Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 3
Effect of Leadership Personality on the Performance Efficiency of the Physical Education Supervisor of the Babylon Province CentreAhmed Malik Hamoud L* and Marwah Omar Mursi D
*Correspondence: Ahmed Malik Hamoud L, Al-Hilla University College, Iraq, Email:
Personality can be considered one of the most fundamental and important topics concerned with an individual's abilities and capabilities, which accompany and guide him throughout his life and change, grow, and develop during the stages of an individual's life, and personality from a specialized scientific perspective is a topic that participates in the study of many sciences, the most important of which are psychology, sociology and management.
The leadership has a social role played by the leader during his interaction with the other group that they work with, and leadership is a form of social interaction between the leader and the group. The studies focused on the professional and cognitive aspect of the educational supervisor and left important aspects, like the psychological aspects, with the scarcity of research and studies on administrative and psychological aspects, especially with regard to the personality of the supervisor, so the researcher decided to study this problem and find appropriate solutions.
The aim of the research is to identify the differences in the dimensions of the leadership personality among educational supervisors in physical education, the center of Babylon province to identify the type of relationship between the leadership personality and the performance efficiency of educational supervisors.
The study included 29 educational supervisors in physical education from the province of Babylon's central region. Through the use of two scales, the researcher adopted a descriptive strategy in the survey study (the leadership personality scale and the scientific performance efficiency scale), and the researcher concludes the following : -
- The educational supervisors in the province of Babylon's central region have a good leadership personality
- It was found that the educational supervisors in the province of Babylon's central region have good performance efficiency
- There is a link between the leadership personality of educational supervisors in physical education and sport sciences and their performance efficiency.
Leadership personality. Performance efficiency. Educational supervisor
Personality is one of the most difficult concepts to grasp since it encompasses all of the physical, mental, and emotional characteristics that interact within an individual's personality.
Personality is one of the most fundamental and significant themes, and it is concerned with an individual's abilities and capacities, which go along with him and accompany him throughout his life, changing, growing, and evolving as he progresses through the stages of his life. The study of personality is the final point in psychological studies. The human personality is often and certainly considered the largest complex phenomenon studied by science. (Al-Obaidi,22,2011)
Many investigations and research projects have been undertaken by various researchers in order to determine the aspects of personality. Personality tests can be separated into tests that evaluate significant features such as self-confidence, the ability to agree with the components of the environment, or tests for clinical diagnosis, as well as tests that assess normal personality, and so on. There are several techniques to developing personality measurements, such as the mental approach, the experiential method, the experimental method, and the projective method, to examine tendencies, values, and trends. (Malika et al., 247,1959-248).
Since the researcher’s study is about the leadership personality of educational supervisors in physical education, the leadership has a social role played by the leader during his interaction with the other group with whom they work, and leadership is a form of social interaction between the leader and the group (Al-Obaidi, previous source, 22).
Leadership is needed in order to build and sustain a group, i.e. a group which does not organize together is considered just a meeting. Their participation is necessary. Leadership is considered a core of people. Therefore, the physical education supervisor is an important thing to influence the group or followers who are supervisors. Hence the importance of the research in knowing the relationship between the leadership personality and the performance efficiency of the educational supervisor in physical education for the Babylon province Center
Through the researcher’s simple experience during his work in teaching and supervising the application of students, he also noticed that there is a discrepancy in the personality of the supervisors’ leadership and their performance efficiency during their visits to physical education teachers in their schools or in training or model lessons or school courses in terms of imposing their leadership personality on teachers and influencing them. Some of them lack seriousness and the extent of the personality's effect on performance efficiency, as determined by the researcher's review of a large number of scientific references, previous studies, and scientific papers, and that most studies focused on the educational supervisor's professional and cognitive aspects while leaving important aspects, such as the psychological aspect. with the scarcity of research and private studies With regard to psychological aspects, especially with regard to the personality of the supervisor, the researcher wanted to study this problem and find appropriate solutions to it. The research aims to identify the differences in the dimensions of the leadership personality of educational supervisors in physical education, the center of Babylon Governorate, and the type of relationship between the leadership personality and the efficiency of the performance of educational supervisors. In addition to identifying the reality of the efficiency of the performance of educational supervisors in physical education
Research methodology and field procedures
The researcher used the descriptive approach in the survey method for its suitability in addressing the research problem
The research community and its sample
The research community consists of educational supervisors in the Directorate of Education in Babylon Governorate, and their number reached (55) educational supervisors in physical education. The researcher obtained the number of educational supervisors who are supervisors through the Directorate of Educational Supervision in the Directorate of Education in Babylon province. After the researcher obtained approval to apply the study to the supervisors
The sample of the research consisted of educational supervisors in physical education working in the Directorate of Education in the central province of Babylon, whose number is 29 supervisors, representing a percentage of (25.27%) of the research community, which is a statistically acceptable percentage
Means of collecting information and data
- Scientific sources and references
- Similar studies and research
- The Internet
- Data analysis tools
- Data collection forms
- electronic calculator
- handy calculator
- electronic watch
- Ink pens and pencils
- The assistant team
Main Research Procedures
Leadership Personality Scale
After reviewing many sources and conducting some scientific interviews with many specialized professors, the researcher decided to choose the measure of the leadership personality of researcher Imad Nasr Hussein. (Imad Nasr Hussein, 2015), which consists of (72) paragraphs, and the answer to it is by choosing one alternative from five alternatives, which are (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree), as grades are given (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) respectively, and the total score of the scale ranged between (72-360). See appendix (1).
