Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 2
Organizational Culture and Its Role in Updating the Administrative Skills of Secondary School Principals in the Education Directorate of Basra GovernorateRawaa Abdulameer Abbas*
*Correspondence: Rawaa Abdulameer Abbas, Department of Student Activities, University of Basrah, Iraq, Email:
Received: 01-Mar-2023 Published: 15-Mar-2023
AbstractThe importance of the research lies in getting acquainted with the organizational culture and its elements and how to benefit from it in updating the administrative skills (AS) of school principals (SP) to achieve the required goals of educational institutions and the services they provide to the community. Accordingly, it requires educational institutions to pay attention to developing the organizational culture and modernizing the AS of SP so that everyone can keep up with the requirements of scientific and technical progress taking place at this time. Therefore, the study aimed to find the role of organizational culture in updating the AS of secondary SP in the Directorate of Education of Basra Governorate. The descriptive method used the correlational relations method to solve the research problem. The research community was determined by secondary SP in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate. (420) male and female SP were chosen randomly to represent the sample. The sample was divided into a sample of preparing a measure of organizational culture and AS, which numbered 200 SP. As for the sample of the survey, which consisted of 20 principals and principals of a school. The main application sample is 200 SP. After preparing the two scales by the researcher and conducting the scientific foundations and statistical analysis of the expressions of the two scales, they proved their validity. The two scales were distributed among the sample with the necessity of confirming the answer to one alternative. After the testers finished answering, the questionnaires were collected, checked, and processed statistically using appropriate statistical methods. The researcher concluded that secondary SP are characterized by a degree of organizational culture. And update their AS in terms of technical, human, intellectual, and the ability to diagnose and analyze the relationship between variables and their perception in school management. As well as the positive role of organizational culture in updating their AS in managing their schools.
Organizational culture, Update management skills, Administrative skills.
SP in the educational institution are considered one of the most important pillars in facing society's issues and problems. And his legal and legitimate responsibility in preparing generations that bear responsibility for production and various services in the future. The success of the school principal in performing his role in the educational institution requires the availability of AS. In order to properly exercise his role in the educational institution, he must be competent, educated, possess AS, and be familiar with the latest theories and applications in his field of specialization (Opstoel et al, 2020). Organizational culture is one of the main factors determining the success and excellence of educational institutions, especially at the present time. In which the educational environment is characterized by rapid changes that will affect the performance of educational institutions and the achievement of their goals. Therefore, the concept of organizational culture received great interest from thinkers of strategic management. An organization that has a strong managerial culture enables its members to be committed, disciplined, and creative. And innovation for the purpose of participating in decision-making, which drives them to achieve outstanding individual performance that enables them to achieve their goals. When specialists talk about organizational culture, they mean the system of values, beliefs, customs, traditions, rituals, and symbols prevailing among its members, and this pertains to educational and educational institutions in particular. It differs from the prevailing systems in other institutions (Hussein et al, 2023). And then it works to find a distinctive template and form that is repeated constantly, in a way that affects the behavior of workers and their conflicts within the educational institution. The organizational culture is an important element in influencing the managerial skills of SP. Therefore, we find that the organizational culture gives the manager an incentive and motivation to update his managerial skills in spreading and renewing knowledge, producing, developing and applying it. Solving community problems, serving the educational process, and improving the level of teachers and students within the educational institution. Accordingly, “the principal of the school must possess some AS that make him play his role in planning, implementing and evaluating with high efficiency.” (Albderi et al., 2023). The importance of the research lies in getting acquainted with the organizational culture and its elements and how to benefit from it in updating the AS of SP. To achieve educational goals within educational institutions and the services they provide to the community.
Organizational culture is an important variable in the work of educational institutions, and its importance is embodied in the multiplicity of tasks and functions it performs. It guides the organizational behavior of employees and facilitates the success of the organization to achieve its values and concepts that drive employees towards modernizing managerial skills, commitment and discipline, and contributing to making the right decisions, innovation and creativity. Good management seeks to harness science and technology to serve its business and the duties of its institutions. Rather, it cannot achieve its goals except by employing modern technology, and this is an important feature and element of organizational culture. Accordingly, educational institutions are required to pay attention to developing the organizational culture and modernizing the AS of SP. In order for everyone to be able to keep up with the requirements of scientific and technical progress taking place at this time through training. Which is one of the most important elements of change, which has an important role in developing the skills and capabilities of SP. And what is reflected on the faculty members in the field of teaching performance and student achievement. To achieve the objectives of the desired educational process in improving their performance and the quality of educational and educational outputs. Therefore, the researcher sought to study the role of organizational culture in updating the AS of secondary SP in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate.
Identifying the organizational culture and its role in updating the AS of secondary SP in the Directorate of Education of Basra Governorate.
1. There is a direct significant correlation between the organizational culture and the modernization of AS among secondary SP in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate.
