Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research Article - (2024) Volume 19, Issue 2


Prof. Ruben Jr Lagunero Tagare*, Prof. Marlon Mancera and Eduard Sumera
*Correspondence: Prof. Ruben Jr Lagunero Tagare, Physical Education, University of Southern Mindanao, Philippines, Email:
Physical Education, University of Southern Mindanao, Philippines

Received: 25-Mar-2024 Published: 18-Apr-2024


This study aimed to examine the influence of achievement goals in sports on the quality of life among students in Philippine higher education. The research utilized a quantitative-correlation design involving 1,494 respondents selected through simple random sampling. Data were collected using the Achievement Goal Scale for Youth Sports questionnaire and the Youth Quality of Life Instrument. Results revealed that students exhibited a moderate achievement goal orientation in sports and perceived their quality of life as moderate. Notably, a significant positive relationship was found between achievement goals in sports and perceived quality of life, indicating that as students' achievement goals in sports increased, their quality of life also improved. These findings highlight the importance of fostering a balanced approach to sports participation, promoting intrinsic motivation and personal growth, and addressing specific needs to enhance overall wellbeing among students. Future research endeavors may explore additional factors influencing the relationship between sports participation and quality of life, considering cultural, contextual, and individual differences. Interventions and programs to support students' achievement goals in sports should be prioritized to promote holistic development and well-being in educational settings.


Achievement Goal in Sports, Holistic Sports, Quality of Life, and Youth Sports


Achievement goals in sports encompass individuals' aspirations, orientations, and motivations when engaging in sporting activities. These goals typically revolve around the desire to demonstrate competence, achieve success, and attain mastery within the sporting context (Chu & Zhang, 2018). Two primary achievement goals are often identified: task-oriented goals, which focus on personal improvement, skill development, and mastering challenges, and ego-oriented goals, which emphasize outperforming others, winning, and receiving external recognition (Wilt & Johnson, 2024). Task-oriented goals are associated with intrinsic motivation, enjoyment of the sport, and long-term engagement, while ego-oriented goals may lead to heightened anxiety, reduced enjoyment, and burnout (Pluhar et al., 2019). Individuals may exhibit a combination of both types of goals, and pursuing specific achievement goals can influence their behavior, effort, persistence, and overall performance in sports (Alhadabi & Karpinski, 2020).

On the other hand, students' quality of life encompasses various dimensions of well-being and satisfaction across physical, emotional, social, and academic domains. It reflects students' lives and subjective perceptions of happiness, fulfillment, and contentment (Ribeiro et al., 2018). Physical well-being includes access to healthcare, nutrition, exercise, and sleep quality, all of which contribute to overall health and vitality (Alsubaie et al., 2019). Emotional wellbeing involves managing stress, coping with challenges, experiencing positive emotions, and maintaining mental health. Social well-being encompasses the quality of relationships, social support networks, a sense of belonging, and engagement in social activities, essential for building connections and fostering a sense of community (Alkatheri et al., 2020). Academic well-being relates to students' experiences in educational settings, including satisfaction with learning environments, academic achievement, perceived competence, and future aspirations (Kasar & Karaman, 2021).

In the present educational setting, one prominent issue with students is the prevalence of performance-oriented goals over task-oriented ones, where students prioritize external validation, competition, and achievement over personal growth and mastery (Niemivirta et al., 2019). This emphasis on performance can increase stress, anxiety, and burnout, negatively impacting students' overall well-being (Etherton et al., 2022). Luthar and Kumar (2018) further explained that factors such as academic pressure, peer comparison, and societal expectations can further worsen these challenges, fostering a culture of perfectionism and undermining students' sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. The limited access to resources, opportunities, and support systems may hinder students' ability to pursue their goals effectively, contributing to frustration and disengagement.

Further, research on achievement goals in sports has consistently shown that specific, challenging goals lead to better performance (Roberts & Nerstad, 2020). Team achievement goals, including performance approach, performanceavoidance, mastery approach, and mastery-avoidance, significantly impact team performance (Van Mierlo & Van Hooft, 2020). Mastery-approach goals positively predict intrinsic motivation and sports performance, while performance-avoidance goals have a negative impact on performance. These highlight the importance of setting appropriate and motivating goals in sports, as they can significantly influence individuals' motivation, performance, and overall success in athletic endeavors (Kim et al., 2019).