Performance Efficiency Scale
The researcher reviewed the previous sources, references, studies, standards and questionnaires in physical education and management science that are related to the current research. The scientific performance efficiency scale was chosen, which consists of (20) paragraphs, and the answer to it is through five alternatives: (strongly agree, agree, (neutral, disagree, strongly disagree), as the scores are given (5, 4, 3, 2, 1) , respectively, and the total score of the scale ranged between (20-100). As in Appendix (2).
The exploratory experiment was conducted on Tuesday 23 /3/2020 to show the validity of the two scales on a sample of (6) supervisors. The purpose of conducting the experiment was as follows:
- To identify the appropriateness of the sections of the two scales prepared for this purpose
- The extent of the clarity of the two measures sections of the research sample and the degree of its response to it
- Calculating the response time it takes the player to answer the paragraphs of the two scales, which ranged from 14 to 22 minutes.
- Ensuring the clarity of the scales’ instructions and the extent to which the tested respond and understand the tests
- Take the appropriate measures in terms of the linguistic formulation of the numbers of the two scales so that they are appropriate for the supervisors to answer
The main experiment of the two scales
The researcher applied the two scales to the main sample of the research represented by the supervisors of physical education working in the Directorate of Education of the province Babylon's center , who numbered 29 supervisors, on Sunday, corresponding to 26/3/2020. In the hall of the Directorate of Education of Babylon
The researcher used the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) and as shown below, the treatments he used in the study
- standard deviation
- One-way analysis of variance
- Duncan test
Presenting the results of the relationship between the leadership personality and the performance efficiency of educational supervisors
To find out the type of relationship, the researcher extracted the arithmetic means and standard deviations of the leadership personality scale and the performance efficiency scale to find out whether the educational supervisors have a leadership personality and performance efficiency. Table No. (1) and Table No. (2) illustrate this (Table 1) :
|Variable||Mean||standard deviation||Hypothetical Mean|
Table (1) shows that the arithmetic mean of the sample scores on the leadership personality scale was (313.9630) and the performance efficiency scale was (122,614), and the standard deviation of the leadership personality scale was (12.81881) and the standard deviation of the performance efficiency scale was (6.53371), and the hypothetical mean * to measure the leadership personality was (216) and when compared with the arithmetic mean (313,963), it turns out that it is significantly less than the arithmetic mean, and this indicates that the research sample enjoys leadership personality according to the scale prepared for that
The hypothetical average of the research sample on the performance efficiency scale was (60), which is less than the arithmetic mean of (82.0556), and thus, the educational supervisors enjoy a high performance efficiency of their work task (Table 2 and Figure 1).
|Variables||Mean||standard deviation||Calculated (t) value||Indication level||The significance of the differences|
It is clear from Table (2) that the value of (T) calculated between the degrees of the research sample on the leadership personality and performance efficiency scales amounted to (21.844) and at a morale level less than (0.05), which is a high degree because the significance level is (0.000), which are significant differences in favor of the leadership personality this indicates that the educational supervisors have a leadership personality more than the performance efficiency through the arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the calculated (T) value, and that this does not mean that the supervisors do not have a performance efficiency because they obtained an arithmetic mean in the performance efficiency scale that is higher than the hypothetical average of the scale
Al-Sayyaf 2006 confirms the nature of the relationship between the leadership behavior of physical education supervisors and the degree of their satisfaction with work in that the degree of satisfaction can be considered an accurate scientific indicator of the nature of the behavior adopted by the supervisor in his work, which can be recorded or observed by the school administration, the teacher and the students, this interaction can appear clearly through mutual relations, respect for opinion and consideration for the feelings of others and by adopting the two dimensions of leadership behavior interested in work and human relations.
Teachers' satisfaction with their work is positively associated to leadership styles engaged in work and human connections, according to current findings from Kohan. (Kohan, 1989). He also indicated that leadership behavior interested in human relations positively affects teachers’ satisfaction with their work, and that the pattern of high interest in work and human relations is the most influential in their satisfaction with their work (Kohan, 1989, 33-48), Al-Dulaimi (1990) says that educational leaders They have an active role in creating high work satisfaction among subordinates (Al-Dulaimi, 1990, 103).
