Full Length Research Paper - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 1
The Effect of Communication Factors on the Level of Community Resilience in Dealing with Disaster at Pangandaran RegencyIriana Bakti* and Heru Riyanto Budiyana
*Correspondence: Iriana Bakti, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia, Email:
Received: 06-Jan-2023 Published: 24-Feb-2023
Natural disasters, such as floods, landslides, tornadoes, and earthquakes, often occur in several villages of Pangandaran Regency, resulting in damage to both property and live. To overcome this problem, volunteers from various communities often carry out socialization and disaster simulations to strengthen community resilience in villages. The objective of this research is to determine the effect of communication factors, consisting of communicator and message, on the level of community resilience in facing disasters. Furthermore, the explanatory survey method was used and data were obtained through questionnaires, interviews, as well as literature studies. A sample size of 124 was obtained using stratified random sampling. The data were then analyzed using path analysis. The results showed both communicator and message factors had a significant relationship with the level of community resilience in facing disasters at Pangandaran.
Communication. Communicator. Message. Resilience. Disaster
Pangandaran is one of the regencies in West Java with a high disaster potential, hence, the area needs serious handling to reduce its impact. The most frequent disasters occurred in 2021, namely 68 hurricanes, 30 fires, and 6 landslides. The Head of the Regional Disaster Management Agency (BPBD) of Pangandaran Kustiman stated:
"There are 10 sub-districts in Pangandaran that are very prone to natural disasters. All of this is caused by the terrain conditions in each region, namely Sub-districts of Cijulang, Cimerak, Parigi, Cigugur, Langkaplancar, Sidamulih, Pangandaran, Kalipucang, Padaherang, and Mangunjaya (https://news.detik.com/berita-jawabarat/ d-5912104/catat-10-kecamatan-di-pangandaran-rawan-bencana-alam).
Various activities are carried out by related agencies, such as the local government, BPBD, Social Service, volunteers, and others by providing outreach, simulations, and training to the community with the aim of minimizing the potential for disasters in Pangandaran and Bandung Regencies, as well as building disasterresilient communities. Furthermore, resilience to disasters is an awareness that is internalized in society to produce high preparedness and capability in dealing with disasters. Capacity refers to the ability level of a social system to be organized through the learning of past disasters and increase the ability to reduce risk from disasters (Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, 2011).
Stakeholders, such as the community/volunteers, local government, and other related agencies of disaster management in Pangandaran have been going well, while the coordination and communication between them have been running smoothly. With BPBD as the leading sector, the messages conveyed are related to disaster adaptation and mitigation, while the communication techniques are in the form of training and disaster simulations that are adapted to regional conditions. Two-way communication occurs according to an emergency problem.
Although coordination and communication activities have been conducted effectively, their impact on the community has not been measured (Perbawasari et al., 2019a). Specifically for the communication factor carried out by the community/volunteers as communicators, how it relates to community resilience in dealing with disasters still remains unknown. It is important to know the effectiveness of communication as it is a tool for disseminating information to build preparedness and minimize fatalities or physical casualties (Lestari, 2018). This life survivor is related to the ability to survive (resilience) in the community, specifically in dealing with disasters. In general, people choose to remain in these areas, despite the risks, due to various reasons. Therefore, it is necessary to know the level of their resilience in facing disasters.
Previous results related to communication actions showed that disaster communication is also significant, specifically for the educational aspects during disasters and recovery (Budi HH, 2012). The credibility of the communicator can increase community preparedness in dealing with the events (Prasanti & Fuady, 2017). Disaster information that is conveyed incorrectly will exacerbate the situation (Rudianto, 2015), while the right communication approach can accelerate the mental healing of victims (Rudianto, 2015).
Disaster is a risk that should be faced and its reduction efforts are carried out through effective communication. Disaster risks can be reduced, while lives and the impact of disasters can be saved through the ability to communicate (Haddow, G. D, 2008).
Building effective disaster communication requires the following foundation: Customer focus, which is a communication mechanism built to ensure the accuracy and correctness of the information conveyed. Leadership commitment, in the form of a leader's commitment through an effective communication process during an emergency response. Situational awareness, namely transparency in the process of collecting and disseminating disaster-related information that is controlled, hence, it can be trusted. Media partnership refers to working with the media to convey information to the public in order to fulfill the needs of the media and the team regarding the information (Haddow, G. D, 2008).
