Disability-Related Self-Attendance Fear among Tennis and Table Tennis Players

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 3

Disability-Related Self-Attendance Fear among Tennis and Table Tennis Players

Raghdaa Fouad Mahammed* and Sahira Razzaq Kadhum
*Correspondence: Raghdaa Fouad Mahammed, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Girls, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Girls, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Received: 05-May-2023 Accepted: 19-May-2023 Published: 19-May-2023


The purpose of the study is to develop self-attendance fear measures for table tennis players and tennis players with disabilities, as well as to gauge how severe these fears are in both groups. The authors propose that there are no statistically significant differences in the level of fear of self-attendance for players of ground tennis and table tennis for the disabled between the arithmetic mean and the hypothetical mean. In keeping with the nature of the current study, we adopted a descriptive methodology, and the sample comprised 62 players of table tennis and tennis for the disabled. The authors make use of the Al-Taei prepared scale (fears of self-attendance). The statistical package for educational sciences (spss v 26) was used to analyze the data after conducting the psychometric characteristics (honesty, reliability, and objectivity) on it. Based on their responses on the self-attendance fear scale, we discovered that table tennis players and players of the sport for people with disabilities have a moderate degree of self-attendance fear.


Self-attendance. Tennis players. Table tennis for the disabled.


When determining an athlete's lifestyle and finding solutions to his problems, sports psychology examines how the human psyche develops as well as sports behavior in all of its forms. One of the most significant factors that restricts an athlete's performance during training and competition is the fear of self-presence that the athlete is exposed to from the time the athlete first arrives until they reach their greatest achievement. Disability is a common cause of psychological and social issues, and as a result, disabled people may exhibit less assertive behavior and emotional self-control. As a result, tennis and table tennis players may develop unfavorable attitudes toward disabled people. The phenomenon of self-attendance fears and their comprehension is a crucial issue for the player to control fear and anxiety about how other people perceive him through the situations that occur to the player and thereby reduce fears related to self-attendance (that he is incompetent, unprepared, unskilled, and unable to handle pressure). These situations are exposed to the disabled player during the performance or participation in the internal and external competitions affected by the surroundings of the environment to which he belongs, which can control their thoughts and feelings and affect the psyche of the player. Thus, building player’s self-trust is essential. “It is a generalized expectation that the individual has formed, and he can rely on what has been issued by another person or group, such as a word, promise, or verbal or written statement” (Raghda, 2022). The disabled player will perform at his best and experience less fear about the situations around him if he acts in the best interests of himself, proves himself, and expresses his sincere feelings freely. By doing so, he dispels any fear of others and controls his own emotions. The significance of the research therefore lies in understanding self-attendance fears and understanding the disabled player from the challenges and fears he encounters in self-attendance, which have a negative impact on the players' psyche. Psychology is regarded as one of the most significant fields of study in the modern era due to its significance for both the normal person in general and the disabled person in particular in order to live a proper life, develop the proper supports for their needs, and realize their goals. After examining the reality of the teams for these games through repeated meetings with coaches, administrative bodies and the head of the Paralympic Committee, the autors noticed that the current research sample lacked the psychological and social studies necessary for this segment to help them overcome these problems that they suffer from and meet other necessary needs, whether psychological or social. Due to the psychological issues that players in this category experience as a result of neglect and inadequate care, the idea for research to develop a psychological diagnosis for this group through a study that touches on their reality emerged. The player sees himself as marginalized, and no one cares about his disability or his psychological and social problems, which necessitate special care from everyone and may have a negative impact on the course of their working life and possibly their private life. Hence, the two authors took it upon themselves to try to identify the condition of the disabled players for some of the psychological phenomena through knowing and evaluating the fears of selfattendance, and on this basis the following question arises: what is the degree of self-attendance concerns for disabled tennis and table tennis players?

Self-presentation fear is the athlete's perception of anxiety or worries about how others (teammates, fans, media) perceive him when he presents himself to them (Leslie et al., 2013). As a result, the study's goal is to develop selfattendance fear measures for disabled tennis and table tennis players. Also, to determine the level of self-attendance anxiety among table tennis players and table tennis for the disabled.

Research Methodology


In scientific research, the term "method" refers to a "special method for collecting scientific information or a method for solving problems" (Ekhlas Mohamed, 2022). The descriptive approach was chosen by the authors because it is appropriate for the nature of the current study. The research community is regarded as one of the first methodological steps in educational research, and defining it is a critical matter in research because it is a necessary requirement." In the process of selecting samples (Al-Akidi, 2021). Tennis and table tennis players for the disabled made up the research community; there were a total of (62), divided among sports clubs; there were (40) male players and (22) female players. Players In addition, for the purposes of conducting the reconnaissance experiment, we excluded (12) male and female players. We have relied on the research sample of 100 percent in the research community, which was made up of players of ground and table tennis in sports clubs and committees for both men and women, as well as for the athletic season (2021–2022). The application sample consisted of (50) male and female players with a percentage of (80.645%), and the survey experience was (19.355%). The information about the study sample is displayed in Table 1 (Table 1).

