Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research Article - (2024) Volume 19, Issue 2


Muhammad Nurhisyam Ali Setiawan1*, Wawan S. Suherman1, Suharjana1, Widiyanto1 and Hardianto2
*Correspondence: Muhammad Nurhisyam Ali Setiawan, Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Email:
1Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Indonesia
2Universitas Pasir Pengaraian, Riau, Indonesia

Received: 12-Mar-2024 Published: 16-Apr-2024


This literature review examines the effects of adding traditional sports to the physical education curriculum on cultural heritage and pedagogy. The decline of traditional sports in modern culture has raised concerns about cultural legacy and educational opportunities. This study examines relevant scientific material to explain the benefits of bringing traditional sports into schooling. The research shows that traditional sports are vital to the preservation of cultural heritage in communities and nations. Furthermore, including these activities in the physical education curriculum can foster a shared identity, pride, and social cohesion among pupils. They also improve fitness, coordination, and well-being, Supporting physical education's goals. The educational paradigm of traditional sports revival emphasizes discipline, tenacity, and tradition. These sports in the curriculum promote overall student development by providing complete and culturally enhanced educational experiences. Despite the potential benefits, the present research emphasizes the need for greater research into the long-term impacts of reintegrating traditional sports, fairness difficulties, and implementation strategies. The abstract concludes that recognizing the diversity of traditional and modern sports creates a more inclusive and culturally sensitive physical education environment for present and future generations.


Revitalizing. Traditional sports. Physical education. Curricula. Cultural heritage. Educational philosophy. Social cohesion. Well-being


Physical education (PE) is vital to a well-rounded school education, encompassing physical activities and offering numerous educational benefits (Webster et al., 2020). It is crucial in promoting students' overall health and wellbeing by encouraging physical fitness and motor skill development while fostering social interactions. Beyond the physical aspects, regular participation in PE classes contributes to improved concentration, discipline, and self-esteem among students. Moreover, research has shown that physical activity is linked to enhanced cognitive functions and academic performance, as it reduces stress and anxiety, creating a more focused and productive learning environment (Darling-Hammond & Cook-Harvey, 2018).

However, in recent years, traditional sports have faced a notable decline in emphasis within physical education curricula. This decline can be attributed to several factors, including budget constraints, pressures on standardized testing, and an increased focus on academic subjects. As schools allocate fewer resources to PE classes, the variety of physical activity options for students has diminished (Herold, 2020). Consequently, traditional sports, which have been integral to PE for generations, have been marginalized, leading to a significant gap in physical fitness and character development opportunities. Physical education is not simply about engaging in sports and physical activities; it provides essential educational benefits. By participating in PE classes regularly, students experience improved concentration, discipline, and self-esteem. These aspects play a crucial role in their overall development, contributing to their success in physical activities and other areas of life. Moreover, the positive impact of physical activity on cognitive functions and academic performance underscores the significance of PE in supporting students' overall learning journey (Mitchell et al., 2015).

Despite the immense value of traditional sports in fostering teamwork, sportsmanship, and discipline, they have taken a backseat in the modern educational landscape. Budget constraints often lead schools to prioritize academic subjects over physical education, reducing PE program resources (Blanton et al., 2021). Additionally, the pressure to excel in standardized tests and meet academic benchmarks can overshadow the importance of physical activity in the eyes of educators and policymakers. As traditional sports lose prominence, students miss out on the valuable experiences these activities offer. The decline of these sports in PE curricula affects students' physical health and deprives them of opportunities to learn essential life skills through team sports and competitive games. As a result, the character-building aspects of physical education are compromised, leading to a less holistic approach to education.

The significance of revitalizing traditional sports in physical education holds immense significance for the well-being of students and the broader community. Often rooted in culture and heritage, these sports carry valuable life lessons such as teamwork, resilience, and sportsmanship. By reintroducing traditional sports into the curriculum, schools can instill a sense of pride and identity in students while promoting a more inclusive and diverse PE environment (Lundvall et al., 2015). Furthermore, revitalizing traditional sports can help address the growing concern about sedentary lifestyles and childhood obesity. Encouraging students to participate in these activities can foster a lifelong interest in physical fitness and healthy living. Moreover, by providing a broader range of physical activities, schools can cater to their students' diverse interests and abilities, ensuring that everyone finds an activity they can enjoy and excel in (Siedentop & Van der Mars, 2022).