Furthermore, an array of studies has investigated the quality of life among students, examining various influencing factors. Muhammed and Abubakar (2019) identified significant influences on quality of life among indigenous students, family income levels, and field of study. Lonska et al. (2021) underscored the subjective nature of quality of life, noting students' valuation of educational services, disposable income, and access to healthcare.

Though studies have been conducted on students' goal orientation and quality of life, research correlating these variables remains insufficient. Recognizing this gap, this study investigated the relationship between students' goal orientation, particularly in sports, and their overall quality of life. By exploring this connection, the study aims to shed light on how students' aspirations and motivations in sports activities may impact various dimensions of their quality of life. Through rigorous examination and analysis, this research seeks to provide valuable insights that can inform educational policies, programs, and interventions to enhance student well-being in Philippine higher education.

Moreover, conducting this study holds significant implications for students, teachers, administrators, and educational leaders as it can offer valuable insights into how students' participation in sporting activities influences their well-being. It can empower them to make informed choices regarding their involvement in sports and guide them toward setting meaningful goals that contribute positively to their overall quality of life. Teachers and coaches can benefit from this research by understanding how to support students' holistic development through sports, fostering a positive and enriching environment that promotes both athletic achievement and personal well-being. For administrators and educational leaders, insights from this study can inform the design and implementation of policies, programs, and resources to promote student engagement in sports and enhance the overall quality of education in Philippine higher education institutions. By recognizing the importance of sports participation in shaping students' lives and well-being, educational stakeholders can work collaboratively to create an inclusive and supportive environment that maximizes the potential benefits of sports involvement for all students.


Research Design

This research employed a quantitative-correlation design to investigate the relationship between students' achievement goals in sports and their quality of life. Creswell (2021) explained that quantitative research design involves systematically collecting and analyzing numerical data to examine patterns, relationships, and trends within a population or sample. In this context, quantitative correlation design specifically focuses on measuring the strength and direction of associations between variables, allowing researchers to assess how changes in one variable relate to changes in another (Bloomfield and Fisher, 2019).

The correlation aspect of the design enables researchers to determine the extent to which students' achievement goals in sports are related to various dimensions of their quality of life. This design is particularly appropriate for this study as it provides a structured framework for quantitatively examining the relationship between these variables, offering statistical evidence to support conclusions and recommendations. By employing this design, researchers have efficiently explored the potential influence of achievement goals in sports on students' overall quality of life, yielding valuable insights that can inform educational practices and interventions.

Research Respondents and Sampling Procedure

This study involved a total of 1,494 respondents who were gathered using a simple random sampling technique. This method is done where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the study (Bhardwaj, 2019). This approach was chosen to ensure that every student had an equal opportunity to participate in the research, thereby reducing bias and ensuring the generalizability of the findings to the broader student population. Simple random sampling is preferred in studies aiming for representativeness and minimizing sampling error, making it particularly suitable for this research endeavor. By employing this method, the study aimed to obtain a diverse and representative sample of students, allowing for strong analysis and generalization of results to the broader student population.

Research Instruments

This research utilized the Achievement Goal Scale for Youth Sports questionnaire, a validated instrument developed by Cumming et al. (2007) for assessing achievement goals in youth sports contexts. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted, demonstrating the questionnaire's factorial validity, with a Cronbach's alpha value of .88, indicating high internal consistency reliability. This signifies that the questionnaire reliably measures the intended constructs of achievement goals in sports among youth.

For the Students' Quality of Life Questionnaire, this research adapted the instrument developed and validated by Patrick et al. (2002) titled the "Youth Quality of Life Instrument – Short Form (YQOL-SF)," which encompasses 15 perceptual items assessing domains such as sense of self, social relationships, environment, and general quality of life. The instrument was crafted using Rasch methodology, ensuring rigorous development and validation procedures. The instrument demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability, as evidenced by a Cronbach's alpha value of .80. This suggests that the questionnaire items consistently measure the intended aspects of students' quality of life.

