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Effect of Using Rubber Band and Kinesio Taping as a Rehabilitation Program to Treat Gymnasium Players with Chronic Shoulder Pain: Randomized Trial

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 3

Effect of Using Rubber Band and Kinesio Taping as a Rehabilitation Program to Treat Gymnasium Players with Chronic Shoulder Pain: Randomized Trial

Dr. Bashar Banwan Hasan* and Dr. Amen Atta Hasan*
*Correspondence: Dr. Bashar Banwan Hasan, Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Wasit University, Iraq, Dr. Amen Atta Hasan, Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Wasit University, Iraq,
Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Sciences, Wasit University, Iraq

Abstract

In Iraq, the repeated chronic shoulder injury of gymnastics players has become common. Unfortunately, there is a lack of rehabilitation programs. Therefore, the authors conducted this study to develop an appropriate solution.

The aim of this work is to study the effect of rubber band and Kinesio tape techniques of improving muscular strength and movement range. The authors used an experimental approach, and eight players high-performance male gymnasts who participated, all of them have competed at the national level. The authors applied the rehabilitation protocol that included applying KT tapes and rehabilitative exercises using rubber bands. The rehabilitation program took three months with five rehabilitation sessions on a weekly basis. Each session took 60 minutes on three stages. Each stage lasts for four weeks. It is worth mentioning that some patients were fully rehabilitated before the end of the program, each phase lasts for four weeks, noting that some players ended their rehabilitation before the end of the rehabilitation program. The most important results obtained by the researchers was the presence of significant differences between the two measurements at a level of 0.05 in all tests and for the favor of the posttest, where the value ranged between (3.006 to 23.322) and these values were higher than tabular T value at 0.05 level. The most important results were that the rehabilitation program used rubber bands and Kinesios tapes to help in developing muscular strength and improving the motor range of the injured shoulder joint. Since more evidence-based practices are needed, future studies should include large numbers of subjects and examine diverse Rubber Band & KT application patterns.

Keywords

Exercises. Athletes. Coaches

Introduction

The processes of stabilizing skill and bringing it to the limits of the mechanism continue to concern researchers and their interests, there are many internal and external factors that have a great impact in determining the level of access to accurate learning or even contribute to the speed of learning some motor skills(Journal et al., 2020), and there is no doubt that mechanical aspects enter directly with the motor side to master learning and the stability of skill or movement required to reach a distinctive and consistent motor behavior. And if we believe that motor behavior depends on the consistency of performance between the muscles of the body(Ismaeel, n.d.), which is the main source of each movement (as the muscles with the bones form the locomotor system), so the idea of the research aims to study some characteristics of the locomotor system, especially muscle components and ligaments(Journal et al., 2020), and to determine the response of these measurements and features for a specific type of learning and training programs that are in favor of stabilizing the skill.

Research procedures:

It is worth noting that this study adopted the experimental approach by designing the two groups with the pre and posttest, where the research sample consisted of (24) players who were divided into (10) members of a control group after excluding (4) players who were suffering from special cases and sports injuries(Fleisig, 2010).

The pre-tests included the anatomical measurements of the specific parts of the arm, which are the length, volume, and torques of each of the muscles (deltoid shoulder muscle, biceps brachii, triceps brachii), in addition to conducting a preliminary measurement of the performance level of skills (serving, setting, and diagonal crush hitting), All players were also subjected to general measurements to show the extent of their distribution normally under the Gauss curve and the absence of dispersion or extreme values in (age, weight, training age, the injuries involved)(Ammar et al., 2018).

After conducting the pre-test, the study aimed to reveal the effect of special exercises that were objectively developed to reveal the level of benefit and speed up learning and maintaining the three skills, bearing in mind that the research sample was within a single starting line in terms of the results of the Shapiro-wilk test to show the normal distribution of sample individuals, where the skill level test for all members of the research sample was subjected to examining the differences and using the (T. test) to find out the most important factors that could be an intrusive factor influencing the results of the research(Cagnie et al., 2011).