Disaster communication is the process of making, sending, generating a response or feedback, and receiving messages by one or more people, directly or through the media before, during, and after disaster (Lestari, 2018). The factors that determine the effectiveness of disaster communication include the credibility of the communicator and the message. Credibility is the perception of the communicator's characteristics that is seen from the communicant's expertise and beliefs (Rakhmat, 2018 and Perbawasari et al., 2019b)). Meanwhile, the message is a draft idea that is packaged and contains message motives to be sent or exchanged to certain targets, during a communication activity in a certain time and space (Purwasito, 2017).
Disaster communication aims to build knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of the public, which is related to disaster events in Pangandaran Regency as well as the resilience of disaster-affected communities. Resilience is the capacity to respond healthily and productively when faced with adversity or trauma, which is important for managing the pressures of daily life (Shatte, 2002). Shatte further mentioned the seven keys to finding inner strength and overcoming life's obstacles, namely emotional regulation, self-control, optimism, causal analysis, empathy, self-efficacy, and the ability to achieve desires. Based on the background explanation above, this research aims to determine the effect of communication factors, which consist of communicator and messages, on the level of community resilience in facing disasters.
This research used an explanatory survey method, in which according to Singarimbun and Effendy (1989: 3), "obtains samples from the population using questionnaires as the main data collection tool and correlational techniques for analysis". Rakhmat (2007: ) also stated that "The correlational method is used when research teams try to examine the relationship between variables. The relationship that is sought is called correlation. The communication factor (Vx), and the level of resilience (Vy) are the variables whose correlation is measured".
Data were obtained by observing environmental communication networks between stakeholders. During the observation, research teams recorded communication activities involving volunteers (communicators) and the community, all of which will be described in this research. This is because according to Vidich and Lyman, "research tasks require observing and communicating the analysis results of the observations to others" (Lincoln, 2009).
Interviews were carried out to generate situational understanding stemming from special interactional episodes of stakeholder environmental communication networks in building the capacity of disaster-resilient communities in West Java. Therefore, the keywords of the questions were determined and discussed to clarify the research objectives. The position of each keyword or the focus of the question determines what is most important to be studied from the topic and the data that will be collected (Moustakas, 1994).
The questionnaire was in the form of a number of questions relating to the personal data of the people who had participated in disaster socialization/ communication in their respective villages. Furthermore, the data are related to communicator and message variables, as well as their level of resilience in dealing with disasters.
Literature studies used various references in the form of documents consisting of words and recorded images of written material, such as books, journals, papers, photo articles, and others which are considered relevant to the reality under research. The research population was all people who had been exposed to disaster information from volunteers in every village in Pangandaran Regency. Some of the people were taken as samples from the selected villages using stratified random sampling. After obtaining the elected representatives, they were given questionnaires to be filled out. A total of 124 respondents were selected as sample.
The data were tested for validation using the correlation formula Product Moment (Pearson) which is denoted by r. This can be written as follows:
n = Total respondents
ΣX = Total X score
ΣY = Total Y score
ΣXY = Total product of X and Y scores
ΣX2 = Square of the total X score
ΣY2 = Square of the total Y score
The data were subsequently analyzed using descriptive method. This was carried out by interpreting the data in the table according to the variables studied. Meanwhile, inferential analysis was used to measure the effect between the variables, namely communication factors, and the level of community resilience in building a disaster-resilient community in West Java.
This technique uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the Partial Least Square approach (SEM-PLS). The model equations and images are as follows:
Model Equation 1: Disaster Resilience Level = γ1 Communicator + γ2 messages + ď?
γ = the coefficient of the direct effect of exogenous and endogenous latent variables
ď? = measurement error of endogenous latent variable indicators
The SEM analysis is used to answer the problem formulation and the hypothesis. The SEM-PLS analysis has two sub-models, namely:
• The inner model that specifies the relationship between latent variables (structural model)
• The outer model that specifies the relationship between latent variables and their indicators or manifest variables (measurement model).