Statistical Analysis

The data analysis and interpretation were done with the assistance of SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences), a widely used software program for statistical analysis in social science research. SPSS provided researchers with a comprehensive suite of tools for data management, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and data visualization, facilitating the exploration, manipulation, and interpretation of data from various research designs.

For statistical analysis, this research utilized mean and composite mean calculations to describe students' achievement goal orientation and perceived quality of life. Mean values were employed to summarize the central tendencies within each variable, providing a clear understanding of the average scores. Spearman's rho correlation coefficient was then employed to examine the significant relationship between these variables, allowing for exploring associations without requiring linear relationships between variables. This method enabled the study to assess the strength and direction of the relationship between achievement goal orientation and perceived quality of life, providing valuable insights into their potential interactions.


Table 1-3

Table 1:Student Respondents' Achievement Goals in Sports.

Statements Mean Verbal Description
9. I feel successful when I do my best 3.49 TRUE
7. I feel successful when I learn new skills 3.43 TRUE
3. The most important thing is to improve my skills 3.4 TRUE
5. I work hard to become the best I can be 3.37 TRUE
1. My goal is to learn new skills and get as good as possible 3.28 TRUE
6. My goal is to master the skills in the sport I am interested in. 3.18 TRUE
2. The most important thing is to be the best version of myself through sports 3.01 TRUE
4. My goal is to improve so I will be better than others 2.42 Not True
10. I want to show that I am better than others 2.08 Not True
8. To me, success means being better than others 2.04 Not True
Overall Mean 2.97 True = Moderate Achievement Goals in Sports
4.00 – 3.50 Very True High Achievement Goals in Sports
3.49 – 2.50 TRUE Moderate Achievement Goals in Sports
2.59 – 1.50 Not True Low Achievement Goals in Sports
1.49 – 1.00 Not at all True No Achievement Goals in Sports

Table 2:Student Respondents' Perceived Quality of Life.

Statements Mean Verbal Description
7. I am not alone in my life 3.05 Moderate
14. I feel I am getting a good education 3.05 Moderate
6. I feel I am getting along with my parents or guardians 3.01 Moderate
13. I feel safe when I am at home 3.01 Moderate
15. I am satisfied with the way my life is now 3.01 Moderate
5. I feel understood by my parents or guardians 2.98 Moderate
12. I look forward to the future 2.98 Moderate
2. I feel good about myself 2.89 Moderate
9. I feel I can take part in the same activities as others my age 2.89 Moderate
1. I am able to do most things as well as I want 2.82 Moderate
8. I am happy with the friends I have 2.82 Moderate
4. I am pleased with how I look 2.54 Moderate
11. I feel my life is full of interesting things to do 2.54 Moderate
3. I feel I am important to others 2.45 Rarely
10. People my age treat me with respect 2.45 Rarely
Overall Mean 2.83 Moderate = Moderate Quality of Life
4.00 – 3.50 Very Much High Quality of Life
3.49 – 2.50 Moderate Moderate Quality of Life
2.59 – 1.50 Rarely Low Quality of Life
1.49 – 1.00 Not at All Very Low Quality of Life

Table 3:Test of Significant Relationship between the Student Respondents' Achievement Goals in Sports and Perceived Quality of Life.

Correlation Coefficient Significant Value Interpretation
Achievement Goals in Sports and 0.398 0.001 Significant
Perceived Quality of Life


Student Respondents' Achievement Goals in Sports

Table 1 presents the results of students' achievement goals in sports. Analysis reveals that the statement "I feel successful when I do my best" obtained the highest mean value of 3.49, indicating a verbal description of "true." This signifies that a significant proportion of students strongly identify with feeling successful when they exert their best effort in sports activities.

This implies that these students prioritize personal improvement, effort, and mastery over external validation or comparison with others. Their inclination towards valuing individual progress and self-fulfillment underscores a task-oriented approach to sports participation, where intrinsic motivation and personal growth are prioritized. This finding suggests that fostering a supportive environment that encourages students to focus on personal development and effort may lead to greater satisfaction and fulfillment in their sporting activities.

