Social Desirability to Practice and not Practice Swimming in Al-Alwyah Entertainment Club/ Baghdad

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 3

Social Desirability to Practice and not Practice Swimming in Al-Alwyah Entertainment Club/ Baghdad

Reem Faisal Rajab* and Sahira Razzaq Kadhim
*Correspondence: Reem Faisal Rajab, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Received: 08-May-2023 Accepted: 22-May-2023 Published: 22-May-2023


The research aims to study social desirability which is considered one of the physiological psychological concepts to understand human nature and is represented by social commitment which is based on the desirable. In turn, it is based on what the culture determines the ethics criteria of good and evil, right and wrong, moderation and anomaly, possible and impossible, and acceptable and unacceptable. Thus, social desirability differs from one to another and from one society to another (1:31). Scord 1998 defines it as “it is restricted organizations to the person that represents one’s ideas and tendency in which it makes him evaluate some aspects of his environment to determine his position accordingly (2:67). The two researchers have adopted the measurement of social desirability to Mohammed Hasan Allawi 1989 (3:22). The scientific principles have been extracted to the two scales. Then, it is distributed to a certain sample of those who practice and do not practice swimming, ensuring the validity of the measurement of the social desirability in the Al-Alwyah Entertaining Club in Baghdad. After analyzing the results based on statistics, the two researchers have concluded that upon the social desirability, the level of practicing swimming in comparison to the level of not practicing swimming has reached the natural point for both of them. The two researchers have concluded that the practices of swimming have the upper hand over the unpracticed in social desirability, reflecting the impact of practicing swimming in the increase of social desirability.


Social desirability. Swimming. Practicing and not practicing swimming

Introduction and Research Importance

Social desirability is considered as a psychological and neurological readiness in which the person’s expertise is organized to have a guiding constructive impact on the response of the different steps stipulated by this responsive (4-34).

The two researchers have defined it theoretically as it is the positive emotion and acceptance towards a certain topic and the range of acceptance and repulsion and love and hatred to that topic.

The social desirability is possible to be indirect relationships among the persons. The person may desire to near another person without friction. This individual has a prestigious position socially. His behavior is seen as if it is desirable socially. The individuals, in turn, change their social opinions and their behavior, and their commitment depending on their behavior engrained by the feeling of consent due to the reward or not having the feeling of consent due to the punishment (5-203). The two researchers have adopted the analytic theory of the scientist (Alfred Adler) to interpret social desirability. It interprets that human is a social creature. His personality is created by the related social environment and interactions. Human needs others to enhance the continuity of their existence because people have an innate tendency to be correlated to others. This correlation makes the human ability to overcome his physical weakness through cooperation with others. When a human joins a certain group, the individual will find himself sometimes compelled to sacrifice many of his demands and desires to gain social acceptance towards the members of the group that belong to it. Thus, he copes with the values, laws, customs, and standards of the group and commits to them. The individual is normalized socially by exposing him to social relationships despite that the social interest in the individual is innate by origin. But the form of social desirability is determined by the type of community and the type of dominant values (6-116).

Sport activity with all different types gives many chances on how the social and creating formation is formed whether the activities are single or collective and develops the social traits to the individual, enhancing the social life (7- 442). Hence, the importance of the research is come out to study the social desirability of those who practice and do not practice swimming in the entertainment clubs to highlight the importance of practicing the sports activity during their spare time.

Research Aim

The research aims to:

• Know the level of the social desirability to those who practice and do not practice swimming

• Know the differences between the social support between the practiced and unpracticed swimming.

Research Hypothesis

• There is no disparity in the social desirability to those who practicebe and do not practice swimming

• There are no differences in the statistics regarding the social desirability between those who practice and do not practice swimming

Fields of Research

• Human Field: it is represented by the women who are practicing and not practicing swimming. The total number is (61) women.

• Time Duration: from 24/04/2022 until 22/06/2022

• Place Activity: Al-Alwyah Entertainment Club’s Swimming Pool in Baghdad

Research Methodology and Field Actions

Research methodology

The two researchers have adopted the descriptive methodology by using a survey because it is proper to the nature of the research and to conclude the results of achieving the research aims.

Research community and its Sample

The research community has been chosen intentionally. The sample has been formed from women who are practicing and not practicing swimming. The total number of women is (60) women. The sample of women has been divided into a questionnaire sample that amounts (to 19) women and the main sample that reaches (52) women between an age of 45 to 50 years old.

Research Tools and Ways of Collecting Information

According to the procedures and the type of the current descriptive study related to the assigned phenomena, the two researchers have adopted the scientific approach to choose the tools of psychometric measurement for the current scale to achieve the aim of the research.

Scale of social desirability

The two researchers have adopted the measurement of social desirability to Mohammed Hassan Allawi (3-125).

