Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4
Psychological Empowerment and its Relationship to Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Workers in the Olympic Committee Sports FederationsSuhair Meteab Munaf1*, Ali Abdulateef Ali2 and Mohannad Salman Dawood3
*Correspondence: Suhair Meteab Munaf, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
The purpose of this paper is to Preparing two measures of organizational citizenship behavior, and psychological empowerment of workers in sports federations in the Olympic Committee, and identifying the relationship between psychological empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior. The researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method. The research community was determined by the intentional method represented by the members of the central federations of the Iraqi Olympic Committee, which numbered (191) members, with (25) unions. The research community was determined, as the researchers chose a sample of the community consisting of (160) members, after which they performed the procedures for preparing the two scales. And they used the correct scientific conditions by setting the axes and paragraphs down to the statistical procedures and field experiments until they extracted the two scales in the final picture and then they extracted the results of the application and then they concluded a set of conclusions, including that the members of the Olympic federations have the behavior of organizational citizenship and psychological empowerment distinguish the sample on the various axes and areas of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment. Therefore, the researchers recommended the necessity of adopting the two measures of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment. Continuing to develop methods and courses that increase, develop and develop organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment.
Olympic Committee. Anxiety. Psychological empowerment
One of the administrative concepts that have recently been produced by contemporary administrative thought and that have captured the attention of many researchers and practitioners and have begun to penetrate extensively in the management literature is the concept of organizational citizenship behavior, which has become much relied upon to improve the performance level of the organization and employees alike. The focus of this concept revolves around those voluntary behaviors that individuals perform towards an organization that goes beyond the stage of loyalty and affiliation to reach the degree of giving. These institutions require him to live in an environment that dictates his conditions and imposes on him a kind of anxiety or tension, so learning how to perform work and adapting to the atmosphere and intensity of the rhythm with which he must work in order to accomplish his work. All this creates for him many and multiple feelings filled with frustration, psychological conflict, hesitation and doubt in his ability to complete the work, and the concept of empowerment emerges as one of the modern administrative methods, whose idea is based on the assumption that workers are given confidence and delegated powers and independence at work, which generates for them a feeling of confidence and motivation to assume responsibility and explodes them The latent energies that appear in the form of creativity and suggestions increase their positive motivations towards the importance of work and its efficient completion. Therefore, this study seeks to monitor the role of psychological empowerment in achieving organizational citizenship behavior for a sample of workers in Iraqi unions, as the work carried out by this union has its returns. Positive that affects the results of the teams affiliated to these federations.
• Preparing two measures of organizational citizenship behavior, and psychological empowerment of workers in sports federations in the Olympic Committee.
• Identifying the relationship between psychological empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior.
Research Methodology and Field Procedures
The researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method
Community and sample research
The research community was determined by the intentional method represented by the members of the central federations of the Iraqi Olympic Committee, who numbered (191) members, with (25) unions. Related to the research, and then the sample was divided into samples for the necessities of the research, as follows: The exploratory sample (8), the preparation sample (72), the main experiment sample (80), and table 2 show the details of the sample division (Tables 1 & 2).
|No.||Olympic sports federations||Total number||No.||Olympic sports federations||Total number|
|1||IraqiEquestrian Federation||8||14||IraqiSwimming Federation||8|
|2||IraqiFencing Federation||8||15||IraqiShooting Federation||8|
|3||IraqiWrestling Federation||8||16||IraqiGymnastics Federation||8|
|4||IraqiTennis Federation||8||17||IraqiAthletics Federation||8|
|5||TripleIraqi Federation||8||18||IraqiBoxing Federation||8|
|6||IraqiWeightlifting Federation||8||19||IraqiHandball Federation||8|
|7||IraqiBow and Arrow Federation||8||20||IraqiBasketball Federation||8|
|8||IraqiCycling Federation||8||21||IraqiBaseball Federation||8|
|9||IraqiJudo Federation||8||22||IraqiTaekwondo Federation||8|
|10||IraqiVolleyball Federation||8||23||IraqiCanoe Federation||8|
|11||Iraqiof Legal Games Federation||7||24||Iraqibadminton federation||8|
|12||IraqiKarate Federation||8||25||IraqiRowing Federation||8|
|13||TheIraqi Table Federation||8|
|1||Iraqi Equestrian Federation||8|
|2||Iraqi Fencing Federation||8|
|3||Iraqi Wrestling Federation||8|
