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Establishing standards to evaluate the performance of sports education teachers by consideration of quality requirements in education

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2021) Volume 16, Issue 3

Establishing standards to evaluate the performance of sports education teachers by consideration of quality requirements in education

Amer Ali Hussein Omran1*, Mohammed Jawad Ahmed Al-Saegh2 and Mudhher Abdulbaqi Salim3
*Correspondence: Amer Ali Hussein Omran, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Karbala, Iraq, Email:
1College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Karbala, Iraq
2Ministry of Education, Ministry of Education, Iraq
3University of Babylon, University of Babylon, Iraq

Abstract

The study aims to propose standards that can be relied upon to assess the physical education teacher's performance in the light of the requirements for quality in education, and the most important indicators that can bring of these measures. The researchers used a descriptive and analytical approach, the appropriateness of the nature of research. This was through a literature review of the quality of teaching in physical education .As well as the importance of setting standards in the assessment and performance tuning, and then use a researchers approach "Delphi". In order to determine a list of criteria that can be relied upon to assess physical education teachers performance considering of the quality and accreditation requirements in education . As well as 58 of the administrators and supervisors of educational supervision and competence in physical education in the provinces of central and southern Iraq. The researchers used the appropriate statistical ways to make a statistical analysis of the tours (Delphi) three that led to reach a list of criteria that can be relied upon to assess the performance of the physical education teachers in consideration of the quality of education and the requirements of the most important indicators that can bring.

Keywords

performance, sports, education, teachers, quality.

Introduction

Education at the world level faces multiple and accelerating challenges as a result of dramatic changes in knowledge, information, technology, and communication systems, as well as the growing role of systems based on culture and the free economy, making the elements of competition, quality, and excellence the most important strengths of the world. These challenges require a comprehensive review of the education system in most developed and developing countries of the world as one of the determinants of a nation's productivity, as the driver of progress, community development, and the centerpiece of society's national security. This has led to the creation of modern entry points and mechanisms for the development and modernization of education. All States have sought to identify the inputs and outputs of the educational process to raise their development benefits and enable society to achieve higher rates of development, progress, and competitiveness. Thus, it has become a matter of agreement among all those interested in education, with different intellectual orientation, that there is a strong correlation between the quality of performance in any educational system and the quality of performance of teachers working in it, we can say that: No educational system can rise above the school level, because the teacher is at the center of the educational goals of the education system. It is the responsibility of the educational system to transform the innovative ideas and visions of the system and its authors into learning products in the form of knowledge.

The study problem and its importance: Sports education contributes to the development and advancement of the culture of nations and, as a color of education, helps to promote educational goals. It is a link in a series of important factors that help to achieve the ideals of the State and contribute to the mission of the society. Despite this importance in the development of the individual and society, the education teacher, in view of teachers of sports subjects, does not receive sufficient attention to compare it to other academic studies, as the role he plays differs; the duties of teaching physical education differ completely and partly from the data of the subjects taught inside the closed rooms. Thus, the performance competence of a teacher of sports education differs from that of teachers of other subjects because of different data. It is surrounded by internal and external influences that put it at risk of unfair evaluation and comparison because sports education in schools is limited to sports games and does not extend to academic activity and community need for personality development and citizenship. This has led to poor performance and randomness, especially in the absence of standards governing these conditions, and the absence of clear standards of what a learner should be after studying the subject, despite the urgent need to set standards like other subjects. This continued until the American National Sports and Sports Education Authority set these standards in 2002. In our regional context, the concept of sports education standards is limited to the fact that they are among the criteria for the evaluation of school performance in the field of school activities in general. The establishment of Quality Education Assurance and Accreditation Councils has partially addressed this point by setting standards for what must be the graduates of physical education and sports sciences. Therefore, researchers felt that criteria should be built to assess the performance of sports education teachers in the light of quality requirements in education.

Study questions: What criteria can be relied upon to evaluate the performance of sports education teachers in the light of quality requirements in education, and what are the most important indicators they can achieve?

1-4 study objectives: Propose criteria that can be relied upon to evaluate the performance of teachers of sports education in the light of quality requirements in education - propose a set of indicators that could achieve each of these criteria.

Study terminology:

Quality: is to do things the right way from the first time in time. Every time this thing works, it is an ongoing and sophisticated effort to achieve continuous improvement (CHEA, 2001).

