Ethical Leadership and Its Characteristics in Iraqi Health Institutions

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 1

Ethical Leadership and Its Characteristics in Iraqi Health Institutions

Hussein Alerahime*, Hasan Zarei Mateen, Abdullah Tavakoli and Ali Taghi Amiry
*Correspondence: Hussein Alerahime, Department of International Management, Organizational Behavior, University of Tehran, Iran, Email:
1Department of International Management, Organizational Behavior, University of Tehran, Iran
2Head of the Faculty of Management and Accounting, University of Tehran, Farabi, Iran
3Associate Professor, Department of Management, Seminary and University Research Center, Iran
Departments of Management and Accounting, Farabi University of Tehran, Iran

Received: 09-Jan-2023 Accepted: 13-Feb-2023 Published: 20-Feb-2023


This study aims to identify the understanding of the ethical leadership model and its characteristics in the Iraqi health institutions, its manifestation and its role in enhancing the quality of Iraqi health services through the application of the qualitative approach to scientific research or what is known as the “Grantory” theory, (G.T), as the analytical explanatory approach was used, which is considered one of Sections of the theory rooted in scientific research to correspond with the interviews conducted with a number of employees and managers from the advanced cadre in the Iraqi Ministry of Health, which amounted to (fifteen interviewees), in order to reach an understanding of the ethical leadership model and its characteristics in those institutions and determine the understanding of the problem and access to the required data Through the research sample, which was chosen in an unorganized manner closer to random from a selection of department managers and advanced staff of the Iraqi Ministry of Health and its affiliated institutions, the interview data were also analyzed separately and given symbols and codes that express those concepts that are related to the concept of ethical leadership in that ministry And then finding the common dimensions among those components, as it reached two main dimensions, the first dimension expresses the personal factors of moral leadership As for the second dimension, it is directly related to the factors that stop ethical leadership within Iraqi health institutions.
Among what has been reached is a set of characteristics and components, represented by five main components and characteristics, which are integrity, transparency and responsibility for ethical leadership, values and customs, regulations and laws, and the public interest, which is directly related to and linked to the concept of ethical leadership of the health institutions of the Iraqi Ministry of Health and its affiliated institutions, as shown The results in these institutions are the existence of weakness and a decline in applying the process of understanding ethical leadership and the methods of following it in those institutions affiliated with the Iraqi Ministry of Health, which resulted in many problems that are related to the process of administrative corruption and the moral, behavioral, as well as cultural deviation of many workers in that ministry, so it requires serious pause Among those concerned and responsible for that important and sensitive file is to address these deviations and remove deviant behaviors from that ministry because of its direct importance on the lives of individuals from the sons of Iraqi society and the consolidation of correct moral values upon which the concepts of moral leadership of successful institutions are built in the process of providing various services to Iraqi society.


Leadership. Ethical leadership. Leadership characteristics. Ethical behavior. Health institutions.


The challenges and changes that face organizations in general and health institutions in particular are increasing, which is reflected negatively or positively on ethical behaviors, human cases and behaviors that follow as a result of that change in Iraqi health institutions. Today, health institutions are witnessing many changes at all levels, the most prominent of which are Changing the ethical behavior of leadership and employees.

As Al-Kabeer [1], ethical leadership is common features that occur between the individual leader according to a specific situation and to achieve certain goals towards specific behavior, taking into account the legal and ethical dimensions and the public interests of the organizations in which they operate, and Kinich & Kreitner [2] also adds that ethical leadership is a study Choices, ethical issues and defining right and wrong, good and bad. Therefore, ethical leadership in health institutions is characterized by weakness and ambiguity, the role resulting from behavioral, personal and value conflicts that lie behind that ambiguity. This makes the lack of harmony and interdependence between ethics and leadership within those institutions, which caused a lack of the concept of ethical leadership within health institutions, according to the results that have been reached. Therefore, ethical leadership in health institutions must address these challenges efficiently and effectively in order to achieve the organizational goals of health institutions. Through a successful leadership counter that takes it upon itself to face these changes and challenges and finds an innovative and good solution that is in line with the size of the problems that threaten health institutions, the behavior followed in them, and the process of decisions taken according to a specific situation, and this lies in continuous training and learning the honest moral values that moral leadership urges The relationship to those organizations, so the ethical leadership must take into account the main dimensions in its composition, which lie in integrity. For leadership, transparency and responsibility towards others, we end up observing the normative values of Iraqi society and putting public interests above private interests for success and showing good characteristics of ethical leadership.

Ethical leadership in health institutions expresses its importance,demonstrates its role, and the growth of health organizations by following good behaviour. All members of the ministry’s staff without any difference, and stressing the importance of caring for and developing subordinates within those institutions, as ethical leadership includes working with three integrated parties represented by the leader, subordinates, and the environment to create ethical integration for those institutions and build an ethical culture in them, and by looking at previous studies that are related to the subject of leadership Ethical as a study Al-Utbi [3], Proen [4] and Yasi [5] if confirmed. It is necessary to conduct studies on understanding the ethical leadership model and its characteristics within Iraqi health institutions in order to create a safe ethical behavioral environment, and the practice of these behaviors is the key to success. Organizations, in addition to inculcating the spirit of cooperation, love, responsibility and poise among the employees and leadership of those organizations, then the problem of the study can be summarized as follows:

Answer the following questions

• What is the extent of understanding ethical leadership among workers in health institutions?