Newman (2014) explained that younger people often feel successful when they do their best because there is a natural inclination towards personal growth and achievement during youth, driven by developmental milestones and societal expectations. Younger individuals tend to possess high energy, enthusiasm, and optimism, fueling their drive to excel and make a positive impact (Newman & Smith, 2014). The absence of significant life responsibilities and obligations allows them to devote more time and effort to pursuing their passions and interests, leading to a sense of accomplishment when they give their best effort (Uddin, 2021). Olszewski-Kubilius (2018) also highlighted that the validation and recognition received from peers, family, and society play a crucial role in reinforcing their perception of success, motivating them to strive for excellence in various undertakings continuously.

On the other hand, the statement "to me, success means being better than others" garnered the least mean value of 2.04, accompanied by a verbal description of "not true." This suggests that many respondents do not prioritize success over outperforming others. Instead, they place less emphasis on comparative achievement and are more focused on personal growth, selfimprovement, and intrinsic satisfaction.

This implies that these individuals adopt a task-oriented approach to success, valuing their progress and effort over external benchmarks or comparisons with peers. Their mindset prioritizes individual development and mastery, fostering intrinsic motivation and a sense of fulfillment derived from personal achievements rather than external recognition or validation. This finding underscores the importance of promoting a positive and supportive environment that encourages students to pursue personal growth and selfimprovement rather than solely focusing on competition and comparison with others.

A task-oriented approach to success is often preferable to competing with others because focusing on personal growth and mastery allows individuals to set realistic and achievable goals based on their abilities and progress, leading to a greater sense of control and satisfaction (Henkel et al., 2019). This approach fosters intrinsic motivation, as individuals derive fulfillment from learning and improvement rather than solely seeking external validation or comparison with others (Elgh, 2014). A task-oriented mindset promotes collaboration and cooperation rather than rivalry, fostering a supportive and inclusive environment where individuals can learn from each other and celebrate collective achievements (Hosseini-Asl et al., 2020).

Overall, the students' achievement goal orientation in sports yielded a composite mean value of 2.97, interpreted as "moderate achievement goals in sports." This suggests that, on average, students exhibit a balanced orientation toward achieving success in sports activities. While they may possess a degree of motivation and aspiration to excel, it falls within a moderate range, indicating a healthy balance between striving for personal improvement and avoiding excessive competitiveness.

This implies that the student population surveyed demonstrates a reasonable level of goal orientation in sports, with a tendency to prioritize individual progress and effort while maintaining a realistic perspective on success. This balanced approach is conducive to fostering intrinsic motivation, enjoyment, and long-term engagement in sports activities while mitigating the adverse effects of excessive pressure and competition. This suggests that efforts to support and enhance students' achievement goals in sports should reinforce positive attitudes towards personal growth and self-improvement, promoting a sustainable and fulfilling sports experience for all students.

Giles-Mathis (2023) explained that by prioritizing personal improvement, individuals can cultivate intrinsic motivation and derive satisfaction from the journey of self-improvement. However, maintaining a realistic perspective on success ensures that individuals avoid excessive pressure and comparison with others, reducing the risk of burnout and promoting long-term wellbeing. This balance allows individuals to set achievable goals, celebrate their accomplishments, and persevere through challenges with resilience and optimism (Schaffner, 2021).

Student Respondents' Perceived Quality of Life

Table 2 presents the Student Respondents' Perceived Quality of Life. Analysis of the data reveals that the statements "I am not alone in my life" and "I feel I am getting a good education" both obtained the highest mean value of 3.05, classified as "moderate" based on verbal descriptions. This indicates that a significant proportion of students perceive a moderate level of support in their social relationships and feel satisfied with the quality of education they are receiving

This implies that students place considerable importance on social connections and educational opportunities in shaping their overall quality of life. The fact that these aspects garnered the highest mean values suggests that they are critical determinants of students' well-being and satisfaction. The moderate ratings indicate a balanced perception, where students acknowledge the presence of supportive relationships and quality education without necessarily attributing extreme significance to them. These findings highlight the importance of fostering a supportive social environment and providing highquality educational experiences to enhance students' overall quality of life and well-being.

Shankar et al. (2015) outlined that positive social connections contribute to resilience, self-esteem, and mental health, buffering against stress and adversity. Meaningful relationships with peers, family, and mentors facilitate personal growth, empathy, and social skills, preparing youth for future challenges and opportunities (Clark, 2018). Laurie et al. (2016) explained that receiving quality education equips youth with essential knowledge, skills, and opportunities for personal and professional growth. It fosters critical thinking, creativity, and problem-solving abilities, empowering youth to navigate complexities in today's society and pursue their aspirations. Quality education also promotes social mobility, empowering individuals to access better opportunities and contribute meaningfully to their communities and society (Spaull, 2015).