The research location was Pangandaran Regency and the duration was from March to November 2022.
Disaster communication activities carried out by volunteers in Pangandaran Regency aim to build a disaster-resilient community. One indicator of resilience is that the community is resilient in facing disasters. Disaster communication is an educational activity that can build understanding and cooperation with other parties in disaster management (Lestari, Sembiring, Prabowo, Wibawa, & Hendariningrum, 2013).
The target of disaster communication in Pangandaran Regency are people who live in the villages of Cintaratu, Bungurraya, Limusgede, Kertamukti, and Ciparanti, as well as those who have experienced natural disasters. The full respondents’ data can be seen in the table below (Table 1): Table 1 shows that most respondents were males, namely 85 or 65.8%, while 39 or 31.5% were females. The population had an average age of > 40 years which was indicated by 82 people or 66.1%. Meanwhile, the least were those between 19-24 years, which were 7 people or 5.6%. According to characteristics based on education, most of the respondents had completed High School, namely 69 people or 55.6%. The least were those who had taken a Diploma education, namely 2 people or 1.6%. On average, 66 people or 53.2% of the population work as farmers and most of the potential types of disasters they face are earthquakes and tsunamis. In general, the types of disasters in the regency are no longer tsunamis, but floods, landslides/erosions, tornadoes, and land fires.
Judging from the demographic factors in Table 1, it appears the respondents belong to the productive age group, which is characterized by high morale, ability to work, life oriented in the future, and has psychological maturity. Therefore, this group has the ability to overcome any psychological problems that arise in a disaster situation (Sabir, 2021).
|40 years or more||82||66,1|
|Junior High School||21||16,9|
|Senior High School||69||55,6|
|Indonesian National Armed Forces/Indonesian National Police||1||0,8|
|Potential/Type of Disaster|
Likewise, with the education factor, even though the majority of respondents is in the Senior High School educational level, it is quite good for the size of the villages in Pangandaran. This indicates that the awareness to obtain a higher education than elementary school has grown in society. With a Senior High School education level, the communities have the ability to establish reciprocal relationships with their environment and volunteers who are conducting disaster communications in the village. The level of education has a significant effect on people's motivation in carrying out activities (Erlindawati & Novianti, 2020), and simultaneously affect community participation (Prananda Putra, 2018).
The communicator factor as a resource is very important in disaster communication activities in the regency. This is because communication will work effectively with credibility, attractiveness, and inherent strength. The results of this communicator factor are shown in table 2 (Table 2).
|Communicator Factor||Respondents’ Answer||Total|
|The speaker is able to explain||-||-||2||1,6||6||3,2||76||61,3||42||33,9||124||100|
|The speaker is able to answer||-||-||3||2,4||4||3,2||78||62,9||39||31,5||124||100|
|The speaker uses accurate facts||-||-||3||2,4||5||4||75||60,5||41||33,1||124||100|
|The speaker value differences||-||-||3||2,4||1||0,8||68||54,8||52||41,9||124||100|
|The speaker has the same view||2||2,4||1||0,8||11||8,9||92||74,2||17||13,7||124||100|
|The speaker gave reward/praise||1||0,8||7||5,6||15||12,1||79||63,7||22||17,7||124||100|
|The speaker gave a sanction/ reprimand||16||12,9||47||37,9||21||16,9||33||26,6||-||-||124||100|
|The speaker has succeeded in gaining people to follow the advice given||-||-||2||1,6||11||8,9||83||66,9||28||22,6||124||100|
Based on the table above, it can be seen that the majority of respondents (61.3%) agreed the speaker had the ability to convey material related to disaster issues, while only 1.6% disagreed. The speaker's ability is a manifestation of the expertise in communication. The higher the skills in explaining, the higher the learning outcomes (Mansur, 2017).