Standards: Phrases referring to the minimum competencies required to be achieved for a specific purpose and are considered the least competencies that must be available to an individual or institution to join the higher level and to perform its function in society (Zayan, 2007) (The National Authority for Education Quality Assurance and Accreditation, 2008).

Indicators: Are expressions describing the achievement (performance) expected of an individual (teacher, learner, or educational institution) (The National Authority for Education Quality Assurance and Accreditation, 2008) (Zayan, 2007).

Delphi Technique: A survey tool for discussions between experts and presented through numerous rounds of questionnaires to a select group of experts to reach a degree of general agreement among experts regarding identifying certain trends, their likelihood, occurrence, and expected impact. It is a method of building contact between a group of specialized individuals or experts to solve a problem. Complex discussion or an interlocking topic in a group setting without a group meeting with the participants (Feliah, 2003)

Literature review

The beginnings indicate that overall quality began in Japan after the Second World War due to many American pioneers: Shohart, Deming, Juran, Krupsey, and others who contributed to laying the basic pillars of the principles of total quality, which is based on the philosophy of customer satisfaction as the primary goal of institutions. The concept of total quality was transferred to the field of education in the United States of America at the hands of (Malcolm Baldraj) and his philosophy is based on (the satisfaction of students and beneficiaries of the educational service, the results of educational performance, the development of human resources within the educational institution, strategic planning in education, development of educational leaders and building an advanced information network). The application of quality in education became a reality when Ronald Brown announced in 1993 that the Malcolm Baldrige Prize had extended to include the education sector as well as American companies (Zayan, 2007). From the above, it is clear how overall quality has shifted from industry to education, becoming a basic requirement in every educational work, at all levels of education, up to e-learning and distance education, where quality with all its standards and requirements has become a criterion for success and a standard to adopt this kind of education.

Importance of implementing total quality in educational institutions:

The creation of positive changes for all components of the school institution to include values, beliefs, regulations, patterns of thought and behavior, and the relationship between the leader and subordinates and between the school, the student, the family, society, curricula, work procedures, performance and activities, the technology used and the systems are essential for evaluation and continuous improvement at the level of the educational institution through a specialized device at a high level of scientific and practical competence (Al- Sayed, 2005) and revealing the level of adequacy and competence of the staff and identifying the extent of their professional progress in performing the tasks assigned to them (Hassanein, 2004) (The National Authority for Education Quality Assurance and Accreditation, 2008). Accordingly, the comprehensive quality provides the educational institution with a clear vision and message of the nature of its role, as well as delineates specific goals that it seeks to achieve. Besides, it defines expected levels of performance, directs the efforts of the workers, and provides an objective reference to which it can refer in the self-evaluation of prevailing practices, which helps it to accurately identify performance gaps and strengths in planning its programs and its efforts, and to achieve optimal investment of its resources to help improve its outputs and outcomes, motivate workers towards the continuous pursuit of personal professional development, push them towards creativity in the performance of their roles and the permanent development of their practices, and establish the values of transparency and competition as objective and effective foundations to stimulate performance and accountability in the work to achieve administrative discipline in educational work, and finally helps in the correct prediction of educational problems before their occurrence, and then making the right decision at the right time to manage and confront them.

Approaches to measuring quality in education:

There are six entry points to measure the quality:

1. The entrance of quality measurement in terms of inputs, which arise on the basis that the institution’s effectiveness is achieved through optimal investment of the material and human capabilities available to it for the success of its work.

2. The entrance of quality measurement in terms of outputs, which focuses on the school's outcomes and the success it achieves for its students.

3. Measuring quality in terms of processes, which arises on the basis that effectiveness is achieved for the school through the practices and decisions taken in it, to invest the available capabilities and resources (inputs) to reach the expected outcomes (outputs).

4. Measuring quality according to expert opinions (reputation entrance).

5. Quality measurement in terms of objective characteristics.

6. Comprehensive quality that rises on the basis that the quality of the inputs and the quality of the processes are necessary conditions for the quality (Ibrahim, 2003) (Al-Kandari, 2001) of the outputs. The measurement of service quality does not depend on measuring educational outcomes only but extends to the quality of the elements of educational service delivery, which was divided by the American National Authority for Quality Assurance and Accreditation into six main axes. It also defined quality standards for each of them, which are expressions describing the achievement (performance) expected of the individual (Teacher, learner, or institution) and its wording is more specific and more procedural (Zayan, 2007) (The National Authority for Education Quality Assurance and Accreditation, 2008).

