-analytical), Cairo, Dar Al-Kitab Publishing.
Muhammad Nasr al-Din Radwan.2006. Introduction to measurement in physical education and sports, 1st floor: Cairo, Al-Kitab Center for Publishing.
Musa Al Nabhan .2004. Fundamentals of measurement in behavioral sciences, 1st floor, Amman, Dar Al-Shorouk for Publishing and Distribution.
Qasim Azam .2005).Topics in kinetic Learning
Yaroub Khion .2010. Kinetic learning between principle and application: Baghdad, the good word.