The table also shows that the majority of respondents (62.9%) agreed the speaker had the ability to answer questions related to disaster issues, while only 2.4% disagreed. The ability to answer questions cannot be separated from the knowledge the speaker acquired as a volunteer who has been equipped with various skills in disaster management. With these conditions, it is important for a disaster management volunteer to have altruism and hardine in order to benefit the people around (Rahmat et al., 2021) (Table 3).
|The suitability of message with the information that occurs||2||1,6||5||4,0||6||4,8||91||73,4||20||16,1||124||100|
Furthermore, the majority of respondents (60.5%) agreed the resource persons presenting disaster material are accompanied by accurate facts, while 2.4% disagreed. The accuracy of the facts conveyed by speakers to disaster-affected communities in relation to the type of disaster, its causes, and consequences are explained in the form of narratives or photos of the events, hence, people trust the speaker. For the community, this information will be used as a guide in the disaster recovery process (Alfarabi & Adhrianti, 2021).
It appears that the majority of respondents (54.8%) agreed the speaker appreciated the different views of the community on disaster issues, while 2.4% disagreed. The differences in views between volunteers and affected communities occur mainly in relation to understanding the reality of the disaster. For the volunteers, the reality of a disaster is perceived as an event that usually occurs in an area and should be dealt with together. For the community, it is an event that is accepted as fate and cannot be refused, hence, they tend to surrender.
The volunteers' perception of the community is acceptable because it is in the position of a disaster victim. Therefore, the volunteers try to interact by being placed (empathy) towards the problems faced by the community through cooperation in dealing with disaster challenges. Mutual respect between the two parties through cooperation in various activities is a form of social tolerance (Abdullah & Zuhrawati, 2019).
Table 2 shows that the majority of respondents (74.2%) agreed the speaker had the same views as the community regarding disaster issues, while 2.4% strongly disagreed. The similarity of views that occurred between the volunteers and the community is related to disaster events and how to deal with them. Both parties agreed that disasters should be faced and their impacts can be minimized through various disaster activities in the form of outreach, simulations, and evacuations.
The shared views of the parties resulted in the establishment of good cooperation and synergy in disaster management in Pangandaran Regency. This establishment is a commitment based on mutual understanding through effective communication channels (Hendro Pratikno, 2021).
Table 2 also shows the majority of the people (63.7%) agreed that speakers like to give rewards/praise, while 5.6% disagreed. The reward/praise given by the speaker is a recompense for the willingness to be involved in disaster mitigation socialization activities with the aim of motivating the community to be ready to face disasters with all their consequences. Rewards are given by the speaker to obtain the desired response in the form of changes in the level and direction of one's behavior, manely knowing what to do or how to carry it out (Hasmawati, 2020).
The majority of respondents (37.9%) did not agree that the speaker likes to give sanctions in disaster socialization, while 26.6% agreed. Sanctions in disaster socialization are in the form of warnings to the public in general when they do not respond to discussions. The communicator can punish the other party in a way that reduces or limits the disliked behavior (Hasmawati, 2020).
As for the people who agreed, the speaker sanctioned/reprimanded those who took part in the socialization because they realized that the sanctions were for the common interest, and not to pressure or cause public concern. Disaster management requires collaboration with various parties. Therefore, in their opinion, giving sanctions/reprimands is for the sake of togetherness, being aware of one's shortcomings, understanding mistakes, and receiving input from sources during disaster mitigation socialization. In order to overcome these social and psychological problems, there should be tolerance in the form of existential self-knowledge which has implications for self-acceptance to adapt to surrounding conditions (Sabir, 2021).
Furthermore, the majority of respondents (66.9%) agreed that the speaker was successful in gaining the community to follow the advice given, while 1.6% disagreed. The suggestions made by the speaker are related to willingness to take part in disaster mitigation outreach activities, evacuation simulations, and monitoring of the surrounding environment. The communication patterns used by natural speakers to convey their recommendations are interpersonal communication from house to house as well as group communication in meetings at village halls, mosques, and disaster sites. These patterns can improve discipline, which consequently create comfort, obedience, and learning for the community to do things according to procedure (H. R. Putra, Aini Safitri, & Fadhlur Rahman Armi, 2021).