School administration - curriculum - academic content - teaching methods and assessment - educational facilities and the educational climate - teachers), the researcher specializes in mentioning aspects of teacher quality as it is the focus of the study and it included the following criteria: Academic level and knowledge background - Realizing students' needs - Regularity in the educational process - Professional Responsibility - Commitment to the curriculum - Acceptance of feedback - Work on the development of competitive intellectual skills - Development of patriotism and moral determination-The goal of the teaching method used - the development of the analytical direction and insight - the degree of personal interaction and the teacher's awareness of his role and the scientific and moral capacity.

1. Characteristics and qualities to be found in a sports teacher

The teacher of sports education agrees with the teacher in all the characteristics, as well as some of the special characteristics imposed by the nature of the subject he or she teaches, including the skill of performing various sports activities as well as the physical characteristics, where the physical education teacher must be free from defects, deformity voice strength, fluency, and speaking abilities. Besides, maintain public health, physical fitness, and the health of his senses, given the nature of his specialty, the participation required, and being a model, ideal, and role model in the health field, including linking health and fitness and sports activity in the hearts of his students (Mansour, 2002) (Al-Mutawa, 2006) (Abdullah, 2007).

Duties of the teacher of sports education

The sports education teacher plays an important role in the school, not only in teaching sports education classes but also goes to more than that. Therefore, it was my duty to clarify the most important duties of the school’s sports teacher, which are as follows:

1. Establishing systems and work rules and supervising the school system (school queue - school police - school autonomy system - pupils entering and leaving school).

2. Preparing the register of educational units, and includes:

- An executive timetable for the educational units for the academic year.

- Requirements for the implementation of educational units.

- The components of educational experiences for each educational unit according to the predetermined sequence of time: (the name of the skill, the program which contains the mobility - the implementation period "number of lessons" - the objectives of the motor skill - location and organization - tools and devices required - proposed methods of education - what to observe during the performance of motor skill - actions to implement motor skill - progress of motor skill to reach the stage of the mechanism - utilization of educational attitudes - additional activities that promote learning of a motor skill, rectification of motor skill - tasks of the household).

3. Implementing the lessons of the educational units assigned to each class according to what is planned in the timetable.

4. Preparing an executive timetable for internal activity compatible with the program of educational units allocated to each academic class for the academic year that is complementary to it and takes into account (the diversity and multiplicity of physical, sports, and cultural activities - the needs, desires, and tendencies of students - individual differences among students - providing participation opportunities for all students).

5. Supervising and training the school's sports teams in various activities.

6. Exchanging visits with neighboring schools and making regular sports meetings with them.

7. Preparing arrangements for the implementation of sports days and camp management.

8. Use of appropriate measurement tools for each activity carried out during physical education programs "Lessons of educational units, internal activity, and external activity."

9. Establishing safety and security instructions for the use of stadiums and sports equipment.

10. Providing safety and security during the class by teaching learners the support of colleagues and do the necessary first aid.

11. Preparing playgrounds and investing in available spaces for the implementation of physical education programs.

12. Design, train and supervise sports shows at the school level.

13. Preparing records for the Physical Education Office.

14. Providing and creating cheap (alternative) tools.

15. Cooperation with fellow teachers of other subjects and the administrative body of the school.

16. Contribution to the implementation of supervisory methods with the competent educational supervisor, and effective participation in the Parents' Council.

17. Contribute to spreading awareness of the importance of practicing physical activity for physical and psychological health by extending bridges of cooperation with community institutions to achieve the principle of partnership.

18. Participation in official societies concerned with physical education programs as much as possible.

19. Identifying the difficulties and obstacles facing the educational process and seeking to solve them with the relevant authorities (Omar, 2008) (Azmi, 2004) (Zaghloul, 2001) (Mansour, 2002) (Saad, 2004)

Importance of standard-setting for teacher performance:

The world's standards movement has established that standards mean a social contract not only between teachers and educational authorities, but also between parents and students on the one hand, and educational authorities and teachers on the other, about educational requirements and the confirmation of socially agreed expectations. In this regard, the criteria are of particular importance and are defined as follows;

- Setting expected, desired, and agreed on standard levels of educational performance in all its aspects.