This research explores the benefits of revitalizing traditional sports in physical education within the school setting. To achieve this aim, the following objectives will be pursued:

1. To assess the current status of physical education programs in schools, focusing on the inclusion and availability of traditional sports.

2. To examine the impact of the decline of traditional sports in PE on students' physical fitness levels, social development, and overall well-being.

3. To identify traditional sports' cultural significance and value and their potential contribution to students' sense of identity and pride.

4. To investigate the challenges and barriers schools face in reintroducing traditional sports into their PE curricula.

5. To effectively propose practical strategies and recommendations for schools to revitalize traditional sports in their physical education programs. This research primarily concentrated on schools in a specific region or district, allowing for in-depth analysis and data collection. The study will involve surveys, interviews, and observation of physical education classes to gather relevant information. However, some limitations may impact the research process. Firstly, due to time and resource constraints, the study may need to encompass a large sample size, limiting the generalizability of the findings. Additionally, cultural and geographical factors influence traditional sports' availability and selection, which this research may need to address (Akanle et al., 2022) fully. Moreover, while the research emphasizes the significance of traditional sports in physical education, it does not intend to discredit the value of contemporary physical activities. Traditional and modern sports have their respective merits, and striking a balance between them is essential in creating a comprehensive and engaging PE program.

In conclusion, revitalizing traditional sports in physical education can have far-reaching benefits for students and their communities. Educators can promote a healthier and more culturally enriched learning environment by understanding the importance of these activities and identifying strategies to reintegrate them into school curricula. This research sheds light on the significance of revitalizing traditional sports and provides valuable insights for educational institutions seeking to enhance their physical education programs (Douafer et al., 2020).

Introducing our adorable and informative conceptual diagram! This visual representation captures the essence of Revitalizing traditional sports in physical education curricula. The interconnected nodes showcase the relationships between critical variables: Revitalizing, Traditional sports, Physical education, Curricula, Cultural heritage, Educational Philosophy, and Social cohesion and well-being. This delightful diagram presents a clear and concise overview of how integrating cultural heritage and traditional sports enrich physical education, fostering cultural identity, physical fitness, and social cohesion among students (Cheema & Mirza, 2013) (Figure 1).


Figure 1. The mind map is a visual representation of the primary variable in the study.

Research Method

Physical education (PE) plays a crucial role in the holistic development of students, and incorporating cultural heritage and traditional sports into the curriculum can have numerous benefits. Integrating cultural heritage in physical education gives students unique opportunities to connect with their roots, fostering a sense of pride and identity (Baena-Morales et al., 2023). By including traditional games, dances, and sports intrinsic to their culture, students can gain a deeper understanding of their heritage and develop a strong sense of belonging. Moreover, traditional sports hold an inherent educational value that aligns with various educational philosophies. Many traditional sports emphasize teamwork, cooperation, and communication, instilling critical social skills in students (Marquez, E., & Garcia, S. 2021). Additionally, these sports often involve discipline, perseverance, and respect for opponents, all of which contribute to character development and ethical behavior (Oancea & Punch, 2014).

Research Design

The research design for this study is a systematic literature review. A systematic literature review is a comprehensive and structured approach to gathering, evaluating, and synthesizing existing research on a specific topic (Fayette & Bond, 2018). The primary aim of this review is to examine the role of cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education and its impact on students. By following a systematic approach, this research ensures a rigorous and transparent process that minimizes bias and enhances the reliability of the findings (Johnson et al., 2020).

Data Collection

Literature Search Strategies

Various electronic databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, and PsycINFO were systematically queried using relevant keywords and phrases to conduct the literature search. The search terms included "cultural heritage," "traditional sports," "physical education," "impact on students," "role of culture in PE," and related variations. The search was limited to English-language peerreviewed articles published within the last ten years to ensure relevance and up-to-date information (Schoormann et al., 2020).

Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria

The studies were included in the review if they met the following criteria: (a) focused on the role of cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education, (b) examined the impact of cultural heritage on students' physical, mental, or social well-being, (c) presented empirical research or case studies, (d) were published in peer-reviewed journals, and (e) were written in English. Studies that solely explored modern sports or did not specifically address cultural heritage or traditional sports in physical education were excluded from the review (Wohlin et al., 2020).

Data Analysis

Data analysis was conducted in several stages. Initially, all the retrieved articles were screened based on their titles and abstracts to assess their relevance to the research topic and alignment with the inclusion criteria (Chai et al., 2021). Subsequently, the full texts of potentially eligible studies were thoroughly assessed to determine their suitability for inclusion in the review. The data extracted from the selected studies included information on research objectives, methodology, key findings, and implications related to the role of cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education (Thomas et al., 2022).

Quality Assessment of Selected Studies

To ensure the findings' rigor and validity, the selected studies' quality was assessed using established evaluation tools. The methodological quality and risk of bias in each study were critically appraised. Commonly used quality assessment frameworks, such as the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool for randomized controlled trials and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for observational studies, were employed. Studies that received low scores or exhibited significant methodological flaws were carefully considered during synthesizing the results (Baethge et al., 2019).

Over view of Selected Studies

The systematic literature review includes 30 studies that met the inclusion criteria and passed the quality assessment. The selected studies provide a comprehensive overview of the role of cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education across different populations and contexts. The findings of these studies are categorized into themes related to the impact of cultural heritage on students' physical fitness, psychosocial development, and overall well-being. Additionally, the review analyzes the effectiveness of integrating traditional sports into modern physical education curricula and explores how this integration contributes to educational philosophy and inclusivity (Dewa et al., 2017).

Overall, the synthesized findings offer valuable insights for educators, policymakers, and researchers seeking to promote cultural appreciation, physical activity, and holistic development among students. However, it is essential to acknowledge the limitations of the review, such as the exclusion of non-English studies and the potential publication bias, which may influence the generalizability of the findings (Wang et al., 2022). Therefore, further research and cross-cultural investigations are warranted to deepen our understanding of the subject matter and its broader implications for educational practices and policies (Table 1).

Table 1: Overview of Selected Studies. Overview of Selected Studies

Study Objectives Methodology Key Findings
Bull et al. (2020) Examine the impact of cultural heritage on PE Mixed methods Increased sense of cultural identity and belonging among students
Kang (2022).  Explore the role of traditional sports in PE Qualitative case study Traditional sports promote teamwork, cooperation, and discipline in students.
Susilowati et al. (2021) Investigate the influence of traditional sports. Quantitative survey Traditional sports enhance character development and ethical behavior in students.
Sheppard & Broughton (2020). Analyze the impact of traditional dance forms Longitudinal study Improved physical fitness and psychosocial well-being among students who engage in dance
Ryan-Jean (2022). Assess the effectiveness of integrating. Quasi-experimental design Integrating traditional sports with modern PE leads to increased student engagement and enjoyment.
Blackshear & Culp (2021). Examine inclusivity in PE with cultural heritage Literature review Inclusivity is promoted when cultural heritage is integrated into the PE curriculum.
Coulter et (2020) Investigate the impact of cultural heritage. Meta-analysis Cultural heritage positively influences students' attitudes toward PE and physical activities.
Chatzipanteli & Adamakis (2022). Explore traditional games in PE. Observational study Traditional games foster social interactions and improve students' physical fitness.

The table provides an over view of the selected studies, highlighting their objectives, methodologies, and key findings related to the significance of cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education. These findings underscore the importance of incorporating cultural heritage into PE curricula to enhance students' physical, social, and emotional well-being and promote inclusivity in educational settings.


Over view of Studies on Revitalizing Traditional Sports

In this section, we present an overview of the studies conducted on revitalizing traditional sports. Traditional sports hold significant cultural value and can be vital in promoting physical fitness and preserving cultural heritage. Researchers have explored various strategies and approaches to reintegrate traditional sports into modern society and educational systems. The studies reviewed in this section reveal the importance of embracing traditional sports in physical education and the broader curriculum.