The table above shows that the majority of respondents (62.1%) agreed the message conveyed in disaster socialization is in accordance with structures, such as introductions, statements, arguments, and conclusions in the form of important, straightforward or direct information on disaster issues, while 4.0% disagreed. Therefore, in the disaster socialization in Pangandaran Regency, resource persons paid attention to the message structure by prioritizing important information according to the type of disaster that occurred in the respective villages and which was of concern to the community. Message that addresses local issues has an important role in establishing effective communication (FSM, 2018).
The message conveyed in the disaster socialization corresponded with the wishes of respondents, where 70.2% agreed and 5.6% disagreed. Also, the information that respondents want in general is related to how to easily recognize the signs of an impending disaster, as well as the procedures for evacuation and management. Content message that is easy to carry out can arouse the needs of respondents, and affect the effectiveness of a program (Saleh, Lumintang, & Damayanti, 2012).
Furthermore, the majority of respondents (54.8%) disagreed that message conveyed by the speaker during the disaster socialization was contradictory, while 12.1% agreed. This indicates the speaker did not present two sides of the issue related to disaster. The speaker consistently selected and explained disaster issues in accordance with the facts on the ground in order for the people to easily accept them. An interactive strategy can be implemented by selecting message that is easy to receive to build community preparedness in dealing with disasters (Prasanti & Fuady, 2017).
Message conveyed was also accompanied by evidence. This can be seen from the majority of respondents (61.3%) who agreed that the message conveyed was based on evidence, while 3.2% disagreed. The evidence of message includes the occurrence and the type of of disaster, as well as the number of victims, property, which is the information the community really needs. Message received according to evidence became accurate information that is believed to be true by the community, therefore, it is needed for consideration in making decisions (R. K. Putra, Erawan, & Arsyad, 2018).
The message conveyed by the speaker in disaster socialization was in the form of verbal or nonverbal and a language that evokes emotions (feelings). The majority of respondents (60.5%) agreed with this while 2.4% disagreed. Disaster message can evoke emotions such as sadness, fear, confusion, anger, and others, all of which are experienced by most respondents. However, message conveyed by the resource person is a valuable lesson in dealing with the events. This is carried out to build a disaster-resilient community. In order to achieve the desired goals in learning, language is used as a communication tool (Luhur Wicaksono, 2016).
Message conveyed by the speaker was accompanied by photos/pictures of material damage and casualties. The majority of respondents (54.8%) agreed to this, while 6.5% disagreed. Message equipped with pictures/photos or victim data will make it easier for the community to understand disaster events in their respective areas. The purpose of the images is to attract attention, help explain something, shorten long descriptions, and clarify important parts, hence, they are easier to understand (Anitah, 2009) (Table 4).
|Resilience Factor||Respondents’ Answer||Total|
|Calmness in the face of disaster||1||0,8||21||16,9||5||4,0||61||49,2||36||29,0||124||100|
|Use of procedures in dealing with disasters||-||-||4||3,2||9||7,3||74||59,7||37||29,8||124||100|
|Confidence in solutions to deal with disasters||-||-||8||6,5||17||13,7||71||57,3||28||22,6||124||100|
|Concern for the condition of others||2||1,6||5||4,0||11||8,9||62||50,0||44||35,5||124||100|
|Attention to the causes of the disaster||-||-||8||6,5||17||13,7||62||50,0||37||29,8||124||100|
|Ability to solve problems||4||3,2||6||4,8||16||12,9||82||66,1||16||12,9||124||100|
|The necessity of dealing with disaster||-||-||6||4,8||5||4,0||78||62,9||35||28,2||124||100|
Table 4 shows that most of respondents (49.2%) agreed they are very calm when faced with disasters, while 16.9% disagreed. The respondents were calm because the community has been equipped with provisions in the form of simulations to deal with disasters and evacuation, hence, they are able to think clearly. Meanwhile, people can feel restless as disasters make them panic, hence, they might not be able to control themselves. It will be difficult for people who are facing a disaster to understand it, resulting in panic to face the reality of the disaster (Sabir, 2016).
The community has been taught to take part in socialization/training during disaster evacuation simulations. They basically have knowledge that is used as procedures/techniques/ways of disaster management in Pangandaran Regency. The table above shows that the majority of respondents (59.7%) agreed to use procedures in dealing with disasters, while 3.2% disagreed. The community has been taught the use of these procedures through a participatory communication approach and dialogue to share experiences. Accuracy in using the communication approach will speed up the mental recovery of the victims (Rudianto, 2015).