1. The human field: a sample of secondary SP in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate.
2. The temporal field: the period from 6-22/3/2023.
3. Spatial field: secondary school buildings in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate.
The descriptive method used the correlational relations method to suit the nature of the research problem solution.
The research community was determined by the principals of secondary schools in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate, who numbered (642) male and female principals. (420) principals and principals of a school were chosen randomly. The survey sample consisted of 20 principals and principals of a school. The main sample of the application is 200 SP.
Organizational culture scale
The organizational culture scale was prepared based on previous studies (Funk et al, 2018; DiFrancisco-Donoghue et al, 2019). to suit the sample specifications and the nature of the study. The scale included six axes (cohesion-participationcooperation- values-communication-beliefs) and each axis included 3 phrases, thus the number of the scale phrases became (18) phrases. They are answered according to the five-graded Likert scale, which consists of five alternatives (excellent-very good-good-average-poor). All the expressions on the scale are in the positive direction, as the higher the score on this scale, this indicates the existence of an excellent organizational culture, and the lower the score indicates Poor organizational culture.
Measurement of modernization of AS: The AS update scale was prepared based on theoretical studies (Halstead et al,2018 ; Ardern et al ,2018)to suit the specifications of the sample and the nature of the study. The scale included five skills: (technical - human - intellectual - analytical - diagnostic) and each skill includes ( 4) Phrases Thus, the number of expressions of the scale has become (20) phrases. It is answered according to the five-graded Likert scale. Which consists of five alternatives (excellent-very good-good-medium-weak). The hypothetical mean is (60) degrees, and the scale has all its expressions in the positive direction. As the higher the score in this scale, this indicates the individual's ability to update his managerial skills in an excellent manner, and the lower the score indicates the weak modernization of managerial skills.
Statistical analysis of the two scales: The scientific foundations and statistical analysis of the expressions of the two scales were conducted through the validity of the content after presenting it to (15) experts. And then conducting discriminatory power, internal consistency, and midterm segmentation after distributing it to a sample of (200) SP.
The exploratory experiment for the two scales was conducted on 6/3/2023 on a sample of (20) SP who were randomly selected. The purpose of the exploratory experiment was:
1. Ensure that the instructions for the two scales are clear.
2. Ensure that the phrases are clear and that there are no errors.
3. Standing up on the obstacles and negatives that may occur during the application of the main experiment.
4. Ensuring the efficiency and tasks of the assistant work team in (distributing the two scales to the sample).
The main experiment was applied to the applied sample of (200) SP during the period from 13-22/3/2023. As the two scales were distributed to the sample, with the need to stress the laboratory by answering one alternative by putting a sign (√) in front of the alternative that it finds appropriate. After the testers finished answering, the questionnaires were collected and checked. It was found that all the questionnaires are complete. And by collecting the scores of the alternatives for each phrase to represent in the end the total score of the scale in order to be treated statistically using the appropriate statistical means.
Measure of organizational culture and modernizing AS
Table 1 shows that the sample of secondary SP in the Education Directorate of Basra Governorate are distinguished by a degree of organizational culture and tend to update their AS. The researcher attributes this to the fact that SP, in order to advance their schools, seek to create cohesion among teachers through understanding and observance of common values. As well as the participation of opinion and brainstorming by teachers. While encouraging the exchange of knowledge and creating an organizational climate. Cooperation in solving problems and building mutual trust. The values agree with the different orientations of the teachers (Table 1).
|Measure of organizational culture, measure of updating AS||Measure of organizational culture, measure of updating AS||Statistical means|
|90||100||The highest value on the scale|
|81||94||The highest value achieved by the sample|
|18||20||The lowest value on the scale|
|34||33||The lowest value achieved by the sample|
|86,7||92,2||t value for one sample|
|moral||moral||Significance of differences|
The researcher believes that the principals' answers show their endeavor to deliver instructions, procedures and rules for the work of teachers quickly and accurately, which gives clarity in the teachers' awareness of the vision, mission and goals of the school clearly. The SP' answers also gave a clear vision about their technical skills in the ability to invest in technologies and management information technology and seek to implement electronic governance in the educational institution. In addition, they are distinguished by their human skills through their work with the teachers within the same team in a positive way to solve the problems facing the school.
Their answers were distinguished by their intellectual skills through their ability to plan for the vision, mission and goals of the school in a way that ensures the benefit of the educational process and its outputs. They also demonstrated their diagnostic and analytical skills in linking variables with each other in order to deduce the correct solution to the situations that occur within the school. What is imposed by the quality standards of performance and e-learning. Pushing principals to seek to develop and update their cultural and AS in accordance with the requirements of technological development and standards of quality of academic performance continuously to improve their annual job performance (Hussam, 2011: 136).
The school principal, who is distinguished by organizational culture and AS, will enhance his scientific and administrative level and contribute positively and effectively to the educational institution and society.