• What is the level of practice of dimensions of ethical leadership in health organizations?

• What are the features and characteristics that define the concept of ethical leadership model in health institutions?

The First Topic: The Nature of Ethical Leadership

The concept of ethical leadership is one of the modern concepts in the field of administrative work, because this concept is one of the concepts that specializes in the ethical behavior of the leader or manager of the institution, and according to this beginning, we found that there is a multiplicity of opinions and concepts of researchers and specialists in administrative affairs about the concept of ethical leadership, and among these concepts the following. Ethical leadership: It is a concept through which people and workers try to distribute individual responsibility and organizational and societal work entrusted to them in a regular ethical manner McGregor [6].

Thus, he came to the conclusion that the issue of ethical leadership is recent because it is of great importance to organizations and societies in particular and society in general Baumgartner [7], just as ethical leadership and the exercise of social authority over workers, which is represented by economic and political power, are in essence ethical endeavors aimed at consolidating Ethical values between individuals and workers within institutions and at all levels Thompson, Hoopes [8].

In turn Brown et al. [9] indicated that ethical leadership means showing good behaviors towards certain situations for employees by defining personal actions that fit that situation, relationships between co-workers, and promoting and encouraging good behaviors of others by enhancing communication and support. And ensuring that various administrative decisions are taken, that is, in other words, that ethical leadership is linked to a strong relationship with the willingness of workers to address the various problems that occur within the organization, and Brown et al. [10] believes that the concept of ethical leadership involves achieving communication and trust between the leader and followers through Exchanging ideas and discussing various opinions in order to reach a high-level ethical idea that enables managers to address problems that occur in the organization in particular, and to achieve the goals of the organization in general.

Ethical leadership can be defined by the researcher as behaviors that express the behavior of that leader, but whether his behaviors are good or not good, healthy or unhealthy, through which the leader tries to manage the individuals working under an umbrella in order to promote them to a better level than the current level through ethics. carried by that leader, and the acronym can be defined as "ethical leadership" (is the ability to move individuals towards goals through principles and morally agreed values to achieve the organizational goals of the organization while taking into account the rules and social norms of the society in which it operates).

The Second Topic: The Importance of Ethical Leadership

The importance of ethical leadership for organizations stems from the creativity of the issues that are directly related to them, which are represented in the behaviors and actions of the leaders of those organizations, where through ethical behavior we can work to create a safe work environment for the organization, and in order to develop and rise to the ranks of greatness organizations, good controversial behaviors must be followed for dealings The organization, which seeks to develop its products and outputs in a way that suits the work environment and the environment in which it operates in order to satisfy the needs of the workers, and work to fulfill the desires of customers who benefit from those services provided by those organizations on the one hand. And determining the ability to achieve goals on the other hand, according to the principle of participation between leaders and subordinates through good moral behavior between them, and therefore the importance of ethical leadership can be limited to the following points:

1. Addressing cases of illegal exploitation and investment of business organizations operating in a somewhat unsafe work environment, as well as individuals, as ethical leadership seeks to address job or position exploitation and only to benefit in order to pass personal or factional interests At the expense of other individuals, this is one of the affairs of ethical leadership to address such a situation, because the basic principle of ethical leadership emanates from individuals working equally without discriminating one person at the expense of another. Such actions are because the leadership provides for another principle, which is serving others and not exploiting them functionally or morally, and this is confirmed by all monotheistic religions.

2. Ethical leadership also works to enhance communication points and increase the interdependence relationship between the leader and his subordinates, as well as between the manager and the employees [11].

Because the leader who possesses good work ethics and possesses courtesy at work, you find him always working to localize the points of communication between the subordinates in order to avoid class at work, unlike the dictatorial leader who works on exclusivity in decisions.

3. Ethical leadership within organizations also helps to create new models and spread knowledge to the organization, as well as provide an appropriate vision for work, taking into account the optimal allocation of resources within organizations through good ethical leadership of work.

4. Ethical leadership supports a climate that generates ideas in line with ethical procedures in implementing such ideas, according to the ethics of the organization and the efforts made by its employees to develop performance.

5. Ethical leadership cares and encourages teamwork mechanisms through participation in workers and optimal utilization of material resources while developing some ideas and creating a spirit of competition among workers by creating an obligatory challenge between them through their selfmotivation.

