Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 3
The Assertive Behavior of Disabled Tennis and Table Tennis PlayersRaghdaa Fouad Mahammed* and Sahira Razzaq Kadhum
*Correspondence: Raghdaa Fouad Mahammed, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Girls, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 08-May-2023 Published: 22-May-2023
The research aims to prepare measures of assertive behavior for tennis and table tennis players with disabilities. Identifying the degree of assertive behavior of table tennis and table tennis players with disabilities. The two researchers hypothesized the following: There are no statistically significant differences in the degree of assertive behavior between the arithmetic mean and the hypothetical mean of tennis and table tennis players for the disabled. The two researchers used the descriptive approach due to its suitability to the nature of the current research. The current research sample included tennis and table tennis players for the disabled, who are (62) male and female players. The two researchers used the (M assertive behavior) scale according to the study (Muhammad, 2011), and the psychometric characteristics (honesty, constancy, and objectivity) were applied to it. The Statistical Bag for Educational Sciences (SPSS v 26) was used to analyze the data. We found that the handicapped tennis and table tennis players have a moderate degree according to their responses on the assertive behavior scale.
Assertive behavior. Tennis players. Table tennis for the disabled.
Sports psychology is one of the important human sciences that looks at the formation of the human psyche and sports behavior in its various forms to determine the lifestyle of the sports individual and solve his problems by identifying the motives of his behavior and capabilities (Al-Selmi et al., 2022). Considering the fears of selfattendance that the athlete is exposed to during training and competition are among the most important factors that limit the athlete's access to the highest level of achievement.
People with disabilities often suffer from psychological and social problems. This feeling may be associated with a decrease in the level of assertive behavior and emotional self-control. Which results in the development of negative attitudes for players of table tennis and table tennis for the disabled. And assertive behavior is one of the important concepts for humans and society, as the player who lacks assertive behavior may fail to express his opinions and feelings or express them with a kind of exaggeration. He may also fail to claim his personal rights or tend to be courteous to others and respond to their desires in an effort to please them, even at the expense of himself, his time, money and reputation. If the disabled player behaves in the best of his interests, proves himself, and expresses his sincere feelings freely, he affirms his behavior without feeling fear of others and controlling his own emotions that confront him, and thus he will reach the best performance and his fears about the situations surrounding him will be lessened easier. Therefore, the importance of research lies in knowing the assertive behavior of tennis and table tennis players with disabilities. Psychology is considered one of the important sciences in our current time because of its importance in the life of the normal person in general and for the disabled in particular in order to practice their lives properly and work on the appropriate support for their needs in order to reach what achieves their ambition. And after seeing the reality of the teams for these games through repeated meetings with coaches, administrative bodies and the head of the Paralympic Committee. The two researchers noticed that the current research sample lacked the psychological and social studies necessary for this segment to be a real helper for it to avoid the problems it suffers from and to meet other necessary needs, whether psychological, social or training. Hence, the idea of research was crystallized to find a psychological diagnosis for this category through a study that touches the reality of the players because of the psychological problems they suffer from due to the lack of neglect and the lack of proper attention to them. The player sees himself as marginalized and there is no one who cares about his disability and his psychological and social problems that require special care from everyone. Which may negatively affect the course of their practical life and perhaps their private life, "as it is necessary to identify these problems and their interpretation and find appropriate solutions: and to improve positive behavior and develop months and a sense of responsibility towards themselves (Maryam and Sahira, 2021). Hence, the two researchers took it upon themselves to try Standing on the condition of disabled players for some of the psychological phenomena through knowing and evaluating the assertive behavior and on this basis the following questions came up (what is the degree of assertive behavior of disabled tennis and table tennis players?).
The research community consisted of tennis and table tennis players for the disabled, with a total number of (62) distributed among sports clubs, which included the number of male players (40) and the number of females (22). The sample was selected using the comprehensive enumeration method, and the following table includes (1) the name of the team, the activity, and the number of players. In addition, the two researchers excluded (12) male and female players for the purpose of conducting the exploratory experiment. The two researchers relied on the research sample of 100% in the research community, which was represented by players Table tennis and ground tennis in sports clubs and committees for males and females and for the sports season (2021- 2022), the number of which is (62) players. The two researchers took (12) male and female players for the purpose of conducting the exploratory experiment, with a percentage of (19.355%), and the application sample (50) male and female players, with a percentage of (80.645%). Table 1 shows the details of the research sample.
|The survey sample
Accordingly, we hypothesize the following: (There are no statistically significant differences in the degree of assertive behavior between the arithmetic mean and the hypothetical mean of tennis and table tennis players for the disabled).
Analysis and discussion of results
After analyzing the data on the dimensions of assertive behavior, we find in table 2 (Table 2).
|Leadership and direction
|There is a significant difference
|There is a significant difference
|Defending rights and feelings
|There is a significant difference
|There is a significant difference
Through table 2 and after analyzing the research sample responses in light of the answer alternatives, it was found that the arithmetic mean of the research sample in the dimension (leadership and direction) is equal to (23.846) with a standard deviation of (3.254) degrees, and when compared to the hypothetical average of (24) degrees using the t-test For one sample t-test, it was found that the calculated t-value was (1.024) and the sig probability score was (0.083) at the significance level (0.05), and this means that there is no statistically significant difference between the two means. Therefore, “there must be interest in serving and mastering it well, because if the serve is weak, it will give the opponent an opportunity to start his attack with every point (Zeina and Fatima, 2021).
