Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4
Social-kinetic Cohesion and its Relationship to Goal Direction with its two Dimensions (Performance and Result) for Advanced Handball Players in IraqMuhammad Hamza Shihab1* and Nuha Mohsin Dhahi2
*Correspondence: Muhammad Hamza Shihab, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
In this research, the problem lies in the researchers ’observation of local, regional and international handball matches. They found that handball teams must have a social-movement cohesion that guarantees them the unity of the team socially and dynamically so that they can work together coherently. All aspects that the team goes through before and during matches, including the psychological pressures that the player is exposed to and affects the level and capabilities of his performance, as well as knowledge of the players' achievement goal directions. The researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method and the correlational relations for its suitability to the nature of the research. The research sample was represented by a group of 120 players from the first class handball clubs for the 2019 sports season, representing 9 clubs. The purpose of identifying the research variables, social cohesion and movement and the goal orientation in its two dimensions (performance and outcome), the two researchers used the following research tools: the socio-kinetic cohesion scale, and the goal orientation scale. The results of the research showed a positive relationship between social cohesion and performance and the existence of an inverse relationship between social cohesion and the outcome.
Social-kinetic. Handball players
In order to understand behavior in sports and sporting activity, we should know more information about the nature of the sports group or sports team so that the basic characteristics that distinguish sport in its organizational structure can be identified. The sports team is two or more individuals who behave according to common standards, and each member of the team has a role Perform it, with these roles interacting with each other in pursuit of a common goal.
The members of the group or the team have mutual interactions, such as cooperation that increases the continuity and cohesion of the group. The conflict and competition that leads to its disintegration and dissolution, as the cohesion of the sports team is one of the most basic phenomena for the continuation of the players in the membership of the sports team, as cohesion is that thread that connects the members of the team and maintains On the relationships between its various members, as some researchers in this field see it as the outcome of the forces that are directed towards the team, while others see it as the result of the forces driving the continuation of the team’s survival and preservation. The social cohesion of the sports team appears, and its intensity is evident from the players' feeling of belonging to the team, loyalty to it and adherence to its membership, dedication to achieving its goals, and willingness to assume the responsibility entrusted to it. As well as the regularity of team members and their integration into training and their passion for matches. Also, in their social participation with Each other and in the bonds of love and friendship between them and these psychological and social connotations through which one can identify the severity of the social cohesion of the team. They express in their entirety the form and content of the team’s behavior in training and matches, and also express the morale of the team or team spirit.
The issue of competition is the axis around which most procedures with sports teams revolve, especially those distinguished teams. Successful coaches believe that team cohesion is the decisive factor in its results (Fawzi and Badr El-Din, 2004, p. 104).
The orientation towards performance is related to the player's attempt to participate in the competition, bearing in mind the attempt to develop and improve his level from the previous performance and to make the greatest possible effort in performance and to show the largest possible amount of his capabilities without this being related to comparing his level with that of others, but with the aim of developing and improving his level in light of his previous levels.
The purpose of conducting this study was to identify the relationship between social-motor cohesion, goal direction and its dimensions (performance, outcome) for advanced handball players in Iraq. The research problem lies in the researchers ’observation of the local, regional and international handball matches, as they found that in order for handball teams to achieve victory, they must have social-movement cohesion that guarantees them the unity of the team socially and dynamically so that they can work together coherently. All aspects that the team goes through before and during matches, including the psychological pressures that the player is exposed to and affects the level and capabilities of his performance, as well as knowledge of the players' achievement goal directions.
The topic of social cohesion had a large share in research and scrutiny by researchers as (Salome, 2007) built a measure of sports cohesion for sports teams in handball, football, basketball and volleyball, and the scale contained eight areas: (cooperation, endurance) Responsibility, attraction towards the group, integration, loyalty to the group, synergy, morale, teamwork with a team spirit) and 135 phrases related to the mentioned dimensions were formulated. As for the subject of social-kinetic cohesion, it was addressed (Al-Fatlawi, 2008), as the study aimed to prepare and standardize the two measures of social-kinetic cohesion for advanced basketball players. Morale between the measure of social-kinetic cohesion and the scale and outcome of the teams participating in the Premier League competitions of the middle group.
Method and Tools
The two researchers used the descriptive approach in the survey method and the correlational relations for its suitability to the nature of the research. The research sample was represented by a group of 120 players from the first class handball clubs for the 2019 sports season, representing 9 clubs representing (Police, Army, Al-Karkh, Kufa, Karbala, Al-Khalidoun, Diyala, Sulaymaniyah and Baladia. Basra).