(26) special exercises were developed, varied and distributed in a training manner (from easy to difficult) and (from light to high intensity) and were distributed in the form of three units per week for a month and a half, so that the total units were (18) educational units(Cagnie et al., 2011).

The study relied on making use of modern devices and tools to support the measurement process in the tests (MRI magnetic resonance, fast cameras, radar to measure speed, muscular moment measurement devices) in addition to training tools (an auxiliary device for teaching crush hitting, an auxiliary device to control the serving movement, multiple training tools ). After the lapse of time period for applying the exercises(Journal et al., 2020), which were included in the main part of the educational unit, taking into account that they did not overlap negatively in the time of the basic educational unit to avoid the case of bias for the experimental group, then the post-test was conducted under the same conditions and requirements as the pre-test (Table 1).

Table 1: Shows some anthropometric measurements of the research sample.

  Arithmetic mean Standard deviation +           Range
Body length cm 174,25 8,25 20
Trunk length cm 49,25 7,37 16
Arm length cm 57,88 2,53 6
Upper arm length cm 33,25 2,87 6
Forearm length cm 25,3 3,2 7

Magnetic resonance examination MRI

Before the examination, the sample was followed up for 24 hours to avoid extraneous conditions, the room temperature was checked(Cagnie et al., 2011), and all appropriate laboratory conditions were followed. A (coil) was used, recommended by the company, measuring 14 cm to measure the shoulder area, and another measuring 15 cm to measure The upper arm and forearm area1.

Florian M. Buck;Degeneration of the Long Biceps Tendon: Comparison of MRI With Gross Anatomy and Histology, American Journal of Roentgenology. 2009;193: 1367-1375. 10.2214/AJR.09.2738

Results

The study came out with the results of laboratory measurements of muscles and field for biomechanical variables and the learning outcome of some basic skills in volleyball, as shown in the following tables1 (Tables 2-6):

Table 2: Shows the parametric measurements of the muscles taken from the MRI device and the level of distributing the two groups homogeneously using the (Shapiro-wilk) law.


Measurements
Group A Group B Muscles
Arithmetic mean Standard deviation (Shapiro-wilk) sig Arithmetic mean Standard deviation (Shapiro-wilk) sig
Muscle length 7,65 0,64 0,46 7,14 0,62 0,133 biceps brachii
Muscle volume 13,66 0,71 0,324 12,24 0,67 0,362
Tendon length 1,87 0,045 0,324 1,67 0,064 0,122
Pinnate angle 18,12 0,102 0,265 18,56 0,112 0,437
Muscle length 8,24 0,62 0,133 8,11 0,64 0,511 triceps brachii
Muscle volume 11,22 0,67 0,362 11,12 0,71 0,46
Tendon length 1,54 0,064 0,122 1,47 0,045 0,324
Pennation  angle 23,17 0,112 0,437 23,54 0,102 0,324
Muscle length 5,12 0,54 0,511 5,07 0,42 0,265 Middle deltoid shoulder muscle
Muscle volume 9,43 0,61 0,196 9,22 0,43 0,437
Tendon length 0,65 0,055 0,152 0,61 0,054 0,511
Pennation  angle 34,17 0,11 0,521 34,12 0,103 0,46

Table 3: Shows the results of the pre and post tests for learning basic skills according to standardized tests for them1.


Skills
Group A Group B
Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test
Arithmetic mean Standard deviation Arithmetic mean Standard deviation Arithmetic mean Standard deviation Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
Diagonal crush hitting 12,5 3,4 17,3 2,4 12,4 3,1 15,3 2,6
Serving 14,4 3,6 18,1 2,1 13,8 2,8 16,8 2,1
Setting 10,7 2,8 13,6 1,8 9,7 3,6 12,4 1,7

Joyce M. Harrison;Effects of Two Instructional Models—Skill Teaching and Mastery Learning—On Skill Development, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Game Play in Volleyball, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education. 2009;193: 1367- 1375.

