Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 2
Professional Performance Levels as a Determinant of the Activity of the Coaches of Some Futsal Football Clubs in Iraq from the players' points of view
*Correspondence: Ali Mohammed Jawad Ahmed Al-Saegh, Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences /Faculty of Education for girls / University of Kufa, Iraq, Email:
2Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / University of Babylon, Iraq
3Physical Education and Sport Sciences Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, 51001 Hillah, Babil, Iraq
The coach is the basis of the training process, and its effect appears in the way he applies the skills and training plans in the various and changing playing situations in all events at the time of volleyball. Their goal is to bring about desirable changes for the players by raising the effectiveness of their performance. Effective training is characterized by specific strategies that can be applied, and therefore the effective coach is the one who uses these strategies that consist of a separate skill set. For example, the effective supervision strategy consists of the coach moving in an unexpected pattern and increasing the behavior related to the implementation of the task, eliminating the inappropriate behavior quickly and decisively, and finally providing the players with appropriate feedback. Hence, the significance of the research in studying the professional behavior of coaches and showing the extent of their effectiveness during training and competitions from the point of view of futsal football players. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the level of professional performance competencies for coaches, because the failure to disclose the level of professional behavior competencies represents one of the shortcomings that affect the possibility of developing the coach’s level, which is reflected in his capabilities in raising the level of his players in terms of physical, skill, tactical and psychological aspects. The research aims to reveal the levels of professional behavior competencies of volleyball coaches in some Iraqi clubs, in addition to knowing the differences between them. The research sample amounted to 96 players representing 6 clubs from the Premier League in futsal for the 2019-2020 season. The researchers used the professional performance scale, which consisted of 91 items distributed over 5 main axes. The researchers concluded the following:
- There are no statistically significant differences between coaches of sports clubs.
- There are differences between trainers according to years of experience-
- The levels of trainers were distributed between very good and weak, and most of the sample was concentrated in the medium level, with a rate of 41.17%.
- The levels of trainers were distributed between very good and weak, and most of the sample was concentrated in the medium level, with a rate of 41.17%.
Professional performance. Coaches. Futsal
Coaches are the basis of the training process, and their influence appears in the way they apply training skills and plans in diverse and changing playing situations. Their goal is to bring about desirable changes for players by raising the effectiveness of their performance. In any case, there is a need to identify, clearly, the types of skills to be availability of trainers to be effective. As research in this field has attempted to identify the tasks that a skilled trainer performs within the training process, down to a list of skills and attributes needed to understand how competent trainers work. Effective training is characterized by specific strategies that can be applied, and therefore the effective trainer is the one who uses these strategies. The strategy usually consists of a separate skill set. For example, the effective supervision strategy consists of the trainer’s movement in an unexpected pattern and work to increase the behavior related to the implementation of the task, and to get rid of the behavior inappropriate quickly and firmly, and finally providing the players with the appropriate feedback .The importance lies in the coaches’ behavior and striving to develop the training profession in accordance with the principle of adequacy and professional behavior, and focus on preparing the coaches well. The sports training process is characterized by the clear leadership role of the coach, especially in the clubs that represent the place which attracts many players of all levels and aims to develop their athletic abilities.
The coach has many teaching and educational tasks that contribute to building the athlete to achieve the highest levels, as he is the main driver of the training process. On different aspects of the training process, and it will be a new episode in the series of studies that preceded it, and its results will reinforce what others have started, as through which the professional performance of the coaches can be demonstrated. Building the sports movement in general and coaches in particular, as it will be an important pillar for the development of other research and in various sports fields concerned with players.
One of the indications of interest in trainers in terms of qualification and preparation is the work to provide the requirements for improving the level of performance for the better and striving to reach the levels of the world’s developed countries in training. This aspect is not important, including the aspect of professional performance competencies for futsal coaches, which represents an important and vital aspect that provides the coach with access to the level of his players towards achieving advanced achievement. The evolution of the coach’s level, which is reflected in his capabilities in raising the level of his players in terms of physical, skill, tactical and psychological aspects. The problem of the research lies in measuring the professional behavior competencies of coaches of individual team games from the players’ point of view as a determinant of the effectiveness of coaches. The research aims to reveal the levels of professional performance and the differences between them among coaches of futsal football clubs in Iraq from the players' point of view. Research methodology and field procedures
The research procedures used, whether in collecting data, analyzing them, or extracting results, depend on the nature and type of the research method. The human being from one point to another point, or he is the dominant feature of a group of intellectual or behavioral phenomena. Therefore, the researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method in order to suit the nature of the research
Research sample: The objectives that the researchers set for his research and the procedures he uses will determine the nature of the sample he will choose. (Raysan Khraibet: 1987, 41), so the sample was chosen randomly, and they are the players of some Premier League clubs in futsal for the season (2019-2020), and the number of players was (96) players distributed among (6) clubs
For the purpose of solving the research problem, the researcher relied on the following means:
1. Arabic and foreign references and sources
3. Professional Behavior Scale
Professional performance scale
To achieve the requirements of the study, the researchers used the Professional Performance Scale, which was designed by Haider Odeh
(Haidar Odeh: 2007) appendix (1).