The Third Topic: The Characteristics of Ethical Leadership

Ethical leadership in business organizations, whether they are private or public organizations, is distinguished by a set of personal characteristics of the leaders, because ethical leaders depend mainly on ethical principles, which makes their morals clear to others through their behavior, which directly contributes to communicating the moral messages of the organization to The general public, through which it contributes to the process of making appropriate decisions that match the customs and culture of society, which in turn contributes to the development of ethical standards, and the application of a system that suits the organization, which in turn enhances ethical behaviors in an organization. According to this perspective, there are a set of basic characteristics added by researchers In the ethical matter of the organizational leadership of organizations, among them [12], who indicated that the characteristics of ethical leadership revolve around dependability, loyalty, courage and responsibility, wisdom and patience, and obedience to the dictates of the conscience of the individual, and compassion are among the important characteristics of ethical leadership Also, the workforce's level of moral development of knowledge serves as a criterion for morality.

As indicated by Eden [13], there is a basic set of characteristics for ethical leadership in organizations represented in the following.

First: Governance: It is represented in the policies, regulations, and operating systems applied by the management in the organization, and it consists of two parts, namely: Accountability and acumen, and this indicates that ethical leaders were not only aware of their legal obligations, but also took into account the impact of their decisions on the main stakeholders inside and outside the organization, so ethical leaders took into account their responsibilities in governance not only from the economic situation but from the social, cultural and environmental perspectives of the organizations .

Second: Alignment of values: Alignment of values represents a distinctive feature of ethical leaders, which includes integrity, courage, and confidence, and it determines the personality of individuals because the ethics of individuality or personality refer to permanent qualities, and a specific attitude to the fact that it refers to the actions of individuals.

Third: Centralization Relationships: The third characteristic of ethical leadership is the centralization of relationships, which consists of two parts: altruism and justice. The mission of effective communication between the leader and the workforce to enhance the success of the business organizations.

Resick [14] identified five main characteristics of ethical leadership, namely:

1. Ethical accountability management: which in turn encourages ethical leaders towards disciplined ethical behavior and to avoid unethical behavior as much as possible. Because ethical leaders determine their work according to certain ethical standards and principles, they share with the workforce in the organization and use the system of punishment and rewards to stimulate ethical behavior between them [15].

2. Personality and Integrity: Personality is represented by the dynamic organization within the person who organizes the psychological and physical organization on which the patterns of this person's behavior, thoughts and feelings towards others are based ozbag, 236, 2016 [16] As for integrity, it is an essential characteristic of personality, as integrity is defined as adherence to the rules of moral values [17], where leaders who deal in integrity are distinguished as leaders with moral values and act according to these values and their serious pursuit to find solutions to avoid conflicts with others [18].

3. Empowerment: Ethical leaders use empowerment strategies and techniques that enhance the self-confidence and self-efficacy of the workforce [19], where empowerment is defined as one of the effective initiatives undertaken by leaders in the organization towards the workforce, which would give them more Authority in the performance of their work, with the need for the workforce to undertake the responsibility for the effective use of these authorities between workers on the one hand and the organization on the other hand [20].

4. Guidance and motivation: Ethical leaders are often characterized by their greed for individual-oriented leaders. The societal guidance method also reflects a real interest in the workforce, respecting and supporting them, and ensuring that their needs are met, because ethical leaders set ethical and basic standards for work, which follow in their footsteps, the workforce, which in turn directs and reflects behavior. Ethical by raising the moral awareness of the workforce in organizations and on the basis of this principle [21].

5. My moral awareness: Moral awareness represents an essential and important element in ethical administrative decision-making processes [22], as well as through moral awareness, adherence to ethical rules and current administrative laws.

The Fourth Topic: The Basic Dimensions of Building Ethical Leadership

Ethical leadership depends on a set of main dimensions through which the identification and construction of more accurate concepts is undertaken to understand the general framework of ethical leadership in detailed ways of the ethical reality of managers of organizations, away from complexity. Key to ethical leadership includes:

1. Justice for ethical leadership: This dimension of the dimensions of ethical leadership indicates that individuals in society are equal in everything and have a fair share in all the wealth of society, except for money or other services, whether they are recreational, service, or even health [23]. Al-Taie et al. [24] indicated that ethical leaders must take into account in directing their interests towards 12 basic principles that comply with organizational integrity, justice and honesty in dealing, where justice emphasizes observance of laws, legislation and administrative decisions that center around the process of making administrative decisions during the distribution of tasks administrative or in the process of distributing rewards or directing penalties in administrative departments, and in addition to that, there are three sub-types of moral justice in organizations represented in:

2. Partial justice: Retributive justice is related to integrity, that is, the methods used to determine and distribute resources between employees and even departments in organizations, because the recurrence of fairness cases of punitive justice indicates the application of the principle of moral justice in organizations because decisions are related to the distribution of business and resources, which leaves an impression on individuals that the organization is heading The direction of correct grammatical organizational integration by referring to the presence of an object of employee entertainment and vice versa how to determine the results.