Through table 4 it becomes clear to us that there are significant differences

Table 4: Shows the differences between the two groups A and B in the measurements of muscle structures.


Structures
Differences between the two groups A&B Muscles
valueT Sig.
Muscle length 3.15 0.032 biceps brachii
Muscle volume 2.45 0.0112
Tendon length 2.31 0.023
Pennation  angle 3.76 0.0142
Muscle length 4.21 0.037 triceps brachii
Muscle volume 2.65 0.041
Tendon length 2.16 0.039
Pennation  angle 3.71 0.034
Muscle length 2.48 0.012 Middle deltoid shoulder muscle
Muscle volume 4.61 0.018
Tendon length 3.12 0.021
Pennation  angle 2.73 0.041
between the two groups A and B in the parametric measurements of muscle structures(Ahmed, 2020), on which the researchers relied in dividing the sample members. From table 5, it becomes clear to us the statistical results of the differences between the pre- and post-tests in learning the skills under

Table 5: shows the differences between the pre and post tests for the two groups A and  B in learning the skills under consideration.


Skills
Pre-post-test group A Pre-post-test group B
valueT Sig. valueT Sig.
Crush hitting 2.31 0.002 4.61 0.018
Serving 3.56 0.001 3.72 0.021
Setting 4.21 0.003 2.88 0.011
study, which came with the significance of differences and in favor of the posttest. Here we note that this result came objectively, especially since the learning process continues in its general form, and there is a clear acquisition in the physical and motor aspects of mastery of skills(Exercise & Journal, 2021). Here, it becomes clear to us that the educational program continues in its entirety for all members of the research sample and in its entire items(Ahmed, 2020), which gives us a great and accurate opportunity to delve into the next step related to examining the differences between the two groups(García-Ramos et al., 2018). From table 6, it becomes clear to us that the differences between the two post

Table 6: Shows the differences between the two post-post-tests for the two groups A and B in learning the skills under consideration.


Skills
Post-post-test of the two groupsA&B
Arithmetic meanof differences Standard deviation of differences valueT Sig.
Crush hitting 15.00 0.801 4.61 0.008
Serving 7.32 0.143 3.72 0.001
Setting 6.82 0.435 2.88 0.011
tests for the two groups A and B were significant and in favor of the first group, where higher degrees were achieved in the acquisition of the learning skill of the motor skills under study(Cagnie et al., 2011). The researchers find here that the difference in the parametric measurements was clearly reflected in the extent of learning these skills, including the amount of torques generated around the elbow joint specifically, because the biceps and triceps brachii muscles work around this joint(Exercise & Journal, 2021). In addition, the shoulder deltoid muscle generated different amounts of mechanical outputs, depending on the proven difference in its measurements(Exercise & Journal, 2021), also the two indicators of strength generation within the muscle, represented by the pennation angle of the muscle and its volume, have become an important and distinctive factor among individuals to acquire motor abilities based on the basis of difference in physical abilities and features(Vigotsky et al., 2019).

Conclusions

• The entire educational process gives the individual new motor characteristics based on the special physical abilities of each one of them.

• Outputs of greater muscle moments generated around specialized joints provide a greater opportunity to acquire a special ability that facilitates the learning process.

• The output of the internal strength of the muscle depends on special determinants added to the nervous processing.

• These measurements can be adopted within the principle of prediction or sport selection for the most appropriate activity.

References

Ahmed, M. (2020). Special exercises using the strength training balanced rate according to some kinematic variables and their impact in the muscular balance and pull young weightlifters. 24(01), 7612–7617.

Ammar, A., Riemann, B. L., Masmoudi, L., Blaumann, M., Abdelkarim, O., & Hökelmann, A. (2018). Kinetic and kinematic patterns during high intensity clean movement: searching for optimal load. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(12), 1319–1330. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1376521

Cagnie, B., Elliott, J., O’Leary, S., D’Hooge, R., Dickx, N., & Danneels, L. (2011). Muscle functional MRI as an imaging tool to evaluate muscle activity. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 41(11), 896–903. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2011.3586

Exercise, A., & Journal, S. S. (2021). Rationing Training Load according to the Nature of the Prevailing Muscular Work and its Effect on the Functional adaptation, Specific Strength and Snatch Achievement for Weightlifters at (14-16 year-old). 5(1), 1–17.