Table 1: Sample characteristics.

The Sample No. Activity Gender No. Percentage of Society
Application 50 Tennis Male 18 29.032 80.645%
Female 10 16.129
Table Tennis Male 13 20.968
Female 9 14.516
The survey sample 12 Tennis Male 7 11.290 19.355%
Female 2 3.226
Table Tennis Male 2 3.226
Female 1 1.613
100% 62 Total 62 100% 100%

Therefore, we make the following assumption: There are no statistically significant differences in the level of fear of self-attendance for players of table tennis and table tennis for the disabled between the arithmetic mean and the hypothetical mean.

Research procedures steps

In order to make it easier for the Iraqi Paralympic Committee to complete the fieldwork procedures for the research, we have taken a number of steps. To accomplish the study's goals, the authors used the scientific method to select psychometric measurement tools based on the following criteria, in accordance with the methods and the type of the current descriptive study that is related to the three studied phenomena. In order to develop the initial step for measuring self-attendance concerns, the following methods were used:

Examination of the literature and theoretical studies related to the subject of the research, and the tools are one of the scientific methods through which one can solve the problem, as the authors used in this study the scale of fears of self-presence, which was used by the authors in the study (Al-Taei, 2016), which includes (33) items. The scale had five alternatives, and weights were assigned to them based on the highest score on the scale (165), the lowest score (33), and the hypothetical mean (99), respectively. The first dimension was made up of ten paragraphs, the second dimension of ten paragraphs, the third dimension of six paragraphs, and the fourth dimension of seven paragraphs. A sample of disabled tennis and table tennis players were subjected to the scale.

Results and Discussion

Presentation and analysis of the results of the dimensions and the sum of the scale of self-presence concerns for the research sample

Table 2 contains the results of our analysis of the data on the dimensions of self-attendance concerns.

Table 2: Shows the statistical parameters and the value of (One-Simple -T-Test) for the self-attendance fear scale according to its dimensions for the sample as a whole.

No. Dimensions of self-attendance fears Arithmetic Mean Hypothetical Mean Standard Deviation T-Value Sig Probability Significancy
1 Decreased level of performance 33.130 27 .3044 23.855 0.001 There is a significant difference
2 lack of energy and fatigue 30.354 24 .9253 30.145 0.000 There is a significant difference
3 physical appearance 22.530 18 2.327 22.458 0.003 There is a significant difference
4 Not having athletic talent 22.892 18 2.419 27.245 0.001 There is a significant difference
5 Total marks 108.907 87 12.251 38.244 0.000 There is a significant difference