3. Distributive justice: This concept of the concepts of moral justice refers to the principle of clear integrity that the employee obtains as a result of the results he obtains by doing the work entrusted to him to the fullest, because the employee, according to this situation, feels that distribution is a right in all aspects of work in the organization and this The thing is also related to the customer requesting the service, who also realizes that the organization has taken into account all his needs fairly with other individuals similar to him and those requesting service from this organization, because this type of justice deals with the details of business in the organization and even outside the organization In order to create a stable work environment.

4. Interactive justice: This type of justice for moral leadership

indicates that the workers at this stage feel the type of treatment they receive from the organization and the management's reactions towards them because at this stage they feel they have done their best to integrate the process of interaction with the organization through the stages of applying the procedures Organizational, as it generally focuses on the concept of justice and respect between the recipient source through the communication process that occurs between them. It is also possible to benefit from these dimensions in building and designing basic models for ethical leadership in business organizations, whether they are private or public organizations.

Fifth Topic: Components of Moral Leadership in Iraqi Health Institutions

The texts provided a sample of examples of the interviews that were conducted in order to reach the characteristics of ethical leadership and a model built for health institutions, as they were designed in a manner commensurate with the concepts of ethical leadership. Appropriate and useless symbols and extracting only what is useful, which is estimated at 58 symbols, which corresponds to building the ethical leadership model and knowing its role in Iraqi health institutions, as shown in table, and it expresses the symbols of the ethical leadership model of the Iraqi Ministry of Health according to categories and individual and situational characteristics of the workers In those institutions, where this work went through a set of the following steps.

1. Asking approximately 180 to 220 questions to all interviewees.

2. The individual's personal dimensions were changed to the attitude dimension of leadership by asking questions.

3. After the situation, three main components were added, which are the moral, behavioral and belief characteristics. The individual dimension changed to a social dimension to show the administrative and social indicators of the concept of ethical leadership.

4. Changing some vocabulary in order to arrive at concepts related to moral leadership in a more just and central way to the subject as a whole.

5. Changing some unknown vocabulary in the process of asking questions to more clear vocabulary in the process of asking questions and other fundamental changes (Table 1).

Table 1: Illustrates the concepts and symbols of the ethical leadership model of the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

Concepts Symbols
Integrity Safety, corruption, works with integrity, honesty, self-esteem, desires, contempt, distinction, humility, arrogance.
Transparency and responsibility Attention, lack of opinion, compassion, transparency, development, guidance, acceptance of criticism, ability, sympathy, smile, emulation, wicks, tolerance, openness of heart, responsibility, feelings and emotions, guidance. control, containment.
Regulations and laws Justice, law, guidelines, regularity, preservation of rights, abstention from mistakes, preservation, decision-making.
Values and clairvoyance Love, affection, learning, culture, advancement, religion, values, generosity, piety, influence, jealousy, magnanimity, courage, guiding rules, affiliation. Customs and traditions, behaviour, thinking.
Public good Ethical behaviour, disclosure, social acceptability, holistic outlook, social connections, future outlook, fulfillment of desires, interest in development, message and philosophy.

The Sixth Topic: Defining the Categories

The study was included within the exploratory studies of qualitative research in order to reach information and data related to understanding the ethical leadership model and its characteristics for Iraqi health institutions. In labyrinths far from the concept of ethical leadership, and in order to identify a need in this field according to the qualitative research, where the (G.T) model was used, or what is known as the theory rooted in scientific research according to the inductive analytical approach that is compatible with the hypothesis and problem of the study, which is related to ethical leadership in health institutions in general It is not ascertaining the validity of the hypothesis of ethical leadership in those institutions, and this is what prompted us to use the rooted theory of qualitative research according to the inductive analytical approach, and this is consistent with the phenomenon under study and the social phenomena of qualitative research, which is represented in understanding the ethical leadership model and its characteristics in Iraqi health institutions, and according to a problem that states What is the level of understanding of the ethical leadership model for the advanced staff represented by managers and advanced staff? The worker in the Iraqi Ministry of Health and its affiliated institutions, the rooted theory is a design for qualitative research in which the researcher generates a general interpretation of a practical (theory) or action or interaction resulting from the viewpoints of a number of participants in the study sample site represented by the managers and advanced staff of the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

The data and information related to understanding the ethical leadership model of the research sample were reached according to the theory rooted in qualitative research according to a set of stages, which came as follows.

• As the research problem was identified in general through readers, perusal and collection of information through the interviews that we conducted with the managers and advanced staff of the Iraqi Ministry of Health, which are related to the phenomenon of research or the problem clearly and explicitly, and here the research was able to gain the scientific objectivity of the research problem.