On the other hand, the statements "I feel I am important to others" and "People my age treat me with respect" received the least mean value of 2.83, classified as "rarely" based on verbal descriptions. This indicates that a notable proportion of respondents perceive infrequent instances where they feel valued by others and treated with respect by peers of the same age group.

These imply that these students may experience challenges or deficiencies in social support and interpersonal dynamics. The low mean values suggest a lack of consistent affirmation and recognition from others, impacting their self-esteem, sense of belonging, and overall well-being. The fewness of feeling respected by peers highlights potential issues related to bullying, social exclusion, or negative peer interactions within the student community.

Bullying and social exclusion within the student community persist in today's society due to societal norms that perpetuate aggression and power imbalances, insufficient education and awareness about the consequences of bullying, and a lack of effective interventions and support systems in schools (Søndergaard, 2014). Factors such as social media usage and cyberbullying have expanded the scope and anonymity of bullying behaviors, making them more challenging to address. Individual characteristics such as low self-esteem, social skills deficits, or past experiences of victimization can also contribute to both perpetration and victimization (Søndergaard & Rabøl Hansen, 2018).

Overall, the student respondents' perceived quality of life obtained a composite mean value of 2.83, corresponding to an interpretation of "moderate quality of life." This indicates that, on average, students perceive their quality of life to be moderate, falling between low and high levels. While aspects of their quality of life may be satisfactory, there is room for improvement in various domains to enhance overall well-being.

This implies that students may experience positive and negative experiences across different aspects of their lives. While they may feel satisfied with certain aspects, there are likely areas where they face challenges or dissatisfaction. Addressing these inconsistencies and enhancing students' quality of life may require targeted interventions and support systems that address specific needs and promote overall well-being. It underscores the importance of adopting a holistic approach to student well-being, considering various factors such as social relationships, academic experiences, physical health, and personal fulfillment.

Tonon (2021) emphasizes the social construction of youth and the impact of the social context on their daily lives, suggesting that societal changes and pressures may contribute to their quality of life. Tatai (2022) further explores this, highlighting the influence of social modernization on teenagers' quality of life, including their mental and physical health, cultural experiences, and academic performance. Clayton and Steffensen (2005) explained that a loving and supportive family, friendships, and recreational time are critical factors in their quality of life.

Significant Relationship Between Student Respondents' Achievement Goals in Sports and Perceived Quality of Life

Table 3 tests the significant relationship between the student respondents' achievement goals in sports and perceived quality of life. The data reveals a significant value of .001 and a correlation coefficient of .398, indicating a statistically significant relationship between the variables. This positive correlation suggests that as respondents' achievement goals in sports increase, their perceived quality of life also tends to increase.

This implies a meaningful connection between students' sports engagement and overall quality of life. The findings suggest that involvement in sports activities, mainly driven by specific achievement goals, positively influences students' well-being and satisfaction. This underscores the potential benefits of promoting a goal-oriented approach to sports participation in educational settings, as it enhances athletic performance and contributes to students' holistic development and overall quality of life. These results highlight the importance of incorporating sports and physical activity programs into educational curricula to foster student well-being and academic success.

Participation in sports and other physical activities has been linked to numerous student benefits, contributing to overall well-being (Baciu & Baciu 2015). Specifically, engagement in sports can positively impact subjective dimensions of quality of life, including enjoyment, satisfaction, and global satisfaction with life (Peráčková & Peráček, 2019). Involvement in organized sports can lead to various psychological and social advantages, such as improved academic achievement, enhanced self-esteem, reduced behavioral problems, and the acquisition of critical life skills (Forest & Wood, 2012).


In conclusion, the findings of this study disclose the achievement goals of students in sports, revealing a moderate orientation towards success in athletic endeavors. This suggests a balanced approach, emphasizing personal improvement and effort while avoiding excessive competitiveness. Such a mindset is conducive to fostering intrinsic motivation and long-term engagement in sports activities, promoting holistic development and wellbeing among students.