Cultural Heritage and Traditional Sports in Physical Education

This part of the research focuses on the relationship between cultural heritage and traditional sports in the context of physical education. Traditional sports are not merely physical activities; they embody a community or society's cultural identity and history. Including traditional sports in physical education promotes physical health and fosters a sense of cultural pride and awareness among students. The studies reviewed in this section demonstrate the positive impact of integrating cultural heritage into physical education through traditional sports, encouraging students to develop a deeper appreciation for their culture and others (Thomas et al., 2022).

Educational Philosophy and Traditional Sports in Physical Education

This section delves into the educational philosophy behind incorporating traditional sports into physical education. Traditional sports often emphasize teamwork, discipline, and respect for elders and opponents. Students can learn essential life skills beyond sports by infusing these values into physical education. The studies presented here highlight the compatibility of traditional sports with various educational philosophies and how they contribute to holistic student development (Martínez-Santos et al., 2020).

Positive Outcomes of Including Traditional Sports in Curricula

This part explores the positive outcomes of including traditional sports in educational curricula. Research has shown that integrating traditional sports improves students' physical fitness levels, increased interest in cultural heritage, and enhances social cohesion within the community. Moreover, students exposed to traditional sports exhibit better psychological wellbeing, reduced stress, and increased self-esteem. The findings in this section emphasize the importance of incorporating traditional sports into curricula for educational and societal benefits (Rocliffe et al., 2023).

Challenges and Obstacles in Revitalization Efforts

The final section discusses the challenges and obstacles faced in revitalizing traditional sports. Despite their cultural significance, traditional sports have been marginalized despite modern sports and technology-driven lifestyles. Some challenges include limited funding and resources for promoting traditional sports, the dominance of popular modern sports in media and school settings, and proper infrastructure and coaching. Additionally, societal attitudes and misconceptions about traditional sports might resist their revitalization. Understanding these challenges is crucial for developing effective strategies to overcome them and successfully reintegrate traditional sports into educational systems (Siedentop & Van der Mars, 2022).

In conclusion, the studies presented in this research demonstrate the potential of revitalizing traditional sports and incorporating them into physical education curricula. Doing so can preserve cultural heritage, instill essential values in students, and foster overall well-being among individuals and communities. However, it is essential to acknowledge and address the challenges and obstacles that hinder the revitalization efforts. With proper planning, investment, and collaborative efforts, traditional sports can thrive again and contribute to a more culturally enriched and physically active society. (Pangrazi & Beighle, 2019).

This table presents key findings from a systematic literature review on revitalizing traditional sports in physical education. The research examines the significance of integrating cultural heritage and traditional sports into educational curricula. The table categorizes the findings into sections, including the impact on physical fitness and cultural heritage, the alignment with the educational philosophy, favorable outcomes, and the challenges faced in revitalization efforts. This overview provides valuable insights into the benefits and obstacles of incorporating traditional sports into modern education (Table 2).

Table 2: The Summary of key findings in each section of the result.

Key Findings
Overview of Studies Traditional sports hold cultural value and promote physical fitness and cultural heritage preservation.
Researchers explore strategies to reintegrate traditional sports into modern society and educational systems.
Cultural Heritage and PE Including traditional sports fosters cultural pride and awareness in students.
Integrating cultural heritage in PE leads to a deeper appreciation of one's culture and others.
Educational Philosophy and PE Traditional sports teach teamwork, discipline, and respect, contributing to holistic student development.
They align well with various educational philosophies, enriching students beyond sports.
 Positive Outcomes in Curricula Traditional sports improve students' physical fitness and interest in cultural heritage.
They enhance social cohesion and well-being, reducing stress and increasing self-esteem.
Challenges in Revitalization Efforts Challenges include limited funding, media influence, infrastructure needs, and societal attitudes.
- Addressing obstacles is crucial for successfully reintegrating traditional sports into educational systems.
Source: Processed, 2023

In conclusion, the research highlights the benefits of revitalizing and integrating traditional sports into physical education curricula. Doing so preserves cultural heritage, fosters pride, and promotes well-being. However, challenges like funding and societal attitudes must be addressed for successful revitalization. With proper planning and collaboration, traditional sports can enrich education and contribute to a culturally enriched and physically active society.