• Collecting data on the phenomenon, which is related to the concept of ethical leadership, which is related to the problem of understanding ethical leadership and its characteristics in Iraqi health institutions, the extent of knowing the appropriate dimensions of ethical leadership in that ministry, and the level of understanding of ethical leadership for staff and managers working in Iraqi health institutions, and this is what contributed to building the research department for connection For the required information about ethical leadership in those institutions through the interviewers and to see the methods and behaviors used in that ministry and the staff working in it, if that required effort and time on the part of the researcher to find and analyze the data resulting from those interviews, For example, from the data and information that the researcher reached, "There is no doubt that behavior varies between one individual and another within organizations, especially health organizations, where the behavior of those who work in higher departments differs from those who work in lower departments, and that the administrative position has a role in determining the behavior of The individuals working in these institutions are also characterized by a set of personal characteristics, including social values, customs, religion, all of which determine the behavior of the individual in those organizations, and we do not forget about them the strange cultures that have recently entered our societies” (M11), while someone looks Opposites to moral leadership" It is a given that the leader must be loyal to his organization because he is part of that organization, but because of the surrounding circumstances of some leaders, including political, economic and social conditions, it was negatively reflected on some of the leaders and presenting their personal interest over the interests of the general public, so it resulted in the non-acceptance of the other party Regarding the procedures and services provided by health institutions, because some workers find that the customer is an easy prey for them and exploits him financially and physically in some cases and in some areas, so the leader must Lead by example in organizations (P4), This stage gives more acceptability about the validity of the phenomenon of moral leadership and its characteristics in health institutions resulting from the data obtained from interviewees of the study sample, represented by the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

• Analysis of the information provided by the study tools: If the researcher uses all the tools related to the theory (G.T), about the research phenomenon and works on analyzing it in order to reach information related to the research phenomenon in a scientific and systematic way, through the full classification by giving symbols and codes that are related to pure data The research, which is related to the keywords of the concept of ethical leadership in Iraqi health institutions and access to deductions and classifications of ethical leadership in those institutions and as follows (determining behavior, ethics, public relations, different ethical positions, diversity of ethics, good morals of managers, bad morals) which are related With the concept of rooted theory and according to the qualitative approach of scientific research that is linked to the concept of ethical leadership behaviors in those institutions, which is in line with the open coding of data related to the research phenomenon, where the words and symbols related to the concept of the research form were reached according to the complete coding according to the information that was reached. To create an indication of the phenomenon of ethical leadership through other meanings, for example (different ethical controls, restricting the leader, work pressures, line Right work, cost reduction, personality difference, work ethics difference) At this stage, an explanatory coding is reached for the phenomenon in question, which is related to the concept of ethical leadership for Iraqi health institutions, and a comparison is made between those grouped symbols that are commensurate with the research problem. And the variables to arrive at the classification of the framework of the study pure research, After that, the taxonomic coding was reached to classify the data, which is the final stage of the stages of interpreting the phenomenon and the research problem, and giving a classification to the categories according to the following (contradictions of behaviors, moral meals, respect, moral values), and here we reach the required dimensions and categories that are related to the research problem and according to what has been reached. In table, the categories were identified to build the ethical leadership model for health institutions according to the previous symbols that were extracted from the data that was reached, which were made according to the basic characteristics of ethical leadership in the ownership of institutions and according to the (G.T) model of the theory rooted in scientific research, and through which concepts were reached, which are divided into categories Individual and circumstantial, as classified in the following table (Table 2).

Table 2: Showing the most important dimensions and components of the concept of ethical leadership of the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

class concepts Symbols
Personal factors integrity Safety, corruption, works with integrity, honesty, self-esteem, desires, self-esteem, distinction, humility,
Transparency and responsibility Attention, lack of opinion, compassion, transparency in dealing, acceptance, ability, sympathy, differentiation, smile, emulation, wicks, tolerance, patience, responsibility, feelings, communication.
values and clairvoyance respect, affection, learning, culture, upliftment, religion, values, generous, met, influence, jealousy, magnanimity, courage, guiding rules, affiliation.
situational factors Regulations and laws Justice, legal regulations, guidelines, regularity, preserving rights, avoiding mistakes, conservatism, decision- making.
public good Ethical behavior, disclosure, social acceptability, comprehensive outlook, social connections, future outlook, desires for change, interest in development, message and philosophy.

The administrative characteristics have a significant impact on the ethical leadership within the Iraqi health institutions, and this effect can be seen on the people who are entrusted with administrative positions in the health institutions because they are responsible for determining the behavior of the ethical leadership within those organizations, and their moral values are manifested significantly to all through their commitment to functional justice, It is likely that the people who report on ethical work will do something in front of those institutions significantly and successfully for health organizations because they are not lenient in ethical behaviors, and on the other hand, if the person responsible for ethical leadership is lenient in ethical standards, there is no doubt that the organization will fail, so Such cases in health institutions must be alerted and anesthetized by their subordinates in order to enhance the culture of ethical leadership within those institutions. It also requires that the official in charge of the organization be a role model in order to support the behavioral work of other health institutions in accordance with the ethical and organizational policy of the health organization. It is logical that the leadership of health institutions instills in the hearts of its members ethical concepts that are consistent with ethical standards In order to clearly define ethical behaviors in the event that the questioner has set standards according to the ethical behavior model, it creates an ethical culture that permeates all departments and parts of the institution, which leads to the formation of more ethical leaders in health institutions. Also, the administrative characteristics of ethical leadership are considered one of the important elements for employees because they determine their behavior, the extent of their ethical impact on administrative work in a direct manner, and ways to solve administrative and organizational problems in Iraqi health institutions, because ethical leadership expresses the gateway to success in administrative work in those institutions. Institutions and the main goal of ethical leadership in Iraqi health institutions is to improve performance through administrative characteristics in those institutions and to create effects in them through the following:

Communication: Communication expresses the ethical leadership in the Iraqi health institutions from the important administrative characteristics in the work of these institutions because communication creates good communication between the employee and the manager on the one hand and between the health institution and the community on the other hand. Conflict is born between all parts of the organization, which negatively affects health organizations as a whole.

1. Administrative cooperation: Administrative cooperation is one of the characteristics of ethical leadership in health institutions, where administrative cooperation between employees can achieve and accomplish more workers as a result of cooperation with each other, improving the quality of workers and reducing effort, which improves the image and performance of institutions in front of others in the work environment.

2. Responsibility for ethical leadership: The responsibility of the ethical leaders in the Iraqi health institutions expresses ensuring the progress of work in the right direction and guarantees the achievement of the objectives of the institutions through the organization’s compliance with all legislations and laws that help the workflow in a smooth manner far from problems, so the responsibility of health organizations indicates the degree of complexity that These institutions are surrounded by political, economic and even cultural aspects, so it is imperative for ethical leaders to be responsible in the face of such problems towards their organizations and their employees.

3. Administrative planning: adds and expresses administrative planning for ethical leadership in Iraqi health institutions, one of the characteristics of successful leadership work, to what it has provided to ethical leadership in terms of improving performance, and it has an impact on the practical and organizational capabilities within health institutions in a better way by setting goals and achieving them according to successful planning, as indicated by Whether planning for more problems in health institutions, but rather wasting efforts, duplicating the administrative work of ethical leadership, missing opportunities, and making way for potential threats to health institutions in general.

Also, the administrative characteristics of ethical leadership have a significant impact on the organizational structure of Iraqi health institutions, the method of work flow between departments of Iraqi health institutions, and the decisionmaking processes in them through information management for those institutions, which is reflected in the overall performance of the organizations. Therefore, the administrative characteristics of ethical leadership must be carefully studied in order to improve performance. And the productivity of these institutions is according to what is required and planned in advance, in light of the increase and decrease in the size of Iraqi health institutions, the intensity of competition in the work environment, and the increase in challenges facing Iraqi health institutions. The ethical leadership of Iraqi health institutions is entrusted with ensuring the general performance of these institutions.

By placing the right man in the right place, respecting the opinions of workers as well as the community in which health institutions operate, and maintaining the organizational structure of health institutions, so the administrative characteristics of ethical leadership reflect the organizational features and procedures that determine the performance of health institutions, and this happens through the organizational structure of health institutions The methods of financing these institutions and the rules and regulations used in health institutions through which the ethical leadership behavior of the leader in those institutions can be controlled according to the organizational culture followed by the ethical leader, which is built through the values and social norms of the Iraqi society through which the ethical leader directs the working individuals to perform tasks and work in Iraqi health institutions, and this is done through individual loyalty to Iraqi health institutions, accountability and transparency within Iraqi health institutions through which the principle of integrity for ethical leadership is focused and away from the concept of administrative and moral corruption within those institutions and the appearance of the moral integrity of the individual and the determination of the person’s behavior according to the rules and laws of The starting point of justice for moral leaders is within For Iraqi health institutions.

The Eighth Topic: The Ethical Leadership Model for Iraqi Health Institutions

The ethical leadership model in the Iraqi Ministry of Health was reached through a set of dimensions and basic components, which in turn contributed to building that model in accordance with the considerations of the public interest of moral leadership as well as the integrity of leadership, taking into account transparency and responsibility towards others, and considering the regulations and legal systems for health institutions affiliated to the Iraqi Ministry of Health in order to Demonstrate the concept and characteristics of ethical leadership in a broader manner commensurate with the behaviors followed, as follows.

• Ethical leadership and its role for the public interest: The role

of moral leadership in health organizations of the Iraqi Ministry of Health for the public interest can be shown through a set of considerations related to (organizational guidelines for the organization, the philosophy and mission of the organization in society, and work ethics), because ethical leadership is an expression of not a little reward. The work of the organization bears in the folds of work for the benefit of society, whoever it is, and it is the best example of the ethical leadership behavior of those institutions, as well as insisting on selling that ethical work and urging others to follow suit, because it is the ethical work that creates the ethical leadership in those organizations, and the slogan of the gluttony of individuals They are able to manage the society through the ability and stability that they enjoy within that society.

