Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4
Psychological Pollution and its Relationship to Emotional Maturity among Scout LeadersLamia Sami Elias1* and Khansaa Sabri Mohammed Ali2
*Correspondence: Lamia Sami Elias, Educational Rusafa Directorate II / Ministry of Education, Iraq, Email:
The purpose of this paper is to measuring the general level of psychological pollution among scout leaders in the education of Baghdad, Rusafa II, measuring the general level of emotional maturity of the scout leaders in the education of Baghdad, Rusafa II, and identifying the relationship between psychological pollution and emotional maturity among scout leaders. The two researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method. The two researchers chose the research sample by the intentional method from the scout leaders of the central teams and the wooden badge campaign in the education of Baghdad Rusafa II for the academic year 2019-2020. The research sample consisted of (10) leaders and leaders of the central teams of the Cubs and Flowers stage. One of the most important results reached by the researcher is that: There is a significant and inverse correlation between psychological pollution and emotional maturity of the research sample, and leaders who have a higher degree of psychological pollution have weaker emotional maturity than the rest of their colleagues. One of the most important recommendations recommended by the researchers is that:Emphasis on the good psychological preparation of leaders toreduce the impact of psychological pollution on them, and open counseling sessions to raise awareness of psychological pollution and guide leaders to its danger and the means to take their hand and reach a degree of maturity.
Psychological pollution. Emotional maturity. Scout leaders
Psychological pollution is one of the dangerous psychological and educational phenomena that need to be studied, as behavior is a response to the various variables in the light of which the behavior of the individual and his interaction with himself and his community, and as a result of the unnatural conditions that our society has gone through that negatively affected the behavior of individuals and their psychological structure. The idea of psychological pollution did not come out of nowhere, but was imposed by factors and rapid changes associated with wars and the repercussions of the political conditions that included devastating effects on the psychological and social structure and the accompanying emergence of behaviors that were not familiar with culture before, and therefore the idea of psychological pollution comes From our reality in which we live, this research paper came to identify the phenomenon of psychological pollution in terms of concept, manifestations, explanatory theories, as well as its fields (Muhammad. 2004).
Many specialists in the field of educational psychology dealt with psychological pollution by definition, as some defined it as “the individual’s exposure to uncontrollable external pollutants that affect his behavior and emotions through the psychological pressure generated by this pollutant.” Others also defined psychological pollution as “that phenomenon Expressing the state of the colonization of the personality during its quest to destroy souls and the prevention of eradicating them from their roots and origins after they have been corrupted and polluted, not to mention that when the soul is polluted, it is not only polluting its environment, but it will pollute all the meanings of life” (Al-Tai. 2002).
The stage of personality maturity and completeness is not complete unless the individual develops from caring for the family to autonomy and earning a living or livelihood and the responsibility of forming a new family, caring for and supervising it. There are also many studies that dealt with the issue of emotional maturity and gave it great importance as it is one of the important features of the human personality. The study of Rahe (1995) also demonstrated that the painful social and psychological experiences and adjustment disorders have a strong relationship with a person’s psychological balance, which is the biggest cause of mental illness, and the Rosenberg 1999 study showed that the ability of individuals to withstand external pressures depends on their mental abilities, which is an indicator of emotional balance in a mature individual. Emotionally able to tolerate frustration.
The scout leader is one of the pillars of scouting (leader, boys, programs) as it is the most important in the educational process, so the concern is to improve his performance in order to improve the reality of the scouting movement, as there are differences in their cognitive and behavioral capabilities and administrative efficiency as it requires the scout leader to learn It teaches and develops itself simultaneously, with the requirements of the need and the situation over time, and this leads us to one of the modern management concepts in the management of the scout institution and its employees, which is performance evaluation in order to raise the level of the Scout reality and raise the quality of the leaders’ performance of psychological, administrative, cognitive, skill and leadership aspects and how to communicate and communicate in a better way. Scientific according to objective scientific bases are far from subjective assessments (Odeh. 2005).
Hence the importance of this research in identifying the effect of psychological pollution on the emotional maturity of scout leaders during their participation in scouting activities.
At a time when the world cares and thinks about environmental pollution, it is witnessing another pollution that gathers around it and afflicts its children, which is psychological pollution at a time when it is considered Psychological pollution) is a serious psychological and educational phenomenon that requires its study, as the psychology literature lacks it. The problem is also in the lack of a scientific tool capable of (Measuring this dangerous phenomenon) is characterized by honesty, objectivity and stability. In studying this phenomenon, it relied on the scout leaders in the education of Baghdad Rusafa II, because they represent a class of conscious leaders and leaders of future generations, whom we all strive to preserve and protect from all negative influences that work to keep him away from the original educational goals Especially those social, political and psychological changes in society, as the two researchers noticed the low level of leaders when they participate in any scouting activity, so the researchers believe that the reason is psychological influences, including psychological pollution and emotional maturity of them, hence the problem of the research.
• Measuring the general level of psychological pollution among scout leaders in the education of Baghdad, Rusafa II.
• Measuring the general level of emotional maturity of the scout leaders in the education of Baghdad, Rusafa II.
• Identifying the relationship between psychological pollution and emotional maturity among scout leaders.
• Human field: Leaders of the central teams in the education of Baghdad, Rusafa II.
• Time field: (8/9/2019) to (20/10/2019).