The arithmetic mean of the research sample in the (social domain) dimension is (26.038) with a standard deviation of (3.845) degrees, and when compared with the hypothetical mean of (24) degrees using the one sample t-test, it turns out that the calculated t-value is (2.824) and the score is (2.824). The probability of sig was (0.035) at the significance level (0.05). This means that there is a statistically significant difference between the two means in favor of the arithmetic mean. As people with disabilities need tolerance, "and tolerance includes access to the other, understanding and acceptance of individuals, and respect for their personal space that makes them feel free in society (Jassim, 2022). The two researchers believe that assertive behavior is one of the social skills that an individual practices, increases his self-esteem, as he feels Positivity toward himself and others, and the results of some studies, indicate that there is a positive correlation between both assertiveness and self-esteem, and thus it is expected that the self-affirming individual will be more successful in situations of social interaction, which is thus reflected in his feeling of positivity towards the self, and therefore the individual The unsure of himself assumes that his perception of himself is negative. As for the selfaffirming, he adopts a positive concept of himself. Self-affirmation may be a reflection of the positive or negative mental beliefs and perceptions of the individual about himself. Situations that call for confrontation (Al-Sayed, 1999).
The arithmetic mean of the research sample in the (independence) dimension is (10.157) with a standard deviation of (1.533) degrees. And when compared with the hypothetical mean of (9) degrees using the one sample t-test, it became clear that the calculated t-value was (3.245) and the sig probability score was (0.023) at the significance level (0.05), and this means that there is a statistically significant difference between mean and in favor of the arithmetic mean.
“The development of social behavior in the personalities of individuals because it is an important and influential element in society by enabling them to understand themselves and understand the dimensions of the relationships that bind them to other individuals in their environment and society (Mohammed et al., 2021). This leads to achieving educational, social and economic outcomes for each individual. and society in the final outcome (Raghdaa, 2022).This sense of personal freedom, independence, and liberation may refine the personality of the athlete, increase his boldness in life, and teach him how to deal with its situations, and all of this would make the athlete more compatible and independent. Where he indicated (Rodriquez et al. ., 2001 that the characteristic of assertive behavior is affected by the individual's experiences, achievement, self-reliance and independence, considering that this feature is differentiated and integrated by increasing experiences, advancing age, and independence, as he emphasized the role played by the individual's continuous learning in increasing assertive behavior (Rodriquez et al., 2001). The research sample in the dimension (defending rights and feelings) is equal to (20.283) with a standard deviation of (2.584) degrees, and when compared with the hypothetical mean of (18) degrees using the one sample t-test, it turns out that the calculated t-value is (4.021) and the degree of probability sig reached (0.012) at the level of significance (0.05). This means that there is a statistically significant difference between the two averages and in favor of the arithmetic mean. The goal of training is that the one-way training unit has a significant positive impact on the development of functional capabilities and physical abilities, whether public or private. This works effectively to improve and upgrade the level of technical performance. (Somaya & Wedad, 2022)
The researchers believe that the individual who is psychologically and socially compatible and who is able to assert himself and who is confident in himself and who can defend his point of view. And he continues his work in a friendly framework of relations with others. He is a good individual who contributes to building society and is a useful member in it. It is the model that education in general seeks to reach. In contrast, the apprehensive individual, who is shackled by hesitation, remains silent and takes refuge in negativity in isolation from others around him. Such an individual avoids making decisions in order to avoid taking responsibility, thus becoming a negative person (Sukran, 1989). The total arithmetic mean is (80.324) with a standard deviation of (9.245) degrees. When compared with the hypothetical average of (75) degrees using the one sample t-test, it became clear that the calculated t-value was (9.124) and the sig probability score was (0.007) at the significance level (0.05). This means that there is a statistically significant difference between the two averages in favor of the arithmetic mean, and the level of the research sample as a whole in the assertive behavior variable reached the level (average). The two researchers believe that it is the society that makes the individual and shapes him however he wants through socialization, where he develops needs and goals and how to satisfy them, as well as gaining him socially appropriate behavior for self-expression. (Salter) also indicated that the concept of assertive behavior represents a general personality characteristic or trait (similar to introversion or extroversion), that is, it is available in some people, so it is assertive in various situations, and may not be available in others. He becomes passive and unable to assert himself in various social situations (Ibrahim, 2004). Bandura emphasizes several key sources that underpin the Mesh Emotions of the assertive behavior of individuals. They are parents, teachers, and friends. Parents are among the most important sources that play a major role in developing and developing this behavior. This is by highlighting the best goals that have been achieved and achieved among others clearly. In other words, knowing the successful experiences and then presenting the appropriate models that have already been accomplished from these experiences and using them to support the individual through verbal persuasion and encouragement until strengthening the capabilities that raise his level of assertiveness (Schultz, 1990). (Moatasem and Ukla, 2022) see: “Individuals with special needs (disabled) face many situations and events that play a role in changing the psychological and physical condition, and then affect the behavior of each of them.
Table tennis and table tennis players with disabilities have a medium score according to their responses on the assertive behavior scale. And the need to provide continuous awareness by coaches to players with special needs that they are an integral part of the sports community to confirm their importance to society because this works not to distort the ideas of the players. Highlighting the role of disabled players as a topic that deserves further research in the field of sports psychology and other variables.
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