• Integrity and its role in ethical leadership: Integrity has a vital

and prominent role in the formation of ethical leadership in organizations in general and health institutions in particular, as it is necessary for integrity that ethical leaders be honest, fair and transparent in organizational processes and decision-making processes that pertain to the organization, and in order to show the effectiveness and efficiency of ethical leadership Through the concept of integrity, it requires a set of elements and components that are related to this concept, the most important of which are the following, (safety, justice, respect), where integrity is what helps in this by applying the concept of ethical leadership in health organizations, but rather it guarantees the performance of work transparently and legally Far from impartiality and courtesy, and finally it helps in combating cases of corruption by exposing unethical practices against the citizen requesting service, so leaders must take into account the basic concepts and components of the concept of integrity in order to ensure the freedom of others according to the principles of successful and distinguished work that guarantees work with respect Safer and fairer.

• Transparency and its role in building ethical leadership:

Transparency is an important factor and element in building the concept of ethical leadership in Iraqi health organizations, where the phenomena of the results according to the symbols that were reached by the data of interviewees in the Iraqi Ministry of Health indicate the importance and role of transparency on the concept of ethical leadership in those institutions In including the process of holding leaders accountable for their decisions and ensuring work in a fair and purposeful manner in accordance with the principle of ethics, as it promotes fairness and trust-building processes among all work personnel in those institutions, and this requires a set of elements, the most important of which is containing (feelings and emotions of leaders, thinking, taking into account the decision-making process) Therefore, we come to the conclusion that transparency is the key to ethical leadership because it helps the leader in drawing organizational work methods and organizational behaviors to any institution, and here the leader understands that their teams understand work and their expectations for work in the organization and work to improve that work and health organizations are one of those Organizations that need to apply the concept of transparency by the leadership in those institutions.

• Regulations and laws and their role in ethical leadership:

Ethical leadership can be drawn in the Iraqi Ministry of Health and its affiliated institutions through the regulations and legal teachings of that ministry,where the results of the interviews demonstrate the role of the legal rules and work constitutions issued by the leadership and their importance to Iraqi society in general due to the importance of the role of ethical leadership In it, because the moral leadership is the first responsible for the application of these teachings and observance of work rules by employees of health institutions, as the results demonstrate the importance of ethical leadership for the Iraqi Ministry of Health through a set of rules and as follows (legal rules, legal regulations, labor constitutions, laws help Regulations also protect the public from dangerous products or services, and create a level playing field for businesses that might otherwise be at an unfair advantage. By setting clear legal guidelines, society is able to maintain order and stability while protecting citizens from harm, moreover It provides the values and principles that must be followed and adhered to in order to maintain the level of ethical behavior in those institutions Law enforcement policies for ethical leadership, in short, it is essential that health institutions adhere to regulations, laws, binding rules, and standards in order to promote ethical leadership within the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

• Responsibility and its role in ethical leadership: Responsibility

can be considered an essential and binding element of ethical leadership in Iraqi health organizations, and it determines the role of ethical leadership in those institutions by defining the goals and values of those institutions, and it also supports and encourages joint ethical behavior between the leader and heads on the one hand and the organization And society on the other hand, it also supports the needs of individuals by carrying out their responsibility towards society and supporting moral actions and clarifying to the individual the importance of ethical behavior, as it is also possible to clarify the role of responsibility for ethical leadership in Iraqi health institutions through a set of elements and features, the most important of which are (care, guidance, upgrading) In addition, it plays a role that highlights ethical leadership through responsibility in shaping the basic patterns for building an ethical culture within health institutions that take responsibility for maintaining the independence and independence of Iraqi health institutions and defining the behaviors of the employees of that ministry according to what the results of the interviews showed by providing the ministry’s personnel with continuous training on ethical approaches. With the contract for training courses for its employees and consolidating the concept of leadership in their minds, for the success of MV It is the leadership of those institutions represented by the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

• Values and clairvoyance and their role on moral leadership:

Values and clairvoyance have significant effects on Iraqi society in general and on moral leadership in particular, because society follows social traditions and customs inherited by the ancients and cannot be abandoned, despite the existence of different cultures and customs from one region to another and from one city to another. All this contributed to strengthening the role of ethical leadership in the Iraqi Ministry of Health and its affiliated institutions, as the role of customs and traditions on ethical leadership in the institutions affiliated with the Iraqi Ministry of Health appeared through a set of elements, which gives the green light in drawing and defining the leadership model and knowing its role in health institutions The Iraqi Ministry of Health clearly and this explains the ethical leadership model of the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

The ethical leadership model of Iraqi health institutions, which shows the results obtained from data analysis, expresses the importance of ethical leadership in those institutions, and ethical leadership may contribute to positive changes in those institutions, which result from the interaction of the leader with subordinates in those institutions according to Ethical and value terms and principles agreed upon, as demonstrated by the ethical leadership model for those institutions, as the ethical leader can contribute to the achievement of health care through that model and establish a participatory circuit to achieve interdependent relations between health institutions and the Iraqi society. Change according to the ethical leadership model, and what has been focused on in the model of health organizations affiliated to the Iraqi Ministry of Health (Figure 1).