- Provide a common language and a common goal to follow up and record teachers ’achievement.

- Demonstrating the ability of teachers to achieve multiple pre-defined outcomes.

- Enabling the teaching staff to determine the current levels of achievement of their students and to plan for their future education.

- Demonstrating the ability of teachers to make a comparison of the levels of learners. Emphasize the positive aspects of their achievements.

- Supporting teachers' positivity towards improved learning methods.

- Providing teachers with renewed knowledge and thinking about how to think and teach their students.

- Students and teachers receive feedback, planning opportunities, and recognition.

- As indicators of their progress, this will help students to develop fully, as well as teachers, to continue their professional development.

- Provision of a stable reporting framework.

- Directing teachers' professional development programs while in service towards desirable goals that derive from agreed professional practice standards.

- Providing equal and sustainable professional development opportunities for all teachers, expanding their fields, and diversifying their sources, paths, and methods.

- Objective evaluation of the teacher's performance by comparing his actual performance with the performance expected.

- Pushing the teacher to reflect on his practices and self-judgment ... and then develop these practices first-hand towards the specific performance levels included in those standards (Toaima, 2008).

- The urgent need to establish precise and standardized criteria for evaluating the performance of a distinguished teacher.

- The educational field needs a creative teacher in light of the prevailing global trends.

- The need to agree on the criteria for evaluating the creative teacher for those with specialization.

- The need for formal evaluation procedures reduces the risk of neglect of individuals eligible for training or promotion.

- Developing a spirit of positive collaboration among teachers to carry out performance evaluations.

- Correct common errors in the evaluation process. (Hassan, 2001).

Similar studies:

Study of Bushra bint Khalaf Al-Enezi; (Al-Enezi, 2007)

Developing teacher competencies in light of quality standards in public education: The purpose of the letter is to identify the concept of quality in the field of general education, as well as the different aspects of the role of the teacher in the light of the standards of quality, the development of new skills for the teacher, the vision to give the teacher the necessary skills in the light of quality standards in general education. The study used the philosophical analysis curriculum. The most important result was the development of a vision to empower a teacher in the light of quality standards. The researcher recommended that criteria should be established to measure career performance.

The study of Hazem Zaki Issa and Rafik Abdul Rahman Mohsen (Eisa, 2010)

A proposal to develop the teaching performance of science teachers according to quality standards in the basic phase of Gaza governorates: The purpose of the letter is to identify a list of criteria for the development of the teaching performance of science teachers at the basic level, to identify criteria for science teachers at the basic level from the point of view of science teachers, and to determine the availability of these criteria among a group of science teachers at the basic level and improving teacher performance in light of these criteria. He used the descriptive curriculum, the most important results of reaching the list of quality standards needed to develop the teaching performance of science teachers at the basic level and to identify procedural features were several steps and procedural tasks for the proposed vision were set by the researcher that can be followed by the Ministry of Education and the directorates of education. (Dominique, 2006)

Dominiqu Banville study

The impact of integration between the US National Authority for Physical Education and Sports / US National Council (NASPE / NCATE) standards on teacher performance evaluation. It aims to understand the importance that teachers gave to different standards during the semester. Adjustments have been made to the format of the reports so that the standards are better integrated. The work aims to study the effect of standards integration on teacher performance evaluation reports. The study used comparative analysis and the study showed that the fourth criteria (management and motivation) and the sixth (planning and instructions) of the NASPE standards for the junior and assistant teacher, were unimportant to the rest of the criteria, which means they need for greater clarification of these standards and the creation of better communication channels to place them in the importance imposed by teachers.

Research Methodology

The researchers used the descriptive and analytical method, due to its relevance to the nature of the study. This was done by analyzing the literature on the subject to identify international standards for sports education teachers and on the expected role, responsibilities, duties, and characteristics that should be available in a sports education teacher, as well as the importance of setting standards in evaluating and controlling his performance. Then I used the method of "Delphi" in its three rounds, which depends on the questionnaire in taking expert opinion. This is to determine the list of standards that can be relied upon in evaluating the performance of sports education teachers in light of the requirements of quality in education and the most important indicators that can be achieved.

Data collection tools: The researchers used the "Delphi" method, which is based on the questionnaire, in taking expert opinion, in three rounds:

First round form: The researchers gave an introduction to the purpose of the study and then two open questions about the proposed criteria for the teacher of sports education and, the most important indicators that achieve those standards and their management to the experts who were selected and left to them their statements and expressions of their opinions.