Similarly, the study unveiled a perceived moderate quality of life among students, indicating satisfactory and challenging aspects across various domains. While students may experience positive social relationships and educational satisfaction, there are opportunities for improvement in other areas to enhance overall well-being. Addressing these gaps requires targeted interventions and support systems that address specific needs and promote holistic well-being among students.

Lastly, the significant relationship between achievement goals in sports and perceived quality of life highlights the interconnectedness of these domains in shaping students' well-being. The positive correlation suggests that fostering a goal-oriented approach to sports participation can positively influence students' quality of life. This underscores the importance of integrating sports and physical activity programs into educational curricula to promote student well-being and academic success. These findings highlight the importance of adopting a holistic approach to student development, considering various factors such as achievement goals, social relationships, and overall quality of life to foster a supportive and enriching educational environment.


Alhadabi, A., & Karpinski, A. C. (2020). Grit, self-efficacy, achievement orientation goals, and academic performance in University students. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 25(1), 519-535.

Alkatheri, A. M., Bustami, R. T., Albekairy, A. M., Alanizi, A. H., Alnafesah, R., Almodaimegh, H., ... & Qandil, A. M. (2020). Quality of life and stress level among health professions students. Health Professions Education, 6(2), 201-210.

Alsubaie, M. M., Stain, H. J., Webster, L. A. D., & Wadman, R. (2019). The role of sources of social support on depression and quality of life for university students. International journal of adolescence and youth, 24(4), 484-496.

Baciu, C., & Baciu, A. (2015). Quality of life and students' socialization through sport. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 209, 78-83.

Bhardwaj, P. (2019). Types of sampling in research. Journal of Primary Care Specialties, 5(3), 157-163.

Bloomfield, J., & Fisher, M. J. (2019). Quantitative research design. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses Association, 22(2), 27-30.

Chu, T. L., & Zhang, T. (2018). Motivational processes in Sport Education programs among high school students: A systematic review. European Physical Education Review, 24(3), 372-394.

Clark, J. L., Algoe, S. B., & Green, M. C. (2018). Social network sites and well-being: The role of social connection. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(1), 32-37.

Clayton, A. K., & Steffensen, S. (2005). Meningen med livet: hur 15-åringar i en stor och en liten stad i Sverige ser på livskvalitet.

Creswell, J. W. (2021). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. SAGE publications.

Cumming, S. P., Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., Standage, M., & Grossbard, J. R. (2008). Development and validation of the achievement goal scale for youth sports. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(5), 686-703.

Elgh, F. (2014). Automated engineer-to-order systems–a task-oriented approach to enable traceability of design rationale. International Journal of Agile Systems and Management 21, 7(3-4), 324-347.

Etherton, K., Steele-Johnson, D., Salvano, K., & Kovacs, N. (2022). Resilience effects on student performance and well-being: the role of self-efficacy, self-set goals, and anxiety. The Journal of general psychology, 149(3), 279-298.

Forest, A. L., & Wood, J. V. (2012). When social networking is not working: Individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook. Psychological science, 23(3), 295-302.

Giles-Mathis, I. (2023). The Experience of Resilience and Striving for Self-Improvement Among Adults (Doctoral dissertation, Capella University).

Henkel, T. G., Marion Jr, J. W., & Bourdeau, D. T. (2019). Project manager leadership behavior: Task-oriented versus relationship-oriented. Journal of leadership education, 18(2), 1.

Hosseini-Asl, E., McCann, B., Wu, C. S., Yavuz, S., & Socher, R. (2020). A simple language model for task-oriented dialogue. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 33, 20179-20191.

Kasar, K. S., & Karaman, E. (2021). Life in lockdown: Social isolation, loneliness and quality of life in the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review. Geriatric Nursing, 42(5), 1222-1229.

Kim, M., Kim, A. C. H., Newman, J. I., Ferris, G. R., & Perrewé, P. L. (2019). The antecedents and consequences of positive organizational behavior: The role of psychological capital for promoting employee well-being in sport organizations. Sport Management Review, 22(1), 108-125.