• Spatial field: Sports and school activity hall / Baghdad Education Rusafa II.
Research Methodology and Field Procedures
The two researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method to suit the objectives of the research, as it seeks to collect data from individuals and society in an attempt to determine the current state of the society in a specific variable or research variables.
Community and sample research
The two researchers chose the research sample by the intentional method from the scout leaders of the central teams and the wooden badge campaign in the education of Baghdad Al-Rusafa/2 for the academic year 2019-2020. The research sample consisted of (10) leaders and leaders of the central teams of the Cubs and Flowers stage.
Research Tools: Research tools are “the means or method by which a researcher can solve a problem, no matter what those tools are data and equipment.”
Means of collecting information:
• Arabic references and sources.
• International Information Network (Internet).
• Psychological Pollution Scale.
• Emotional Maturity Scale.
Field research procedures
In the research procedures, the two researchers relied on the following steps:
In order to carry out the procedures, the two researchers reviewed previous studies similar to the subject of the research, which lead to achieving the desired results of the research.The researchers used two scales, the first is psychological pollution scale (Khairallah. 1985) and the second is the emotional maturity scale in a way that achieves the goal that the two researchers seek in light of their topic and the problem they chose for their research. The two researchers found that the two scales are codified in the Iraqi environment and used in previous research, and they are valid and stable.
First: Psychological pollution scale (Freeman, .F.S. 1960):
The Psychological Pollution Scale consists of four domains, where the total number of items on the scale is (100) divided into the domains of the scale, which are (the domain of denial and abuse of civilized identity), (the domain of (attachment to foreign formal phenomena), the domain of non-objective hermaphroditism, and (the domain of “objective intersexuality”) The response pattern to each paragraph was set according to the Likert-R style with five alternatives (strongly agree, agree, disagree, strongly disagree, neutral).
Second: Emotional Maturity Scale (Al-Qaisi. 1997):
The Emotional Maturity Scale consists of four components:
Self-reliance and self-confidence: it is the individual's tendency towards his psychological sufficiency and his abilities to achieve specific patterns in the psychologically, socially and functionally required behavior.
A sense of reassurance: that the individual feels secure, contented, happy and enjoys life, loving it, coming to it, and optimistic with others.
Compatibility with others: the individual is feeling of familiarity, belonging and cooperation with others, and he is able to establish social relations characterized by equality and communication.
Psychological control and stability: The individual's ability to control himself and control his actions in situations that provoke emotion away from recklessness and impulsiveness.
The scale consists of (50 items) that include the above four components, including (13 items) for the first component, (10 items) for the second component, (13) items for the third component, and (14) items for the fourth
The main experiment was conducted on 13/9/2019 when the two researchers distributed questionnaires for the two scales to the research sample, who are scout leaders.
• Standard deviation.
• Simple correlation coefficient (Pearson).
• Spearman-Brown equation.
Results and Discussion
Presenting and discussing the results of the Psychological Pollution and Emotional Maturity Scale
The two researchers applied the two scales (psychological pollution and emotional maturity) to the research sample, and the table below represents the arithmetic mean and standard deviation (Table 1).
|Scales||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||correlation coefficient (Pearson)||Level sig||Type sig|
Table 1 shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson). The results showed that the arithmetic mean of the Psychological Pollution Scale was (27.5) with a standard deviation of (2.505).
While the results of the table showed that the arithmetic mean of emotional maturity was (24.1) with a standard deviation of (3.322), and the value of the calculated Pearson correlation coefficient of psychological pollution and emotional maturity was (-0.63), while the calculated sig value was (0.046), which is less than the level of significance (0.05), which indicates There is a spiritual connection between them.
The level of psychological pollution and its relationship to the emotional maturity of scout leaders is an indicator that requires caution and attention from those in charge and decision-makers in reconsidering the building of the scout leader’s personality and preparing it to be in line with the various changes taking place in the environment of that personality and so that they can prepare a generation free of pollution and deepen their spirit of creativity and learning.
Conclusions and Recommendations
• There is a significant and inverse correlation between psychological pollution and emotional maturity of the research sample.
• Leaders who have a higher degree of psychological pollution have weaker emotional maturity than the rest of their colleagues.
• Emphasis on the good psychological preparation of leaders to reduce the impact of psychological pollution on them.
• Open counseling sessions to raise awareness of psychological pollution and guide leaders to its danger and the means to take their hand and reach a degree of maturity.
Ahmed Salman Odeh. 2005.Measurement and evaluation in the teaching process. (Oman: Dar Al-Fikr for Publishing and Distribution).
Amer Yassin Al-Qaisi. 1997. Emotional maturity, self-acceptance and acceptance of others among accelerated and diligent students and their ordinary peers, College of Education (Ibn Rushd / University of Baghdad (unpublished doctoral thesis, p. 95).
Anwar Fakhri Al-Tai. 2002. Environmental Studies of Physiological and Chemical Responses, Master's Thesis (unpublished), College of Education, University of Mosul.
Freeman, .F.S. 1960. Theory and Practice of psychological testing. Holt, Renhart and Winston, Inc. New York,p486
Osama Hamid Muhammad. 2004. Psychological Pollution, Ph.D. Thesis, College of Education, University of Mosul,.
Seyyed Muhammad Khairallah. 1985. Testing the ability to think innovatively: (Baghdad, Psychological and Educational Research, Dar Al-Nahda) p. 10.