Exploratory experiment

The two researchers conducted a tiny experiment on a small sample of the research community. It has been conducted under circumstances that are similar to the main experiment. The two researchers conducted an exploratory experiment on a sample formed of (19) women to prepare the principles of success when the main scale is applied to the main sample of the research to ensure the understanding of the sample to the scale results and to avoid any errors or difficulties when the scale results are distributed to apply and acquaint with the affectivity of the response alternatives and train the support team on how they apply the scale out of the research sample on 22/04/2022. The scientific principles of the scale have been also extracted as the following:

Scale Correctness: The two researchers have used the relationship of the distance degree with the total degree to the scale to extract the Pearson Correlation Factor (8-33). Table 1 beneath shows that correlation (Table 1).

Table 1: Shows the importance of the correlation factors value between the degree of the item and the total degree to the scale. After processing the results of the scale, the table has shown that the terms of the scale have achieved moral values because the values of the incorrectness level in comparison to the correlation values are less than the level of significance (0.05) to all items.

Total Pearson Correlation all 1            
Sig. (2-tailed)                
N   19            
  Pearson Correlation a1 .520* a6 .631** a11 .520* a16 .520*
Sig. (2-tailed)   .023   .031   .023   .023
  Pearson Correlation a2 1.000** a7 .695** a12 .520* a17 .695**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .000   .001   .023   .001
  Pearson Correlation a3 .695** a8 .518* a13 .695** a18 1.000**
Sig. (2-tailed)   .001   .032   .001   .000
  Pearson Correlation a4 .658** a9 .695** a14 .695** a19 .057
Sig. (2-tailed)   .002   .001   .001   .817
  Pearson Correlation a5 .520* a10 .524* a15 .520* a20 .424
Sig. (2-tailed)   .023   .026   .023   .071


Scale invariance: The invariance is considered the main condition for a good type of psychological exercise. Hence, the invariability must be on a high level of accuracy and integrity to build the scales (234:3). The factor (Alpha) has been used to the internal consistency to provide us with the distinguishing potentiality in the most relevant positions. This feature reflects the level of the degree to the item that has the correct and accurate distinguishing among those who are checked to eliminate the undistinguished items among the respondents and to preserve the distinguished ones (9-111). This way is based on the item consistency to the Alpha degree and to reach the invariance according to this method by distinguishing these items. We find that the total value of Cranach’s Alpha, which is (758.), is high. This feature has made the two researchers adopt all items as it is shown in table 2 beneath (Table 2).

Table 2: Scale invariance.

  Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted
a1 27.5263 14.819 .428 .740
a2 27.7368 16.094 .085 .766
a3 27.6842 14.006 .632 .723
a4 27.5789 15.368 .269 .752
a5 27.5263 14.819 .428 .740
a6 27.7368 16.094 .085 .766
a7 27.6842 14.006 .632 .723
a8 27.5789 15.368 .269 .752
a9 27.8947 17.099 -.163 .780
a10 27.4211 15.146 .382 .744
a11 27.5263 14.819 .428 .740
a12 27.7368 16.094 .085 .766
a13 27.6842 14.006 .632 .723
a14 27.5789 15.368 .269 .752
a15 27.5263 14.819 .428 .740
a16 27.7368 16.094 .085 .766
a17 27.6842 14.006 .632 .723
a18 27.5789 15.368 .269 .752
a20 27.4211 15.146 .382 .744

Item-total statistics: To find the scale invariance factor, the two researchers have adopted a second method; it is the split-half method. It is a method that does not a long time and copes with the requirements of the test. To calculate the invariance, the two researchers have used the information taken from the survey experiment which forms (19) women who are affiliates of the Al-Alwyah Club. The two researchers have also used half of Cronbach’s Alpha factor. This method depends on dividing the scale items into two halves: top and bottom. Hence, this aspect has given equivalent degrees to the half of the scale. Then, the factor value has been extracted (988). It refers that the inconsistency degree being high.


The experts have agreed to replace the two response alternatives (Yes, No) with three (Yes, Sometimes, and No) respectively. (1,2 and 3) degrees are given respectively. The scale has included finally (20) items according to their dimensions.

Hence, the highest degree on the scale is (60), and the lowest one is (20). The supposed medium is (40) as it is shown previously. Thus, the two researchers have ensured the correctness and invariance of the responding items. Finally, the response has become valid to be applied to the sample.

Main Experiment

After completing the extraction of the scientific principles to the social desirability scale. The two researchers commenced their main experiment on a sample that amounts (to 52) women under an age fluctuating between (35- 45) years old who are affiliates to Al-Alwyah Entertainment Club. They have been divided into two groups. The first group who practices swimming is (26) women, and the second group who does not practice swimming is (26) women on 15/05/2022. After carrying out the main experiment, the two researchers collected the information of the whole community members and arranged them in a table to analyze them statistically.