|4||Iraqi Tennis Federation||8|
|5||Triple Iraqi Federation||8|
|6||Iraqi Weightlifting Federation||8|
|7||Iraqi Bow and Arrow Federation||8|
|8||Iraqi Cycling Federation||8|
|9||Iraqi Judo Federation||8|
|10||Iraqi Volleyball Federation||8|
|11||Iraqi of Legal Games Federation||7|
|12||Iraqi Karate Federation||4|
|13||The Iraqi Table Federation||4|
|14||Iraqi Swimming Federation||5|
|15||Iraqi Shooting Federation||6|
|16||Iraqi Gymnastics Federation||3|
|17||Iraqi Athletics Federation||4|
|18||Iraqi Boxing Federation||4|
|19||Iraqi Handball Federation||3|
|20||Iraqi Basketball Federation||8|
|21||Iraqi Baseball Federation||6|
|22||Iraqi Taekwondo Federation||6|
|23||Iraqi Canoe Federation||8|
|24||Iraqi badminton federation||8|
|25||Iraqi Rowing Federation||4|
Field Research Procedures
Procedures for preparing standards of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment:
The researchers took several steps in order to obtain two scales that meet the scientific conditions, and the most important steps that the researchers followed in the preparation process are: identifying and suggesting (5) areas for the citizenship behavior scale and (4) areas for the psychological empowerment scale through the use of scientific references and giving a theoretical definition for each field In addition to giving the domains a meaning for the studied phenomenon or the concept that is to be measured through the questionnaire, it was presented to a number of experts and specialists in the field of sports management, measurement, evaluation and psychology, numbering (17) experts, appendix (1). Adding or merging any field they deem appropriate and deleting or modifying the inappropriate fields, and according to the experts’ opinions, the researchers accepted all areas of the two scales after the acceptable percentage of the experts’ approval was achieved, which is (85%) and above.
Preparing paragraphs of the two scales (organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment):
After determining the areas of the two scales for members of the Olympic federations, the researchers prepared paragraphs for each field to be presented to a group of experts and specialists, as each paragraph expresses the field in which it was placed and on the basis of the theoretical definition of the field in which the paragraph was placed with the identification of alternatives to the proposed answer, as the number of paragraphs reached The measure of organizational citizenship behavior in the initial form (45) items distributed over five domains. The cognitive empowerment measure, it consisted of (23) items distributed over four domains. The researchers used the choice method from five alternatives (Likert) (strongly agree, agree, unsure,5). unsure Agree, strongly disagree), and the scale of scores was arranged starting from (5-1), and accordingly, the researchers took into account the following aspects when formulating the scale
• Each field has its own paragraphs.
• That the paragraphs of each field express the theoretical definition of the field.
• The paragraph should have only one specific meaning.
• That the paragraphs be clear meaning and understandable words.
• Stay away from incomprehensible paragraphs.
Identify the validity of paragraphs:
The researchers presented the two scales to a group of (17) experts and specialists in the field of sports management, testing, measurement and psychology in the sports field for the purpose of reviewing the paragraphs of the two scales and their suitability and validity, making observations, and modifying or deleting the inappropriate paragraphs, and through the (Chi-2) it was approved On all paragraphs with some modifications, the researchers have taken all of the Appendix (2,3) of the measures of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment in the initial form, and tables 3,4 show the chi-square value of the two scales, knowing that the significance value is significant when it is < 0.05 (Tables 3&4).
|No.||Paragraphs||Validity||Invalidity||Chi-2||Level sig||Type sig|
|Paragraphs||Validity||Invalidity||Chi-2||Level sig||Type sig|
Table4: Shows the validity of the items of the psychological empowerment scale.
The researchers applied the exploratory experiment to a group of (8) members of the Olympic federations in their workplace, and it was found that the sample accepted the two scales through clarity of instructions, ease of understanding and clarity of the paragraphs. The researchers or the assistant work team did not face any negatives or obstacles.
Applying the two measures of organizational citizenship behavior and empowerment to the sample of preparation
After the areas and paragraphs were tested by the experts, it became ready for application as was applied with the help of the assistant work team on the sample numbers of (72) members of the central unions. Some descriptive statistics for the sample and Table 5 shows this (Table 5).
Psychometric characteristics of the measures of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment:
The psychometric properties of the two scales include the scale’s ability to what it was intended to measure. It also includes the scale’s ability to measure the phenomenon with an acceptable degree of accuracy or with the fewest possible errors (Odeh. 1998).
Honesty Scale: Honesty is when the test measures the ability, trait, or willingness that the test is designed to measure, i.e. actually measuring what it is intended to measure (Nasr El-Din. 1997), as the researchers relied on several types of Honesty to verify the scale.
Honesty content: The researchers verified this type by means of rational analysis of the content of the scale and its determination based on subjective judgments.