The scale consists of (91) items distributed over (5) domains, which are as follows:
-The field of personality and appearance (26) items.
-The field of scientific competencies and professional growth (13) items.
-The field of team management in training and competitions (19) items.
-The field of human relations (17) items.
-Evaluation competencies domain (16) items.
The pilot study is (a preliminary experimental study carried out by the researcher on a small sample before carrying out the research in order to test the research methods and tools and to identify the negatives in applying the tests for the safety of basic procedures. Therefore, the scale was distributed to a number of players, numbering (5) players. On 5 /2/ 2020
Scientific coefficients of the scale
(Scale validity) content validity
Validity is an essential characteristic of a good test, and it is necessary for the test to accurately measure the situation for which it was set.
The researchers adopted the principle of retesting as a scientific procedure to verify the validity of the scale’s stability by finding the correlation coefficient between two tests conducted by the researchers separated by a period of one week on a sample of (5) players who are the same sample as the pilot experiment, for the period from 5/2/2020 to 12/2/ .The results revealed that the stability coefficient reached (0.83), which indicates the stability of the scale, and thus the scale is valid for application.
The researchers completed the research procedures by distributing scale forms to a sample of (96) players representing the Premier League clubs in futsal (Al-Shorta, Shahran, Al-Wasat refineries, Baghdad, North Gas, Al-Jaish) on 25/2/2020 until 28/ 3 / 2020 .
Was used the statistical package SPSS version 11
Presenting, analyzing and discussing the results
After collecting the data, it was processed according to the following statistical tables:
From Table (1) it becomes clear to us that the level is very good for the category (410) and above, the number of players was (50) and with a percentage of (14.7). As for the level of good at the category (409-319), the number of players was (40) and with a percentage of 11 76, As for the average level at the category (318-226), the number of players was (140) and with a percentage of 41.17. The level is acceptable at the category (225-134) the number of players was (40) and with a percentage of 11.76, and the level is acceptable for the category (133-191). The number of players was (40) with a percentage of 11.76. The level is very weak in the category (less than 191), the number of players was (3) with a percentage of 8.82.
|14,7||50||Very good||410-and above|
|8,82||30||Very weak||less than 191|
The researchers believe that the reason for the presence of coaches at the two levels is very good and good and with this number is due to the fact that they are distinguished by their balanced professional behavior, which is characterized by behaviors that show the extent of their knowledge of the nature of what is required of them in performance that reflects the high level of dealing with players in various conditions and situations of training and sports competition, which gives an image Positive at this level about their professional performance. “Success is measured on the basis of completing tasks in the required form, while effectiveness is measured on the basis of optimal investment in the capabilities of workers in the organization to perform their tasks.” (Abdul Bari Al-Durra and others: 1994)
The achievement and success of sports training operations depends mainly on the availability of specific characteristics, traits, capabilities, knowledge and skills of the coach. (Mufti Ibrahim Hammad: 27).
As for the intermediate level, the researcher believes that the trainers are at the average level, the majority of the trainers in their professional behavior, which is logical if we take the scientific view of the distribution of levels, and therefore these trainers possess knowledge that puts them at this level and they need more knowledge of the nature of what is supposed to He shall have professional performance in terms of dealing with players, administrators and everything surrounding the training process. The trainer is considered “the active element and the cornerstone of the success of the training process. All educational and pedagogical requirements fall on him through his scientific knowledge of training. Therefore, the trainer must be understanding of all aspects of the game and have the characteristics, capabilities and special knowledge that enable him to lead the training process with high efficiency” (Samir Muhammad Ali Shaybah: 2003)
As for the two levels, acceptable and weak, this gave an indication that those at these two levels of trainers lacked many of the ingredients they needed to ensure professional performance commensurate with the requirements of the training profession. Therefore, the lack of information in this aspect is reflected in the level of their professional performance in terms of the actions taken by them. In situations and conditions of training and competition
Therefore, the coach must be an educated person, an educator, and consciously aware of his duties as a coach. The coach must be distinguished by professional knowledge, and he must do a great and meticulous work to study the new things that appear in the field of sports training. (Raysan Khribit: 1988)
From this, we see that the effectiveness of the coach increases the knowledge of what is required for the correct pass professionally. It is indisputable that the effectiveness of the coach at the two levels is very good and good, and it is the most of the other levels, i.e. the average, which is characterized by being more effective than the two levels, acceptable and weak, for the trainers are in the first level, the second is highly effective in terms of their appearance at a level of professional behavior commensurate with the nature of the need to properly deal with athletes in individual and team games.