Statistics ways: The information from the research has been processed by SPSS.

Displaying, Analyzing Results and Discussing It

After analyzing the results statistically to the dimensions and the general total amount, the two researchers have concluded to:

Displaying and Analyzing Results of Social Desirability

• To know the differences in the level of social desirability to each of those who practice and do not practice sport (Tables 3& 4).

Table 3: One-Sample Statistics.

  N Mean Std. Deviation Std. Error Mean
2 practices 26 51.9231 .93480 .18333
2 not practiced 26 40.6154 2.31650 .45430

Table 4: One-Sample Test.

  Test Value = 40
t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
2 practiced 65.037 25 .000 11.92308 11.5455 12.3006
2 not practiced 1.355 25 .188 .61538 -.3203 1.5510

We find in tables 3 and 4 that there are statistically evident differences in the degree of the social desirability of those who practice swimming for the interest of the uppers calculation medium rather than the supposed medium. On the other hand, the result of those who do not practice swimming refers that there are no statistically evident differences in the fact that the calculated medium is equal to the supposed medium. This reflects the impact of practicing swimming in the club on the increase of social desirability while it is practiced. The two researchers have found that this result is logical because practicing swimming helps increase the confidence of those who practice swimming. This aspect has been reflected in their personalities by having social confidence, leading to expanding the social desirability between each other (10-10). Moreover, practicing swimming is one of the activities that increase the motivation of the individual whether educated, small, or big. Motivation increases the level of thinking and expands different tendencies, including sociality by enjoying and entertaining (11-19). This will lead to a feeling of consent and happiness (12-24) which reflects the social desirability to practice swimming. The two researchers remind us of the role of entertaining clubs to make the social desirability to those who do not practice sport at the natural level. The two researchers agree with Marian Nasha’at that the services of the entertainment clubs have main aspects, and it represents one of the most important phases of the activity of the individual. Entertainment is one of the functions that are provided by the entertaining clubs to its affiliates. Entertainment has considered necessary to achieve accord with the social impacts resulting from the pressure and life problems (13-122) throughout engraining the accord in the individual’s personality (affiliates) and expanding their intellectuality to the life meaning (14-471) throughout the other activities in the club whether it is cultural, artistic or promotional rather than the sports activities.

Hence, the two researchers have achieved the first hypothesis in the research which it is moral differences in the social desirability to each one who practices and does not practice swimming.

Displaying, Analyzing, and Discussing Differences to Social Desirability IN Practicing Swimming and not Practicing it.

To achieve the aim of this second hypothesis, the two researchers have concluded after analyzing the statistics in the table 5 beneath (Table 5):

Table 5: Levene's Test for Equality of Variances.

  Mean Std. Deviation t df Sig.
  Practicing Swimming 51.9231 .93480 23.082 50 .000
  Not practicing swimming 40.6154 2.31650      

It displays that there are evident differences statistically in the interest of practicing swimming in the entertainment club. The two researchers agree with Randa Mara’ee (2-15) that the clubs have become a social phenomenon and a clear aspect imposed by the requirements of the modern era. These clubs are places where people are attended and given care to their positive ideas and protected during their spare time. The reason beyond this aspect is attributed that the compounds of this sport need concentration, desire and increase intellectual and physical activity (14-16). Moreover, the environment of competition to practice swimming creates friendship and sportsmanship. It discerns with an enthusiastic environment that is considered as a motivational aspect (13-17). It is also important to enhance self-confidence, acquire friendships, develop social skills, and consolidate the spirit of cooperation and collective and single work. The practice of (swimming) sport contributes eliminate discrimination and stratification. It also facilitates the process of integrity and social interaction (18-27). The practicing of sports activity (swimming) is one of the used ways to educate the self rather than a way to the body. This activity includes the decrease of tension and pressure. It will lead to enhancing the self’s potentialities (19-77) and self-discipline which appear in the emotional response (20-56) to those who are practicing swimming. It is reflected, in turn, in the social relationships in many aspects, including social desirability, motivating the practices of swimming. This aspect will create a status of thrill and suspense (21: 143) to spend spare time.

Hence, the two researchers have achieved the second hypothesis of the research, revealing that there are evident differences in the social desirability for the interest of practicing swimming.


The two researchers have concluded:

1. The practice of swimming sport to women has a role to increase social desirability.

2. Affiliation to entertainment activity has a role to increase the social desirability of women.

The two researchers have recommended:

1. Conduct researches that are similar to other scales to ensure the role of the entertainment clubs.

2. Conduct other research on the males and study the differences between the females and males of all ages.

Appendix 1: The names of the professors, and the experts, were shown by the scale of social responsibility and the scale of life meaning according to the scientific merit.