Laurie, R., Nonoyama-Tarumi, Y., Mckeown, R., & Hopkins, C. (2016). Contributions of education for sustainable development (ESD) to quality education: A synthesis of research. Journal of Education for Sustainable development, 10(2), 226-242.

Lonska, J., Mietule, I., Litavniece, L., Arbidane, I., Vanadzins, I., Matisane, L., & Paegle, L. (2021). Work–life balance of the employed population during the emergency situation of COVID-19 in Latvia. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 682459.

Luthar, S. S., & Kumar, N. L. (2018). Youth in high-achieving schools: Challenges to mental health and directions for evidence-based interventions. Handbook of school-based mental health promotion: An evidence-informed framework for implementation, 441-458.

Muhammed, Z., & Abubakar, I. R. (2019). Improving the quality of life of urban communities in developing countries. Responsible Consumption and Production, Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, 1-14.

Newman, S. (2014). Intergenerational programs: Past, present and future. Taylor & Francis.

Newman, S., & Smith, T. B. (2014). Developmental theories as the basis for intergenerational programs. In Intergenerational Programs (pp. 3-19). Taylor & Francis.

Niemivirta, M., Pulkka, A. T., Tapola, A., & Tuominen, H. (2019). Achievement goal orientations: A person-oriented approach. The Cambridge handbook of motivation and learning, 566-616.

Olszewski-Kubilius, P. (2018). The role of the family in talent development. Handbook of giftedness in children: Psychoeducational theory, research, and best practices, 129-147.

Patrick, D. L., Edwards, T. C., & Topolski, T. D. (2002). Adolescent quality of life, part II: initial validation of a new instrument. Journal of adolescence, 25(3), 287-300.

Peráčková, J., & Peráček, P. (2019). Sport for the subjective dimensions of quality of life. In Quality of Life-Biopsychosocial Perspectives. IntechOpen.

Pluhar, E., McCracken, C., Griffith, K. L., Christino, M. A., Sugimoto, D., & Meehan III, W. P. (2019). Team sport athletes may be less likely to suffer anxiety or depression than individual sport athletes. Journal of sports science & medicine, 18(3), 490.

Ribeiro, Í. J., Pereira, R., Freire, I. V., de Oliveira, B. G., Casotti, C. A., & Boery, E. N. (2018). Stress and quality of life among university students: A systematic literature review. Health Professions Education, 4(2), 70-77.

Roberts, G. C., & Nerstad, C. G. (2020). Motivation: achievement goal theory in sport and physical activity. In The Routledge international encyclopedia of sport and exercise psychology (pp. 322-341). Routledge.

Schaffner, A. K. (2021). The art of self-improvement: Ten timeless truths. Yale University Press.

Shankar, A., Rafnsson, S. B., & Steptoe, A. (2015). Longitudinal associations between social connections and subjective well-being in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychology & health, 30(6), 686-698.

Søndergaard, D. M. (2014). Social exclusion anxiety: Bullying and the forces that contribute to bullying amongst children at school. School bullying: New theories in context, 47-80.

Søndergaard, D. M., & Rabøl Hansen, H. (2018). Bullying, social exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging. Nordic Studies in Education, 38(4), 319-336.

Spaull, N. (2015). Schooling in South Africa: How low-quality education becomes a poverty trap. South African child gauge, 12(1), 34-41.

Sugara, G. S., Rakhmat, C., & Nurihsan, J. (2020). Factorial structure and psychometric properties of the quality of life inventory in an Indonesian college sample. Mediterranean Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(3).

Tatai, R. (2022). The" Clean Your Plate Campaign": A Study of "Traditional Values" and Their Impact on Younger Generations (Master's thesis).

Tonon, G. H. (2021). Student's quality of life at the university: A qualitative study. Applied Research in Quality of Life, 16(4), 1517-1535.

Uddin, M. (2021). Addressing work‐life balance challenges of working women during COVID‐19 in Bangladesh. International Social Science Journal, 71(239-240), 7-20.

Van Mierlo, H., & Van Hooft, E. A. (2020). Team achievement goals and sports team performance. Small Group Research, 51(5), 581-615.

Wilt, J. A., & Johnson, S. E. (2024). Emotional states, achievement goals, and performance in NCAA Division I swimmers. Scientific Journal of Sport and Performance, 3(1), 10-19.