Honesty virtual: This type of honesty has been achieved and the paragraphs of the two scales were determined with the help of a group of sports management experts, tests and measurements and sports psychology appendix (2). Each arbitrator was asked to determine the validity of each phrase (validity, invalidity) and the appropriateness of the amendment to the paragraphs in proportion to the sample used as was done Explain it above.
Discriminative ability of paragraphs:
To verify the discriminatory ability of the paragraphs whose paragraphs are on top, the value of (T) must be a function of the results of the upper and lower group of the statistical analysis sample on each of the paragraphs (Hussein. 2008).
Thus, the grades of each paragraph were arranged in ascending order from the lowest degree to the highest degree, and 35% of the lower grades and the same from the higher grades were selected. After processing the results statistically, it was found that the paragraphs are true, since the (Sig) values are smaller than the significance level of (0.05), as in tables 6, 7 (Tables 6 & 7).
|lower group||upper group||
|No. Paragraphs||lower group||upper group||
The significance value is significant if it is < 0.05 with a degree of freedom (48).
It is evident from Table 6 that all the items of the scale are capable of distinguishing between the upper and lower levels, so no one of the scale items was deleted.
The significance value is significant if it is < 0.05 with a degree of freedom (48).
It is evident from Table 7 that all the items of the scale are capable of distinguishing between the upper and lower levels, so no one of the scale items have been omitted.
Internal consistency of the two scales:
The researchers calculated the internal consistency of the scale by extracting the Pearson correlation coefficient between the degree of each of the scale phrases and the total score of the scale on the sample numbers and the table (8,9)
|simple correlation coefficient||
|No. Paragraphs||simple correlation coefficient||
|No. Paragraphs||simple correlation coefficient||
|No. Paragraphs||simple correlation coefficient||
shows the internal consistency of the two scales.
Significant at < 0.05 and degree of freedom n-2 = 70
From the previous table, it is clear to us that all the paragraphs are statistically significant, except for the paragraphs (1,6,7,10,18,40,45).
Scale stability: Researchers Extracted Stability in Three Ways:
This method measures the internal homogeneity of the scale items, as this homogeneity indicates the consistency of performance and stability when answering all items, as this method is based on calculating the correlation coefficient between the scores of individuals on the two halves of the test. Members of the Olympic federations in calculating stability in this way, as the statistical bag for social sciences (SPSS) was used. The correlation coefficient of the organizational citizenship behavior scale was extracted for half of the scale, which is (0.584). The correction became the reliability coefficient (0.733),which is a high and reliable stability coefficient to estimate the stability. As for the psychological empowerment scale, the correlation coefficient for the two halves of the test was (0.534), and since the scale has an odd number of paragraphs, the researchers used (Gitman’s equation), which amounted to (0.644).
Cronbach's alpha coefficient
The researchers extracted the stability coefficient of Cronbach's alpha based on the sample data for the preparation and extracted the reliability coefficient whose value was for the first scale (0.690) and for the second scale (0.612), which is a high reliability coefficient that can be trusted to estimate the stability of the two scales.
The main experience of applying the measures of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment
After the two scales were ready for application in its final form, Annex (4,5), the researchers applied the two scales to the application sample, which numbered (80) members of the Olympic federations. After completion, the researchers unloaded the results for processing.
Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of Results
Presenting the results of the measures of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment:
Tables (10,11) show that there are moral differences in favor of the arithmetic mean, and this means that it possesses organizational citizenship behavior, as researchers attribute this to the fact that all members of the Olympic federations are Iraqis, and they have strong ties, especially to the game to which they belong. In addition, most of the members of the federations have represented the country is each according to its game in international forums, and they have achieved many achievements.
|organizational citizenship behavior||114||157.2375||157.0000||7.24830||.037||53.354||0.000||Sig|
|The significance value is significantif it is < 0.05|
|consciousness of conscience||24||28.2375||2.87391||13.188||0.000||Sig|
The results obtained by the members of the Olympic federations also reflect their willingness to offer voluntary behaviors as well as their official roles, and they are keen on constructive and responsible participation in the affairs of the Federation, concern for its fate and ensuring its success in their pursuit of the goals they seek to develop their capabilities, and this is what prompted them to abide by the rules and laws of work They seek to avoid complaints, maintain positivity, and address problems and difficulties working in the federation if they occur, in addition to their constant quest to help each other in work to facilitate the task of new ones from them and other behaviors. Additional roles. It is good by these players to achieve achievements that this behavior is optional and not compulsory, that is, it is of a voluntary nature that stems from the personal choice of additional roles that the individual can play within the organization, and therefore these voluntary cases of behavior are more and far from the call of duty that may feel By some, these behaviors are a voluntary and solid commitment to goals to achieve success and a necessity for the survival and continuity of the organization (Al-Amri. 2003).