The coach can achieve the vital base in the wave development through daily contact with the players. Sports training seeks to develop all physical and psychological forces. Therefore, an (Mufti Ibrahim Hammad: 1998. 27) efficient must be available).
The difference is significant at an error rate of 0.05 and at a degree of freedom of (96) which is (1.96 (Paul Hanna: 1979, 15) From Table (2) it is clear that the arithmetic mean of the differences between coaches amounted to (308.78), with a standard deviation of (18.56), and the calculated t-value was 0.975, which is smaller than the tabular value of (1.96) and this Indicates that there are no differences in professional performance among coaches Premier League Futsal Clubs.
The researchers believe that the absence of differences in professional performance between club coaches is due to the fact that coaches’ personal factors represent the basic aspect of the nature of the behaviors that can appear from them that appear in their professional behavior, because the coach deals with a group of players, which confirms the lack of influence of the game on his professional behavior In its general form, this confirms the results that result in the absence of differences between club coaches in professional behavior.
The best and most skilled coach in training will be the most enjoyable in training and will create better players, and the better the players become, the more capable they will be and they will achieve success through playing. (Jarles Hughes: 1990)
The coach is a great force that can arouse all the forces inherent in the athlete, both physical and mental that entices them to work, so that they directly affect the overall development of the personality to be used for the benefit of the individual and the good of the group (Table 3). )Paul Hanna: 1979
|10 years and over||5-10 years||5 years and below||M||Years of Experience|
|10,35*||4,44*||3,50||5 years and below|
|5,91 *||7,68||5-10 years|
|13,62||10 years and over|
LSD value least significant difference = 022
From Table (4), we can see the results of the difference between the arithmetic means for the variable of experience from (5 years and less), (5-10 years), and (10 years and above), as follows: The difference between (5 years and under) and (5-10 years) was (4.44) and the difference between (5 years and under) and (10 years and above) was (10.35) and the difference between (5-10 years) was ) (10 years and over) (5,91).
From Table (4) it is clear that there are differences in the arithmetic circles and the researchers attribute this to the fact that the coaches with experience (10) years or more have outperformed their peers in professional behavior with experience (5-10) or less than (5) years until that the experience factor is an important factor that gives the coach the opportunity to possess theoretical and practical information during training or competition due to the nature of what he should have in terms of psychological treatment that is reflected in his professional behavior with his players or the environment in general, including administrators, players and the public. Thus, those who have experience (5- 10) years They were better in their professional behavior than those with experience (5) and less, and this is consistent with the logic, as the experience contributes greatly to the development of the level of coaches from his dealings and interaction with his players in various individual and team sports.
|F Tabular||F Value||Mean square||Degree of Freedom||sum of squares||Contrast sources|
|2072||337||64,29||inside the totals|
The task of the trainer is one of the difficult tasks in the field of human activity, so the person who chose this task should be an educator above all and lead the course of the training skillfully. The success of any coach is to create an atmosphere of friendship and mutual understanding in the group of athletes in which he works.
1. The levels of trainers were distributed between very good and weak, and most of the sample was concentrated in the medium level, with a percentage of 41.17%.
2. The percentage of coaches who were at a good or very good level was 26.46%
3. The percentage of trainers who were at an acceptable level reached 11.76%
4. The percentage of trainers who were both weak and very weak reached 20.58%
5. There are no statistically significant differences between the futsal coaches in the studied clubs
6. There are differences between trainers according to years of experience
1. The need to pay attention to the establishment of development courses to clarify the concept of professional performance for coaches in sports clubs, especially for people with levels from average and below.
2. Emphasis on conducting follow-up studies to follow up the professional performance of trainers
3. Conducting similar studies on samples of coaches of sports clubs and of various sports
4. Accreditation of trainers with long experience in work
We would like to thanks all the team that works on this research and especially the Dean of Al-Mustaqbal University College represented by Assist. Prof. Dr.Hassan Shakir Majdy for the financial support provided to complete this research
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Boulos Hanna. 1979.The first organizing course for sports leaders in the Arab countries. Rabat, Issues of the Arab Federation for Sports Games.
Charles Hughes. 1990. Football, plans and skills, translated by Muwaffaq Majid Al-Mawla.
Haider Odeh. 2007. Building and codifying a scale of professional behavior competencies for team games coaches from the players' point of view. Basra University: College of Physical Education, Master's Thesis.
Mufti Ibrahim Hammad. 1998. Modern sports training planning, implementation and leadership. I 1, Cairo: Dar Al-Fikr Al-Arabi.
Samir Muhammad Ali Shaibah.2003. Building and Applying the Leadership Styles Scale for the Coach of Some Team Games from the Players' Point of View and Its Impact on Team Ranking, Master's Thesis, College of Physical Education, University of Basra.