Second round form according to the views of the first round sample and in the light of the analysis of literature on the subject of research

The third round form, which focused on the criteria and indicators agreed upon in the second round, until an agreement was reached among experts on the proposed criteria for evaluating the performance of teachers of sports education in the light of quality requirements in education.

To study the possibility of implementing the performance evaluation criteria that have been reached, a form was designed containing the two main axes of the questionnaire (standards and indicators) and the proposed expressions for each of them based on the opinions of experts and the analysis of the statistical results and the third round of educational results.

The first round was implemented by distributing it to 50 experts in eight colleges of physical education and sports sciences in the central and southern governorates of Iraq.

- The results of the first round of the (Delphi) questionnaire, the secondround questionnaire were constructed according to the opinions of the first round sample in light of the analysis of the study literature. Researchers have begun to apply them.

The results of the second round of the Delphi questionnaire, the form of the third round were constructed and the researchers began to implement the round. It was distributed to a sample of 47 experts on physical education and sports sciences within the governorates of Central and Southern Iraq. The limited response of the sample members of the experts in the first round is noted, which called on the researchers to enter an additional number of experts in the second round to enrich the study, where it is noticed that the sample individuals increased in the second round to 38 experts, to compensate for the decrease in the number of experts who did not cooperate with the researchers in the first round of the study. Note that many experts participated in more than one round or in the three rounds.

The researchers prepared the last form, which includes the criteria and indicators that the experts agreed upon in its final form after the third round, and distributed it to fifty-eight supervisors of physical education in six directorates of education, to determine the possibility of applying these indicators to sports education. It is noted that the response of the expert sample (directed) to the indicators that meet the proposed criteria.

Statistical methods: The statistical analysis programs SPSS and excel were used to carry out the statistical analysis of Delphi and for the applicability questionnaire, through which the following was calculated: Frequency of responses for each statement and its percentage.

Conclusion

1. Reaching out a list of criteria that can be relied upon in evaluating the performance of a physical education teacher in light of the requirements for quality and accreditation in education and the most important indicators that can be achieved.

2. The use of the Delphi method in its three rounds has led to a more comprehensive and clears formulation of the criteria and has made the indicators clearer, more flexible, objective, procedural and measurable.

3. In its final form, the standards and indicators dealt with all aspects procedurally related to sports education teachers and also reflected the community’s needs and aspirations, especially with the participation of all those responsible for the educational system and its organizational aspects (experts) in addition to those responsible for the applied process in educational institutions (supervisors).

4. The sports education supervisors agreed on the applicability of all criteria and the ability of the sports education teacher to apply them to improve their motivation, program, objectives, and application. They also had many views on the proposed criteria indicators and some suggested possible mechanisms for a teacher of sports education to support the application of spatial standards and track their indicators.

5. Agreement on the opinions of both experts and mentors on the importance of having standards for a sports education teacher and indicators that contribute to the evaluation of the teacher's performance during service, whether by others or personally.

Recommendations

The proposed criteria should be applied to teachers of sports education, given the important role they play in the development of the important role of society physically and psychologically. Through:

1. To prepare the ground for a community of teachers in sports with a culture of professional standards and performance indicators.

2. Providing the necessary facilities to implement the curriculum activities.

3. The development of a sports education curriculum that helps and contributes to the tracking of educational activity, taking into account that it is a subject, not just a study activity.

4. The need to pay attention to the sports education curriculum and give it sufficient time to implement it, as the sports education class became once a week (a period). The researchers suggest returning to the previous system of sports education classes (two classes per week).

5. Preparing and training well for those in charge of using the proposed standards as a tool for evaluating the performance of sports education teachers and developing appropriate mechanisms to ensure the impartiality of teacher evaluation processes.

6. Periodic review of the proposed standards and their relationship to improving the performance of the physical education teacher to develop them continuously.

7. Continuous training of supervisors and teachers based on their training needs and attention to effective communication skills, while not neglecting the role of the Faculties of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in developing appropriate mechanisms for these exercises in agreement with the sectors of physical education directing.

8. Linking the physical motivation to the ideal performance of the teacher.

9. Activating the role of community participation to overcome the problem of the lack of suitable places for practicing sports activities through the exploitation of youth centers and clubs adjacent to educational institutions.

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