The communities affected by disasters in Pangandaran Regency basically have experience in dealing with disasters. Therefore, they are ready to face and solve any disaster that strikes their village. This is indicated by the majority of respondents (57.3%) who believed that a solution to a disaster can be found, while 6.5% disagreed.
People who have experience in dealing with disasters have optimism that there is always a way to overcome a disaster based on the taught management procedures. Optimism gives people strong self-confidence as the most important asset to achieve their desires. The community has been looking for a way out of all post-disaster problems. Society firmly believes that everything will go well in the future (Nufus & Husna, 2017).
For those who are not sure or doubtful that there will be a solution to the disaster, the occurrence of a disaster is not known, including how to deal with it, but the people will survive the event. The difference in the behavior of each individual is due to how they view life. However, in a disaster situation, individuals still have the power to survive and develop psychological well-being as the ultimate goal (Aryanata, Made, & Noviana, 2019).
The Pangandaran residents who were victims turned out to have a sense of empathy for one another. This can be seen in Table 4, where the majority of respondents (50%) agreed to pay attention to the condition of other people when a disaster occurs, while 4% disagreed. Caring for others who are equally affected by the disaster is manifested in helping activities based on a social spirit, and a form of responsibility towards others as the closest people in their lives. Furthermore, their concern for others is also based on the awareness that all the victims have the same right to receive assistance. This awareness has helped to build the resilience of disaster-affected communities in Pangandaran Regency. The feeling of being happy to help (altruism) and having toughness in stressful situations (hardiness) is very important because, with these two attitudes, an individual can be useful to others (Rahmat et al., 2021).
As for people who do not pay attention to others when a disaster occurs in their area, they prioritize their own safety, families, and those closest to them. This can occur because there is more panic in dealing with disasters, not the reluctance to help others. In this case, the people are forced to submit to the reality of disasters they face, which cannot be fully understood. The reality of disaster is a moment of tension or crisis that arises from human relations with each other, nature as well as the environment. Disasters are difficult to understand in the context of the people who experience it, which causes panic.
The communities in Pangandaran are concerned about the causes of disasters.
This can be seen from the majority of respondents (50%) who agreed that every time a disaster occurs, they always pay attention to the cause, while 6.5% disagreed. The disaster events in the regency include tsunamis, floods, landslides/erosions, tornadoes, and land fires. The reason people pay attention to the causes of the events is to know, minimize, and handle them appropriately. They also do not want the reoccurrence, therefore, the causes are evaluated for future improvements. Victims need actual and adequate information about potential disasters to avoid anxiety, hence, suffering can be minimized through quick and easy assistance (Rudianto, 2015).
The reason for paying attention to the causes of the disaster conveyed by the community was based on the experience of participating in socialization and simulations of disaster management. This was conveyed by sources who have credibility in the field of disaster, hence, the people are ready to be prepared to face disaster. Credible sources have the ability to provide information to the community when there are signs of a disaster. This can further increase community preparedness in facing disasters (Prasanti & Fuady, 2017).
As for the people who do not pay attention to the causes of disasters, because the events have become commonplace, they do not try to be curious, and finally surrender when a disaster occurs. In this case, the communities tend to be fatalistic towards disaster events. The fatalistic attitude views disaster as an act of a great power outside humanity that gives it destiny (Sabir, 2016).
The people living in several villages of Pangandaan Regency have also been able to deal with and overcome problems when a disaster occurs. This can be seen in Table 4 where the majority of respondents (66.1%) agreed that disasters can be overcome and resolved, while 4.8% disagreed. The residents are able to solve and resolve problems of disaster events, are aware of living in a disasterprone area, always coordinate with the village or community officials, and participate in deliberations between village government, volunteers, as well as the affected communities. Furthermore, the residents participate in the socialization of disaster mitigation training, utilize their knowledge, understand procedures, and often cooperate with all parties.