Serial Scientific Merit Name Major University/ College
1 Professor, Dr. Naji Mahmoud Naji Psychology University  of   Baghdad/   College   of
Education for Sciences/ Department of Psychological and Educational Sciences
2 Professor, Dr. Fadhil Jabbar Joudah Psycho pedagogy University of Baghdad/ College of Education for Absolute Sciences/ Ibn al-
3 Professor, Dr. Jabbar Wadi Nahidh Counseling  and   Mental
University  of   Baghdad/   College   of
Education for Sciences/ Ibn al-Haitham
4 Professor, Dr. Wardah Ali Abbass Tests and Scales University of Baghdad/ College of Physical
Education and Sport Sciences for Girls


Abdulraof al-Qatri, Hassan: Social Support- Negligence and Consent to Care Services and its relationship to psychological cohesion for the disabled in Gaza strip, unpublished M.A Thesis, 2013, p.31.

Rasheed Abdou, Haneen: Orphan and its impact on the mood status parents' image to the teenager, Psychology Magazine, No. 4, General Board for Books.

Hassan Allawi, Mohammed: Psychological and Skills Tests in the Field of Sport, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, 1987, p.22.

Yousif, Dalia: Meaning of Life defined by the motivation of the academic achievements and study consent to the University students, unpublished M.A THESIS, Egypt, al-Zaqaziq University, 2008, p. 34.

Hjelle, L. A. & Ziglle, D. J.: Personality – Theories Basic Association – Research and Application. London: Mc Gray – Hill, 1988, p203.

Mua’adh, Khaleel Michael: social psychology science, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi, Alexandria, 2000, p. 116.

Al-Bourani, Nancy: How does sport enhance the social relationships?, 4th of January, 2021, 442.

Hassan, D. K., Sulieman, K., & Mohammed, D. A. (2022). The Role of Faculty Member in Jordanian Private Universities in Promoting Social Security Concept among Students according to some Variables. ALUSTATH JOURNAL FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 61(2), 29–47.

Nafil alQurashy, Turky, Professor, 2020, Gullibility and its relationship to social intelligence among university students. ALUSTATH JOURNAL FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 59(4), 97–130.

Raghdaa Fouad. (2022). Mutual Social Confidence and its Relationship to a Sense of Self among People with Physical Disabilities Who are Practicing and Non-Practicing in Sports Activities. Modern Sport, 21(3), 0001.

Shahad Faiq, & Dr. Iqbal Abdul-hussein. (2022). Mental motivation and its relationship to the acquisition of some concepts of traffic safety For fifth grade students. Modern Sport, 21(1), 0017.

Dr. Basel M. El-Khodary, Dr. Tawfeeq M. Shubair, & Prof. Hanan O. Olwan. (2022). Social Support and its Relationship with Achievement Motivation amongst Widowed Female Students in the Palestinian Universities. ALUSTATH JOURNAL FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 61(4), 50–72.

Nasha’at Farah Abdulshaheed, Mirian: Advantages of EANTERTAINING Clubs, Human Magazine, Egypt, 2020, Vol. 12, No. 2, p. 122.

Khawaf , A. I. D. Q. R. . (2022). Social Interest and its Relationship to Psychological Compatibility ‎Among University Students. ALUSTATH JOURNAL FOR HUMAN AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 61(3), 470–495.

Mara’ee, Randa: Summer Clubs: Is it a phenomenon imposed by requirements of the modern era or a proper way to enhance youth potentialities and rehabilitation scientifically and behaviorally? Kuwait, 2013/8/15.

A., Sa’eed, (2014): Effect of Meaningful Education on Learning some types of swimming (Free, Back, and Breastroke Swimming) to the students of College of Essential Education. Modern Sport, 13(2), 15. Retrieved from.

Abdulkareem Saeed, Vian, (2020): Impact of competition Curriculum under collective and self method in learning free swimming under the ages below 10 years old. Modern Sport, 19(1), 0007.

Ikhlas Abdul Hameed, & Dr. Sahira Razzaq Kadhum. (2022). Psychological Prosperity of University Students Practicing and Non-Practicing Sports. Modern Sport, 21(1), 0024.

Saba Abdul-kareem Zghair, & Dr. Sahira Razzaq Kadhum. (2022). Moral integrity among students of the faculties of physical education sports sciences and fine arts. Modern Sport, 21(4), 0073.

Karam Hajounah, Thair (2019): A Comparative Study of the level of emotional response among the players of the clubs of the premier league in volleyball and swimming. Modern Sport,11(16).Retrieved from

Huda Badawi, R. I. (2020). The effect of rehabilitative exercises accompanied by aids to improve muscle strength and range of motion for people with dislocated shoulder joint. Modern Sport, 19(3), 0134