For the purpose of identifying the variables of the research on social-motor cohesion and the goal orientation in its two dimensions (performance and outcome), the two researchers used the following research tools:
The social-motor cohesion scale
This scale consists of 20 phrases divided into two equal parts, 10 phrases to measure social cohesion and 10 phrases to measure movement cohesion, the paragraphs of the scale are answered according to a five-step hierarchy, as each paragraph is followed by five alternatives to the answer, as the player points to one of These alternatives apply with his point of view. (Al-Khakani, 2008).
Goal orientation scale
This scale was designed by "Doda" (1989) and "Nikols" (1992) with the aim of estimating the degree of individuals' tendency to engage in the task and for us in the atmosphere of sport. Hasan Hassan Abdo (1998) Arabizing and codifying the questionnaire.
This scale consists of (13) paragraphs formulated in the manner (Likert) within a five-step scale, as each paragraph is followed by five alternatives to the answer (disagree, disagree and strongly, neutral, agree, strongly agree) as the player points to one of these alternatives that apply with his point of view. (Allawi, 1998). The two researchers conducted an exploratory experiment on a group of (10) players from outside the research sample, in order to identify the extent of the players ’understanding of the vocabulary of the scale in terms of expressions, words and meanings. The main experiment was applied to the research sample of (120) players, and the application of the main experiment continued for a period of two weeks.
After collecting the results and conducting statistical operations on them, the two researchers reached the final results according to the following tables (Tables 1 and 2).
|No.||Variables||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Error||Torsion||Sample distribution|
|Social cohesion||0.888||- 0.896|
|kinetic cohesion||0.886||- 0.902|
The arithmetic mean of the scores of the members of the research sample on the social cohesion scale was (31.00) with a standard deviation (12.91), while the value of the standard error was (1.178). The research sample is distributed moderately on the scale of social cohesion and with a simple observation of the hypothetical mean of social cohesion on the original scale, we find that it is equal to (30) *, meaning that the arithmetic mean that the advanced handball players in Iraq had is (31) higher than the hypothetical mean, which means that they are distinguished by cohesion Relatively strong.
When observing the levels of social cohesion, we find that the arithmetic mean that distinguished advanced handball players in Iraq was (31) located in a strong level of cohesion, which we find is an ideal thing in the team that all our coaches (ever) strive to improve and build good social bonds and cohesion between Players, which gives a positive impact on the team, if we know the importance of social cohesion for the handball team that seeks to win games.
The arithmetic mean of the scores of the members of the research sample on the kinetic cohesion scale was (30.20) with a standard deviation (12.92), while the value of the standard error was (1.180). The subjects of the research sample were distributed moderately on the kinetic cohesion scale. When observing the hypothetical mean of motor cohesion on the original scale, we find it equal to (30), meaning that the arithmetic mean that the advanced handball players in Iraq had is (30.20) higher than the hypothetical mean, which means that they are distinguished by a relatively strong cohesion.
This is a good thing for players, as the movement cohesion of any team gives a good impression that advanced handball players in Iraq understand and conform to the playing plans set by the coaching staff and interact with them positively. By observing the special levels of kinetic cohesion, we find that the arithmetic mean that distinguished the advanced handball players in Iraq was (30) located at the level of (strong cohesion), which we find ideal in handball teams, and this is what all our coaches strive to achieve, as the players understand The game plans drawn up by the coach, implemented by the player, and won over the opponent, is the goal of every coach.
The arithmetic mean of the scores of the members of the research sample on the target orientation scale in its two dimensions (performance, outcome) was as follows: The arithmetic mean of the performance dimension was (21.875) and with a standard deviation (8.391) and the value of the standard error was (0.766). The goal and the (performance) dimension appeared to be equal to (- 0.172), which indicates that the scores of the research sample individuals were distributed moderately on the scale of goal orientation for the (performance) dimension. When we observe the hypothetical mean of the goal’s direction on the original scale of the dimension (performance), we find it equal to (21), meaning that the arithmetic mean that the advanced handball players in Iraq had is (21.875), which is higher than the hypothetical mean, albeit slightly.