This result suggests an increase in cooperation between individuals to confront the administration, so it turns out that the more organizational justice decreases, the more the spirit of antiquity, civility, sportsmanship and awareness of conscience, which is the behavior of the individual towards individuals. The rapid change in various technical and cognitive fields creates an environment that needs an appropriate organizational climate that can be in line with external variables. Through the good use of resources, creativity and the process of rapid adaptation of workers to external developments.
Successful organizations that wish to reach high levels of performance and achieve organizational effectiveness are in dire need of workers who perform more than their usual duties and achieve higher than expected in the dynamic present, and accordingly, the behavior of organizational citizenship is a behavior that goes beyond formal legal requirements. It is not considered within the incentive system and is directed towards the individual, the group, and the organization that enhances in one way or another the performance and organizational effectiveness of contemporary institutions, and enables them to adapt and survive for a long time (Robbins. 2001).
The desire to participate in more than the conditions of work is a major element of the activities of the institution, and the desire of individuals to participate in cooperative efforts to serve the institution is of high value, despite the fact that this behavior goes beyond merely performing the job role, however, it does not directly contradict the job requirements, but rather leads to improving the effectiveness of the institution, because the institution in which cooperation is prohibited or restricted, and work is limited to each individual performing the work assigned to him, such an institution is doomed to failure (Moran. 2003).
Through table (12) it is clear that there are moral differences in favor of psychological empowerment and its fields and in favor of the arithmetic mean of the sample, as the researchers attribute excellence to psychological empowerment because the sample has the experience and high motivation in order to complete its work as well as the many situations that workers in unions are exposed to, which enables them to face different conditions And because they too have undergone several exams or previous tests, as they work in the administrative and perhaps technical side before, and these circles are full of many surprises that affect in one way or another the positive aspect of psychological empowerment. They are subjective things that are inherent within them, and all that the senior management can do is to provide a climate and environment that supports its care and promotion (Carless, 2004).Empowerment is a continuous and continuous feeling that does not stop as it can be realized in varying proportions and degrees among workers and it does not exist or does not exist for them, and that the individual’s vision of himself and his awareness of the importance of his work is the beginning of psychological empowerment and that he has the merit and competence to achieve this goal (Pitts, 2005).
|The importance of working||18||20.7313||2.62720||13.150||0.000||Sig|
|Independence and discretion||15||17.3250||2.67087||7.786||0.000||Sig|
The results obtained by the members of the federations in psychological empowerment reflect us that they have a subjective and positive feeling about their job and everything related to it, in terms of the importance and value of their work and the goal of the work they do, especially since they carry a noble mission of serving their games and sports in general. Orienting individuals and solving their various problems, and stems from their psychological empowerment and their feeling of being influenced by others, as well as their merit, independence and freedom of action. Between managers and workers on the basis of trust, support, communication and providing workers with necessary and unnecessary information so that the individual and the team feel some responsibility towards the desired performance results.
Through table (13), the researchers see the existence of a correlation between psychological empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to enable them to take good work behaviors that would increase or improve achievements at the level of the Federation or the Olympics, and whenever the member’s role is effective, especially in making decisions, it gives him selfconfidence in order to devote his efforts to improving his performance and making it developed in a way that matches recent developments at the level of sports federations. With the federations to control the means and tools of the federation and harnessing them to serve it, empowering him by using modern techniques in the administrative work to adapt to the new changes.
|Citizenship behavior||psychological empowerment|
The adaptability of the workers in the Olympic federations gives them the ability to influence others and the surrounding stimuli at work, as well as the performance of the federation and the fateful decisions that control it, and this pushes them to additional behaviors as evidence of their loyalty to the federation.
Conclusions and Recommendations
• The organizational citizenship behavior scale was prepared, as it consisted of (38) items divided into five domains, and the psychological empowerment scale consisted of (23) items divided into four domains.
• Ease of applying the two scales to the research sample.
• The members of the Olympic federations have the behavior of organizational citizenship and psychological empowerment.
• Distinguish the sample on the various axes and areas of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment.
• The necessity of adopting the standards of organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment.
• Continuing to develop methods and courses that increase, develop and develop organizational citizenship behavior and psychological empowerment.
• Giving the members of the Olympic federations the opportunity to develop their capabilities and their continuous participation in decisionmaking.
• Conducting other studies that include other measures, as well as selecting other samples.
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