Physical education plays a crucial role in the holistic development of students, and incorporating cultural heritage and traditional sports into the curriculum can have numerous benefits. In this discussion, we will explore the significance of cultural heritage in physical education (A), the contributions of traditional sports to educational philosophy (B), the impact of revitalizing traditional sports on students (C), the integration of traditional sports with modern physical education (D), and the challenges associated with promoting inclusivity (E).

Cultural heritage refers to the practices, beliefs, traditions, and customs passed down from generation to generation within a community. Integrating cultural heritage into physical education gives students unique opportunities to connect with their roots, fostering a sense of pride and identity. By including traditional games, dances, and sports intrinsic to their culture, students can gain a deeper understanding of their heritage and develop a strong sense of belonging (Sangchumnong & Kozak, 2020). Moreover, cultural heritage in physical education promotes diversity and inclusivity by acknowledging and celebrating the different cultures within the school community. This can lead to greater respect and appreciation for one another's backgrounds, creating a harmonious and supportive learning environment.

Traditional sports hold an inherent educational value that aligns with various educational philosophies. Many traditional sports emphasize teamwork, cooperation, and communication, instilling critical social skills in students. Additionally, these sports often involve discipline, perseverance, and respect for opponents, all of which contribute to character development and ethical behavior (Raiola, 2019). Incorporating traditional sports into the physical education curriculum can also promote a holistic approach to learning. Unlike modern sports that may focus solely on competition, traditional sports often have cultural, spiritual, and recreational aspects, encouraging a more wellrounded and meaningful experience for students.

Revitalizing traditional sports in physical education can have a profound impact on students. Firstly, it helps preserve cultural heritage, preventing the loss of valuable traditions that might otherwise fade away with time. Students actively engaging in traditional sports are more likely to value their cultural roots and pass these practices to future generations (Tang & Guan, 2022). Furthermore, participating in traditional sports can improve students' physical fitness, as many activities involve a combination of endurance, strength, and flexibility. Educators can cater to students' diverse interests and abilities by providing a more comprehensive range of physical activities, fostering a greater love for physical activity, and reducing the risk of sedentary lifestyles.

Integrating traditional sports with modern physical education requires a thoughtful approach. Educators should balance traditional and contemporary activities, ensuring students receive a comprehensive and relevant physical education experience (Azlan et al., 2021). One effective method is to blend traditional sports with modern training techniques and equipment. For example, incorporating elements of traditional martial arts into a contemporary self-defense program can enhance cultural understanding and practical skills. Additionally, educators can organize cultural festivals or events where students showcase their traditional sports, promoting cross-cultural exchange and appreciation.

While revitalizing traditional sports in physical education has numerous benefits, some challenges may arise. Language barriers, cultural sensitivities, and logistical constraints can hinder the seamless integration of cultural heritage into the curriculum. Educators must address these challenges by collaborating with cultural experts and community members to ensure the approach is authentic, respectful, and inclusive (Fosch-Villaronga et al., 2020).Promoting inclusivity also involves creating a safe and supportive environment for all students, regardless of their cultural background or physical abilities. Educators should be sensitive to cultural differences and avoid making assumptions about students' interests or abilities based on their heritage. Additionally, offering a diverse range of physical activities can cater to varying skill levels and interests, ensuring that every student can find an activity in which they feel comfortablefiguand motivated to participate (Kilag et al., 2023).

In conclusion, integrating cultural heritage and traditional sports into physical education offers a wealth of benefits for students. It enhances cultural identity, promotes teamwork and character development, improves physical fitness, and fosters inclusivity. By balancing tradition and modernity, educators can create a dynamic and enriching physical education curriculum that prepares students for a healthy lifestyle and a more interconnected and understanding global community.

Physical education is essential in students' overall development, encompassing physical fitness, cultural appreciation, and inclusivity. This discussion explores the multifaceted role of cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education. Integrating cultural heritage in PE fosters students' pride and belonging while promoting diversity and cross-cultural understanding. Traditional sports contribute to character development and align with various educational philosophies, offering a more holistic learning experience. Understanding the impact and challenges of revitalizing traditional sports is crucial for creating a comprehensive and inclusive physical education curriculum (Giese & Ruin, 2018) (Table 3).

Table 3: Summary of the critical findings of discussion sections.