Figure 1. Health institutions.

It also requires officials and those in charge of management in Iraqi health institutions to consolidate the basic ethical principle of that model in the hearts of their employees through continuous learning as well as training and cooperation for the success of the organizational goals and mission of those institutions, because ethics express necessary basics in organizational work and institutions must provide A time for training on these activities, considering them as a part of their professional program that is related to ethical issues, and the managers undertake to avoid shading methods in the concepts of ethical leadership within health institutions, which are related to the work of ethical leadership within the Iraqi Ministry of Health, as the work of the model in Iraqi health institutions involves showing the role of Ethical leadership through the main dimensions of the concept of ethical leadership that are related to the glorifying work of Iraqi health institutions, and finding ethical behavior according to the standard of disciplined behavior to create an ethical environment consistent with the desires of patients in the process of receiving health care within those institutions, and work also requires a process of motivating employees to achieve the goals of health institutions And to promote ethical practices, by creating a specialized unit for the Lord i. Health institutions in the Iraqi community specializing in the management of social health affairs. This unit or institution publishes news and announcements related to health affairs among the parties of society and supports maintaining the confidentiality of medical work and patients' rights according to ethical considerations.

And establish research related to the concept and role of ethical leadership within health institutions and promote effective relationships between the behavior within health institutions and the health services provided in them, taking into account the resources available to those institutions and working to develop them through global methods.

That is, when we create a model, that model will be a work map for health organizations affiliated with the Iraqi Ministry of Health, taking into account some changes that may occur in the work environment and addressing them according to the circumstances surrounding the organization at some point in time. The model also works to show the role of ethical leadership and define it for all by providing a framework Work for employees and design a model that enhances their ethical behaviors and responsibility in the industry and development of health care for these organizations according to innovative modern methods and methods from the health reality in Iraq, and encourage individuals with health specialization to present what they have in developing professional behaviors, respecting the privacy of others and human dignity, and supporting the weak among them And give them a helping hand.

The main objective of this model is to create an environment full of Iraqi culture and social values for health institutions by motivating the official to follow specific strategies that are consistent with the ethical behavior of Iraqi society through sustainable cost. Moreover, the moral culture must be consolidated with religious teachings, including Islamic values. which were stipulated in the Holy Qur’an and the Noble Prophet’s Sunnah in order to serve it as a positive model for supporting health organizations in the Iraqi Ministry of Health, and ethical leadership is an important part of the work of every successful institution due to its importance in building trust and encouraging its process of joint cooperation between workers, and the ethical leadership model focused on the performance of work Participatory in health institutions or the force influencing the behavior of the individual working in the choice of effective leadership behavior in drawing up plans and policies of the organization and exploiting its resources in an ethical manner, and this is what determined the divisions of the ethical leadership model for health organizations affiliated to the Iraqi Ministry of Health.


Through this research, we reached a number of results, as follows:

1. Ethical leadership in the Iraqi Ministry of Health can be expressed through three basic components, according to the results reached, which are (organizational integrity, levels of administrative corruption, and behavior of leaders and workers), within the health sectors of the Iraqi Ministry of Health.

2. Ethical leadership has the ability to confront the nutrients of administrative corruption and deviant behaviors within health institutions by working to follow the ethical behavior of leadership within Iraqi health institutions and their affiliated sectors according to wise leadership.

3. Interpret the results that the characteristics of ethical leadership within organizations are according to personal factors and behaviors that are the basis for adopting the personality of the ethical leader in those health organizations. These criteria are what determine the personality of the leader and are represented by "values and morals, transparency and responsibility, integrity of the leader, as well as providing services for the public interest of the Ministry of Health community Iraqi.

4. There is a weakness in the concept of ethical leadership within the Iraqi Ministry of Health and its affiliated institutions, resulting from organizational problems, behaviors, and personal motives, which negatively affect the quality of providing services and health care to patients in those institutions and a change in the behavior of workers.

5. The ethical leadership of the Iraqi Ministry of Health, in reality, differs from what it is in secret, where the behavior of dealing in secret differs radically from what is announced and does not extend the ethical leadership due to cases of administrative and moral corruption by giving personal interests over public interests in the process of managing health sectors and the control of some influential people over Administrative decisions in the ministry.

6. It was concluded that the person with full training can deal with the principles of ethical leadership and understand them at the same time, because he is constantly informed about the ethical concepts that in some cases he gets from the work environment and even from the prisoners, which gives an impression in the success of the concept of ethical leadership I have to be considered a self-bound by the moral behaviors that he learned from the prisoners and the society in which they lived.

Future Proposals

1. A similar study targeting waste sectors.

2. It is suggested that there be studies working on measuring the results reached in this study.

3. A study that attempts to search for an understanding of ethical leadership through other variables.


• The future vision of health organizations.

• Organizational loyalty.

• The organizational performance.

• Career.

• Job rotation.

4. Clarifying the concept of ethical leadership for junior employees at work within health institutions.

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