The research sample's arithmetic mean in the dimension (decrease in the level of performance) is equal to (33.130) with a standard deviation of (.3044) degrees, and when compared to the hypothetical mean of (27) degrees using table (2) and the research sample responses in light of the answer alternatives, it was discovered that According to the results of the one-sample t-test, the calculated t-value was (23.855), and the sig probability score was (0.001) at the significance level (0.05). This shows that there is a statistically significant difference between the two means d in favor of the arithmetic mean, as confidence has a role: “The level of fear changes depending on the level of selfconfidence in the player. The player who experiences success develops stronger self-confidence and feels more confident, and he has greater motivation to put forth the effort necessary to excel. The player who experiences failure develops weaker self-confidence and feels less about his self-worth.” (Huda et al., 2020). We can see that the significance of the differences in the aspect of lowering the level of performance is due to the fact that there is a way that self-attendance fears can affect the quality of performance, and that is through the use of self-handicap. Self-handicap is a process of pro-actively avoiding threats to an individual's self-esteem through which it enables the individual to create an opportunity to make failure external and success internal. According to (Prapavessis et al., 2004), disabilities enable a person to emphasize their personal qualities if their performance is strong or to downplay them if their performance is weak. In their study of professional hockey and basketball players, (Steinhilber & Baumeister, 1984) found that playing in front of their audience and on their field hurts their performance in games. They noted that the chance to establish a desirable identity in front of a supportive audience may lead to a state of self-attention that may interfere with the benefit of skillful responses. The one sample t-test reveals that the arithmetic mean of the research sample in the dimension (lack of energy and fatigue) is equal to (30.354 degrees with a standard deviation of (3.925) degrees, and when compared with the hypothetical mean of (24) degrees, it turns out that the calculated t-value is (30.145) degrees and the degree of probability of sig was (0.000) at the significance level (0.05). This demonstrates that there is an arithmetic mean-biased statistically significant difference between the two means. We observe that when an athlete is lacking the necessary level of psychological energy, it is urgent to mobilize the player psychologically, i.e., motivate him and stimulate his motivation, or if the athlete is experiencing extremely high psychological energy as a result of anxiety or rage. As an athlete needs "encouragement and motivation through holding video meetings and achieving the process of communication between sports groups," it is important for him to learn how to control his thoughts (Samar and Kazem, 2022). This is what is primarily aimed at training psychological skills, because the coach frequently believes that taking care of the athlete's mental aspect is not within his competence, and thus the training procedures do not include interest in that, and in fact, the success of the training process is achieved not only through the athlete's acquisition of the ability to regulate his physical energy but also by controlling psychological energy. The psychological energy needs to be directed because it can be constructive or destructive, positive or negative, and this is achieved by helping the physically disabled athletes to direct their psychological energy, so “there must be interest in serving and mastering it well because the transmission, if it is weak, will give the competitor an opportunity to His attack begins with every point” (Zeina and Fatima, 2021). We observe significant statistical differences in the physical appearance dimension, indicating that fears of self-presence do not prevent an individual fnbs[from participating in a group, but they may influence the context in which the individual chooses to participate. They may avoid exercising in crowded gyms or playing team sports, but they may continue to exercise alone, and fears of self-presentation can limit an individual's physical activity choices if they do not completely disable the individual (Woods, 2007). The one-sample t-test reveals that the calculated t-value is (27.245) when compared to the hypothetical mean of (18) degrees. The arithmetic mean of the research sample in the dimension (not having sport talent) is equal to (22.892) with a standard deviation of (2.419) degrees and the level of significance (0.05) was (0.001) for the degree of probability of sig. This indicates that there is a statistically significant difference between the two means, favoring the arithmetic mean, and that the training objective is "The one-way training unit has a significant positive impact on the development and development of functional capabilities and physical abilities, whether public or private, as this works effectively to improve and upgrade the level of technical performance (Technique)" (Somaya and Kazem, 2022). We see that reducing negative emotional responses and fears related to selfpresence that the players created due to their fear of not having athletic talent and modifying the resulting ideas in this regard is a necessary and urgent issue that is clearly manifested through restoring the cognitive structure of the disabled players using cognitive behavioral skills and techniques. There is consensus that the player will have more control over his responses if he can increase awareness and regulate his thought processes (McCann, S.C., 2000).

The calculated t-value is (38.244) and the sig probability score is (0.000) at a significance level of (0,05), respectively, when the total arithmetic mean of (108.907) and the standard deviation of (12.251) degrees are compared with the hypothetical mean of (87) degrees, respectively. This means that there is a statistically significant difference between the two means and in favor of the arithmetic mean, and the level of the research sample as a whole in the variable of fears of self-attendance reached a level (average.), As people with disabilities need tolerance, "and tolerance includes access to the other, understanding and acceptance of individuals, and respect for their personal space that makes them feel free within society." (McCann, S.C., 2000).

The authors attribute this result to the fact that the players, as a result of their self-esteem as players with disabilities, which establishes their belief that the impression formed by the environment surrounding them from the audience, colleagues and close associates generates a negative impression of their ability, and that the truth of this interpretation by the player came as a result of the role or position in which he is. player who considers it a failure. This is supported by (Leary, 1992), who found that people who participate in sports and physical activity may grow curious about what others think of them and may experience increased anxiety and fear when presenting themselves to others. These phobias are noticeable in a variety of situations connected to sports and physical activity, such as competition anxiety, body image issues, warm-up anxiety, and bench-sitting anxiety.

As a result of the player's interpretation of the competitive factors and the ideas that contradict the logic that the disabled player can make a difference whenever he participates, we can also observe the varying degrees of selfattendance fears to the process of the players' visual ability. This is something that the player can control as part of the process of giving a good performance.

This means that the process of making an impression on other people will be based on these negative beliefs and thoughts, which are reflected in his effort while participating in the game is not presenting a good level, which increases the process of making an impression on people at the level of the player and consequently increases the fears of his self-presence, as supported by (Wang et al., 2001) that the players are afraid of presenting a good level when they feel that they are under pressure from competitions to prove their abilities and capabilities. According to (Perlman, 1982), low self-esteem factors may make it difficult for people to build lasting relationships, so it is possible that the degree of self-presence anxiety is both the cause and the effect of the psychological loneliness one feels.


Based on their responses to the self-attendance fear scale, table tennis and table tennis players with disabilities received a medium score. For players with special needs to understand their significance to society, coaches must constantly remind them that they are a vital part of the sports community. Because it prevents the players' ideas from being distorted and the requirement to draw attention to the significance of disabled players as a subject deserving of additional study in the area of sports psychology and other factors.


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