Presenting the results of the correlation between the leadership personality and the performance efficiency of educational supervisors
The researcher extracted the arithmetic mean and standard deviation and found out the calculated value of (t) (Table 3).
|Variables||Mean||standard deviation||Calculated (t) value||Indication level||The significance of the differences|
|* Hypothetical Average = Total Of Alternatives ÷ Number Of Alternatives × Number Of Items.|
It is evident from Table (3) that the value of (t) calculated between the scores of the research sample on the scales of leadership personality and performance efficiency amounted to (0.981) and at a level of significance less than (0.05), which is a high degree because the significance level is (0.000), which is a high significant correlation between the leadership personality and performance efficiency and this indicates that the relationship is a direct relationship and means the higher degree of the leadership personality on the scale prepared for that, the higher the degree of performance efficiency and vice versa (Figure 2).
The researcher attributes the existence of a strong correlation between the degrees of educational supervisors on the measures of leadership personality and performance efficiency through the results obtained by the researcher from the research sample because they live in one society governed by the same customs and traditions, their work is an educational work characterized by human relations of supervisors and the teacher with the student and this is confirmed by Khitab( 2006) that the social and moral commitment reflects the supervisor’s leadership personality and thus results in the values that have been integrated through dealing with the teacher and the student and thus lead to the formation of (the superego, which in turn consists of the conscience and the ideal ego, the commitment is manifested in the form of a pledge or a feeling of pushing a person to do certain actions or work in order to achieve a specific goal, therefore freedom of choice is limited to this commitment (Al-Zubaidi, 2013, 154).
Presenting the results of the dimensions of the leadership personality domains for educational supervisors
The researcher extracted the sum of squares and the mean of squares and calculated the value of ((f) (Table 4).
|Contrast Source||Total Squares||Degree of Freedom||Average squares||Calculated value (f)||Indication Level||Differences|
|*Significant differences at a critical value less and equal to (0.05)|
Through Table No. (4), the calculated (f) value of (303.7139) was extracted, and in front of the significance level (0.000), there are statistically significant differences between the domains of the leadership personality scale, and in order to determine the dimensions between the domains, the researcher used the Duncan test To compare the mean scores of the research sample according to the scale areas, where the Duncan test is one of the best and most accurate tests to indicate the differences between the variables despite the significance or lack of significance of the analysis of variance (Al-Rawi, 1980, 163) (Table 5).
|T||Scale Domains||Mean Degrees of Domains|
|4||planning and organization||49,4166||BC|
|* Significant differences|
Through Table 5, we obtained the following results:
A- The educational supervisors in the field of decision-making obtained an average score of (68.7333), and this result means that they have a great deal of leadership in decision-making and prove their courage in the decision-making process for the benefit of work, and that they make their decisions in a sound manner in service of the tasks assigned to them and the symbol (A) It means that it is the highest degree in the averages.
AB- The educational supervisors in the field of self-confidence obtained an average score of (59.1538), and this result means that they have self-confidence in performing their duties. Self-confidence helps the leader to make decisions easily.
B- means that the field of endurance came in the third place and the average score was (54.3076), and the symbol (B) means the average degree. Leadership behavior is one of the components of leadership, and its diversity leads to a similar disparity in the size of the influence exercised by administrative leaders on groups of followers.
BC- means that the field of planning and organization came in the fourth rank, with an average score of (49.4166), and that the symbol (B C) means the average degree.
C- It means that the field of responsibility came in the fifth rank, and the average score was (42.6). The successful leader is ready to take responsibility at all times, especially in cases of failure, and seeks to exercise self-criticism before criticizing others, and in an attempt to confront the reasons that led to such cases , bearing responsibility requires willpower from the leader and courage to confront the resulting mistakes and try to make the effort to correct these mistakes.
CD- means that the field of emotional balance ranked sixth and averaged scores (40.2222) and that the symbol (C D) means the lowest degree in the averages. Emotional control is of great importance for a successful leader so that he can spread calm and stability in the hearts of athletes, so that he gives his instructions, advice and decisions to teachers and school management in a clear and calm manner.
Conclusions and recommendations
The researcher reached the following conclusions
- It was found that the educational supervisors in Babylon Province 's center have a good leadership personality
- It was found that the educational supervisors in Babylon Province 's center have good performance efficiency
- The educational supervisors have a leadership personality more than efficient performance
- Educational supervisors who possess personality and performance efficiency have an active role in creating general satisfaction for their subordinates (Directorate of Educational Supervision).
- There is a direct relationship between the leadership personality and the performance efficiency of educational supervisors in physical education
- There are statistically significant differences between the domains of the leadership personality scale for educational supervisors in physical education
Based on the results of the research, the researcher recommends the following
- Using the leadership personality and the performance efficiency scales by the Directorate of Educational Supervision to identify the leadership personality and the performance efficiency of educational supervisors during their assignment through the supervisory visits to schools
- The need for the Directorate of Educational Supervision to pay attention to the development of the leadership personality and performance efficiency of educational supervisors in physical education in order to create a solid base of educational supervisors with leadership personality and high performance efficiency
- It is necessary to identify the relationship between the leadership personality and performance efficiency with other psychological variables
- Paying attention to programs and courses that develop the leadership personality and performance efficiency of educational supervisors in physical education by the Directorate of Educational Supervision in the Ministry of Education
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