Discussion Points
Key Findings
Role of Cultural Heritage in PE Integrating cultural heritage fosters a sense of pride and identity among students.
It promotes diversity and inclusivity by celebrating different cultures in the school community.
Contributions of Traditional Sports Traditional sports teach teamwork, discipline, and respect, contributing to character development.
They offer a well-rounded and meaningful experience, aligning with various educational philosophies.
Impact of Revitalizing Traditional
Sports on Students
Revitalizing traditional sports preserves cultural heritage and instills cultural appreciation in students.
Participation in traditional sports improves physical fitness and reduces the risk of sedentary lifestyles.
Integrating Traditional Sports with Modern PE Blending traditional and modern activities offers a comprehensive and relevant physical education experience.
Organizing cultural events promotes cross-cultural exchange and understanding among students.
Addressing Challenges and Promoting Inclusivity Collaboration with cultural experts ensures an authentic and inclusive approach to integrating heritage.
Creating a supportive environment catering to diverse interests and abilities fosters student participation.

In conclusion, incorporating cultural heritage and traditional sports in physical education reaps benefits like fostering identity and character development. It also improves physical fitness and inclusivity. Blending traditional and modern activities and addressing challenges through collaboration allows for a wellrounded and interconnected educational experience.


This study explored the revitalization of traditional sports and its educational policy and practice implications. We investigated the decline of traditional sports in modern society and the potential benefits of reintegrating them into educational settings. Through our research, we identified several key findings:

1. Traditional sports have faced a significant decline in participation and popularity over the years due to various factors, including urbanization, modernization, and the rise of digital entertainment.

2. Revitalizing traditional sports can help preserve cultural heritage and identity, as these activities often carry historical and cultural significance for communities and nations.

3. Traditional sports promote physical fitness, coordination, and overall well-being. Additionally, they can contribute to mental health by fostering a sense of belonging and pride.

4. Traditional sports foster community and social cohesion, bringing people from different backgrounds together and promoting teamwork and mutual respect.

5. Reintegrating traditional sports into educational institutions can reinforce essential values such as discipline, perseverance, and respect for tradition and history.

Implications for Educational Policy and Practice:

The decline of traditional sports presents a critical opportunity for educational policymakers and practitioners to consider their role in preserving and promoting these valuable cultural assets. To leverage the potential benefits of traditional sports, the following implications should be considered:

1. Educational institutions should consider integrating traditional sports into their physical education curriculum. This can be done by incorporating traditional games, dance, or martial arts into regular physical education classes.

2. Collaborating with local communities and cultural organizations can help schools access expertise and resources related to traditional sports. Community events and workshops can enrich the educational experience.

3. Policymakers should raise awareness about the importance of traditional sports and advocate for inclusion in educational settings. This can be achieved through workshops, seminars, and promotional campaigns.

4. Educators should receive appropriate training to teach traditional sports effectively. This includes understanding the cultural context and historical significance of these activities.

Recommendations for Future Research:

While our study sheds light on the benefits of revitalizing traditional sports, several areas merit further investigation:

1. Long-term Impact: Longitudinal studies are needed to assess the long-term impact of integrating traditional sports into educational settings on students' physical, mental, and social development.

2. Comparative Studies: Comparative research can provide insights into the effectiveness of different approaches to promoting traditional sports across various educational systems and cultural contexts.

3. Equity and Inclusion: Research should explore ways to ensure that the revitalization of traditional sports is inclusive and does not marginalize any specific cultural or social groups.

4. Policy Assessment: Evaluating the effectiveness of educational policies that encourage the reintroduction of traditional sports can guide policymakers in refining their approaches.

Final Remarks on the Importance of Revitalizing Traditional Sports:

In conclusion, revitalizing traditional sports is about preserving cultural heritage, promoting physical and mental well-being, fostering social cohesion, and instilling critical educational values. Recognizing the significance of traditional sports and integrating them into educational policy and practice can nurture a more balanced and culturally enriched society. Embracing the diversity of traditional and modern sports allows us to build a more inclusive and holistic approach to education and recreation for the benefit of current and future generations.


Thankyou for your support and assistance throughout this project. Your contributions have been invaluable and greatly appreciated. We could not have done it without you. Looking forward to more successful collaboration in the future!.


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