Fleisig, G. (2010). XXVIII International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports July 2010. Biomechanics, July.

García-Ramos, A., Torrejón, A., Feriche, B., Morales-Artacho, A. J., Pérez-Castilla, A., Padial, P., & Haff, G. G. (2018). Prediction of the Maximum Number of Repetitions and Repetitions in Reserve From Barbell Velocity. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(3), 353–359. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0302

Ismaeel, S. (n.d.). Differences in biomechanics and EMG variables at jump vs land phase during spike in volleyball.

Journal, I., Rehabilitation, P., Ismaeel, S. A., Fenjan, F. H., & Qadori, R. H. (2020). Biomechanical analysis of some variables and EMG of the muscles during the performance of the snatch lift in weightlifting. 24(05), 8234–8240.

Peter M McGinnis. (2013). Check & Out & the & Web & Resource !&. www.HumanKinetics.com/BiomechanicsOfSportAndExercise!and!follow!the!

Takei, S., Hirayama, K., & Okada, J. (2020). Is the optimal load for maximal power output during hang power cleans submaximal? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 15(1), 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0894

Vigotsky, A. D., Zelik, K. E., Lake, J., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2019). Mechanical misconceptions: Have we lost the “mechanics” in “sports biomechanics”? In Journal of Biomechanics (Vol. 93). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.07.005

Ahmed, M. (2020). Special exercises using the strength training balanced rate according to some kinematic variables and their impact in the muscular balance and pull young weightlifters. 24(01), 7612–7617.

Ammar, A., Riemann, B. L., Masmoudi, L., Blaumann, M., Abdelkarim, O., & Hökelmann, A. (2018). Kinetic and kinematic patterns during high intensity clean movement: searching for optimal load. Journal of Sports Sciences, 36(12), 1319–1330. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2017.1376521

Cagnie, B., Elliott, J., O’Leary, S., D’Hooge, R., Dickx, N., & Danneels, L. (2011). Muscle functional MRI as an imaging tool to evaluate muscle activity. Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 41(11), 896–903. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2011.3586

Exercise, A., & Journal, S. S. (2021). Rationing Training Load according to the Nature of the Prevailing Muscular Work and its Effect on the Functional adaptation, Specific Strength and Snatch Achievement for Weightlifters at (14-16 year-old). 5(1), 1–17.

Fleisig, G. (2010). XXVIII International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sports July 2010. Biomechanics, July.

García-Ramos, A., Torrejón, A., Feriche, B., Morales-Artacho, A. J., Pérez-Castilla, A., Padial, P., & Haff, G. G. (2018). Prediction of the Maximum Number of Repetitions and Repetitions in Reserve From Barbell Velocity. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 13(3), 353–359. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0302

Ismaeel, S. (n.d.). Differences in biomechanics and EMG variables at jump vs land phase during spike in volleyball.

Journal, I., Rehabilitation, P., Ismaeel, S. A., Fenjan, F. H., & Qadori, R. H. (2020). Biomechanical analysis of some variables and EMG of the muscles during the performance of the snatch lift in weightlifting. 24(05), 8234–8240.

Peter M McGinnis. (2013). Check & Out & the & Web & Resource !&. www.HumanKinetics.com/BiomechanicsOfSportAndExercise!and!follow!the!

Takei, S., Hirayama, K., & Okada, J. (2020). Is the optimal load for maximal power output during hang power cleans submaximal? International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 15(1), 18–24. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0894

Vigotsky, A. D., Zelik, K. E., Lake, J., & Hinrichs, R. N. (2019). Mechanical misconceptions: Have we lost the “mechanics” in “sports biomechanics”? In Journal of Biomechanics (Vol. 93). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2019.07.005

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