The arithmetic mean of the result dimension was (18,200) and a standard deviation (7.670), and the value of the standard error was (0.700). A moderately distributed distribution on the goal orientation scale for the outcome dimension.When we observe the hypothetical mean of the goal’s direction on the original scale of the (result) dimension, we find it equal to (18), meaning that the arithmetic mean that the advanced handball players in Iraq had is (18.20), which is slightly higher than the hypothetical mean.
It appeared that the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the scores of the research sample on the social cohesion scale and their scores on the goal orientation scale for the dimension (performance) reached (0.888), which is a direct correlation coefficient, that is, there is a direct relationship between social cohesion and performance Thus, the goal of the research is achieved, as the performance increases, social cohesion increases significantly at a significance level (0.05).
It appeared that the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the scores of the research sample on the scale of social cohesion and their scores on the scale of direction of the goal to the dimension of (the result) reached (- 0.896), which is an inverse correlation coefficient, that is, the existence of an inverse relationship between social cohesion and the outcome, and in this way the research goal is achieved. The result when the player has a significant decrease in social cohesion at the level of significance (0.05). It appears that the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the scores of the research sample on the kinetic cohesion scale and their scores on the target orientation scale for the dimension (performance) of (0.886), which is a direct correlation coefficient, meaning the existence of a relationship A direct correlation between kinetic cohesion and performance, thus achieving the research goal of the research. The higher the performance of the player, the higher the kinetic cohesion significantly at the level of significance (0.05). (- 0.902), which is an inverse correlation coefficient, meaning the existence of an inverse relationship between kinetic cohesion and (result). Thus, the goal of the research is achieved for the research. Significant at the level of significance (0.05). Through the results, we notice a direct moral correlation between social cohesion and after performance in changing the goal orientation of the study sample, and the researchers attribute this result to the fact that in order for the group members to achieve their common goal, it is necessary to achieve successful social and movement interaction together for the team. It is also imperative to achieve social interaction and coherent relations between team members (the club) first before tackling to achieve the goal, as the greater the cohesion of the team, the greater the team’s ability to survive and continue, and then activity, productivity and achieving the required performance from the movement of the team members. This result is in agreement with the study (Boone, Kuhlmon, & Beitely, 1995) “, which indicated that performance-driving factors are related to perceptions of social-motor cohesion factors in a pattern that fluctuates over the season.
The researchers attribute the positive relationship between social cohesion - movement and after performance in the goal orientation scale to the extent of the players' ability to achieve convergence and correlation within the group about performance and work together through commitment and effort to achieve the role assigned to each player in the team until the performance is completed. Teams increase if team members are united in their efforts on the field of play, and this relationship also shows the degree of unity and connection between members of the group and work to develop social relations within the team, which in turn will lead to the achievement of the team’s mission, through several things, the most important of which is knowledge of performance and feeling The player belongs to and unites with the group, which is related to the attempt to improve and develop the player's performance level from the previous performance. This relationship between social-movement cohesion and performance orientation in the research sample indicates the player's feelings towards his personal participation within the group in order to achieve performance and his feeling of happiness when performing with his team and the level of ambitions and desire of the team to win, as well as his real participation by giving him sufficient opportunity to improve his personal performance As all of this indicates that the player has a high degree of performance orientation and in line with the performance-oriented strategy that is related to the player's attempt to participate in the competition in order to develop and improve his level of performance from previous performance and to make the utmost effort in order to achieve the team's mission.
The results of the research indicated that there is an inverse significant correlation between social-motor cohesion and after the result in the goal orientation scale of the research sample, and the researchers attribute the reason for this to the fact that the player whose goal orientation is to obtain the result - (i.e., his ability perceptions tend to be It will be based on a standardized basis or comparison with others) - it will lead to his focus on this goal without considering any other criteria, and this will lead the player to lose the spirit of cooperation with his fellow players and thus reduce his social and movement cohesion.
Through the results of the research, the two researchers recommend the necessity of providing psychological services to team members, in order to help them achieve understanding between them and the technical and administrative bodies, and attention should be paid to improving the social climate for team members and strengthening social relations between the coach and other members of the sports team, and working to eliminate the causes of rebellion and disobedience. Bringing the points of view, understanding and mutual acceptance, which leads to an increase in the attractiveness and cohesion of the sports team, and it is necessary to pay attention to the sports teams management with the presence of a psychologist with the team working to help the players get rid of psychological pressure and works to bridge the views between members of the team, whether among the players Or with the coach or the club management, and this leads to the cohesion and continuation of the team.
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