The trend towards modernizing the AS of the school principal plays a major and important role in the educational process and a new technical dimension to move it away from the traditional method, as its competencies help in acquiring educational and self-skills and improving the adequacy of job performance (Lee et al ,2018).
The correlation between the measure of organizational culture and updating AS
Table 2 shows that there is a direct significant correlation between the organizational culture measure and the modernization of AS among secondary SP. The researcher attributes this to the fact that SP have an organizational culture that will move towards updating their AS, which gives the school principal an opportunity and high ability to manage the school in an advanced manner and in line with modern technological development and thus achieves sufficient high functional performance and creative management. which gave the educational process an effective role.. As excellence in the organizational culture of the school principal gives motivation and ability to modernize AS, desire to work and motivation, and thus creativity in school management. As well as excellence in the administrative matters entrusted to him inside and outside the school (Nasr, 2002: 94) (Table 2).
|scales||correlation coefficient||sig||Direction||significance of the correlation|
|Life skills update|
Secondary SP are characterized by a degree of organizational culture in terms of cohesion, cooperation, participation, compatibility of values, and delivery of instructions in school management. Secondary SP are characterized by a degree of modernization of their AS in terms of technical, human, intellectual, and the ability to diagnose and analyze the relationship between variables and their perception in school management. The organizational culture that distinguished SP had a relationship in updating their AS in managing their schools. The use of the organizational culture scale and the measure of updating AS within the requirements of the adequacy of the annual job performance of SP. And conducting training courses to acquire organizational culture and update AS in accordance with the concept of quality of performance and technological development of the educational process. The interest in modern technology as one of the requirements of organizational culture and modernization of AS and the extent to which they are used in the management of secondary schools.
|t||Themes and phrases||Degree of
|The first axis / cohesion.|
|1||There is an understanding between me and the teachers at
|2||There is a common language of communication with all
|3||There are common values between me and the teachers.|
|The second axis / participation.|
|4||All teachers express their opinion freely.|
|5||I seek to encourage teachers to come up with new and
|6||Teachers are involved in making decisions.|
|The third axis / cooperation.|
|7||Encourage the exchange of knowledge and ideas between the
different disciplines of teachers
|8||Creating an organizational climate that contributes to raising
the morale of teachers.
|9||Teachers cooperate in solving various school problems.|
|Fourth axis / values.|
|10||Work to build mutual trust and compatibility of values and
principles for all teachers of different orientations.
|11||The school administration is respected and appreciated by teachers and continues to raise the status of the school and
enhance its role in the community
|12||Organizational phenomena (internal and external) mean to
teachers at school many things and concepts.
|Fifth axis / communications.|
|13||Communication between the school administration, teachers and the Directorate of Education is carried out with modern
|14||Instructions, procedures and rules for the work of teachers
arrive quickly and accurately.
|15||The school administration seeks to provide opportunities for
teachers to develop their skills in the field of technological communications.
|The sixth axis / beliefs.|
|16||Encourage teachers' behavior that is consistent with the
country's philosophy and religious beliefs.
|17||The rules, organizational instructions and administrative laws
are applied in the school fairly and with equal opportunities for scientific promotion.
|18||Teachers are clearly aware of the vision, mission and goals of
|t||Skills and phrases||Degree of
|1||I have the ability to invest in technologies and management
|2||I seek to implement e-governance in the educational institution.|
|3||I organize training courses for teachers in the field of educational
technology and technologies
|4||I encourage teachers to apply technology and modern techniques in
|5||Understand the social and health conditions of some teachers and try
to help them overcome them.
|6||Work with teachers in a team and positively to solve problems facing
|7||Positively seek to influence teachers' behaviors and empathize with
|8||Work to instill self-confidence, love of work and enthusiasm for it
among school teachers
|9||Work to achieve consistency and integration between the different activities of the teachers' specializations within the school and
encourage their creativity.
|10||I have the ability to anticipate and discover talents and creativity and
motivate them among teachers and students.
|11||Work on planning the vision, mission and objectives of the school to
ensure the benefit of the educational process and its outcomes.
|12||I have the ability to make the decision to achieve the strategic goals of
|13||I have the ability to diagnose problems, track and analyze their
sources, and the ability to solve them.
|14||I have the ability to diagnose and reinforce strengths and weaknesses
and address them with scientific management methods.
|15||I have the ability to diagnose opportunities that enhance teachers'
|16||Diagnose and address threats to education and teacher performance.|
|17||I have the ability to analyze and identify the main variables in each
positive or negative situation separately.
|18||I have the ability to relate variables with each other to derive the
correct solution to situations that occur within the school.
|19||Analyze the internal and external environment of the educational
institution in order to achieve good performance.
|20||Analyze the failures of some teachers and the causes of their
occurrence and seek to address them
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