Awareness of living in a disaster-prone area and carrying out various activities when a disaster occurs is a valuable experience for the people living in the area. This experience subsequently forms a disaster-resilient community that has the ability to respond to the events, starting from emergency response activities to recovery. Disaster experiences make an individual to know the causes and characteristics of disasters, as well as the appropriate actions before, during, and after a disaster occurs (Havwina, Maryani, & Nandi, 2017).
As for the people who do not agree with the ability to solve problems, they are generally confused, have not experienced a disaster directly, and always help to repair the damage or try to leave the house. Therefore, in order not to be inconvenienced, depending on the size of the disaster, their own abilities are limited as they believe the disaster is God's will and hope for the help of others. This is quite concerning because even though the residents live in disasterprone areas, they are still not moved to overcome and manage it, hence, when a disaster occurs, they are not ready to solve it independently. Communities in disaster-prone areas have no choice but to be prepared by increasing their knowledge or skills and making various efforts to reduce disaster risk (Hidayat, 2008).
Furthermore, they are also used to dealing with disaster events in order to improve their environment. This is in accordance with the data in Table 4, which showed the majority of respondents (62.9%) agreed the disasters should be faced to improve the environment, while 4.8% disagreed. The village community agreed they could face disasters to improve the environment by accelerating recovery, minimizing impacts, cleaning the environment, becoming lessons for the future, maintaining vigilance, feeling suffering, and accepting trials from God.
The statements from people who have experienced disasters show the awareness that disasters should be faced and used as lessons in the future to minimize and improve environmental quality. This awareness consequently indicates their resilience in facing disaster events. This resilience is characterized by shared positive feelings about the future as a shared community commitment, well-inspired and embodied in actions to save oneself and property (Kayadoe, Nugroho, & Triutomo, 2016).
Some people disagree on dealing with disaster events in the context of improving the environment because, according to them, it is better not to have a disaster. Therefore, they have to prevent its occurrence and do not know the benefits of disasters for improving the environment. The statements of those who disagree tend to be illogical and have no awareness of the impact of the disaster on their area. More intensive education is needed to make the people aware that they still do not understand the need to deal with disasters in order to improve the environment. Public education and awareness are carried out through communication and socialization of disaster mitigation with the aim of increasing the understanding of the surrounding disasters, indicating they can work together with the other parties (Lestari et al., 2013).
The following hypothesis testing was carried out based on the data of communication, message, and resilience factors related to disaster problems in Pangandaran Regency:
The assessment of the significance of the structural model test is shown by the t-statistic value between the independent and the dependent variables in the Path Coefficient table at the SmartPLS output. This can be seen from the comparison between t count (T-statistics) and t-table at alpha 0.05 (5%) = 1.96. It is stated to be significant or Ho is rejected when the value of t count (T-statistics) > t-table or (p-value < 0.05). The results of the hypothesis test can be seen in the following table (Table 5):
|Original Sample (O)||T-Statistics (|O/STDEV|)||P-Values|
|Factor Communicator -> Resilience Level Disaster||0,497||4,615||0,000|
|Message Factor_ -> Resilience Level Disaster||0,347||3,392||0,001|
(Source: 2022 Research Results).
Based on the table above, the t-test results on the direct effect research hypotheses can be described as follows:
Hypothesis I states the effect of the communicator factor on the level of disaster resilience. The path coefficient of the communicator factor to the level of disaster resilience of 0.497 and a T-statistical value of 4.615 > 1.96 (5% significance level) showed that the test results were significant. This indicates the communicator factor can increase the level of disaster resilience. Therefore, H1 is accepted: "There is an effect between the communicator factor and the level of community resilience in dealing with disasters in West Java".
Hypothesis II is about the effect of message factors on the level of disaster resilience. The message factor path coefficient on the level of disaster resilience of 0.347 and a T-statistical value of 3.392 > 1.96 (5% significance level) showed the test results were significant. This indicates the message factors can increase the level of disaster resilience. Therefore, H2 is accepted: "There is an effect between the message factor and the level of community resilience in dealing with disasters in West Java".
The effect of communication and message factors on the level of community to deal with disasters in West Java, specifically Pangandaran is inseparable from the presence of volunteers who are members of social organizations and those who have concern for or respond to disasters. They are active in helping people affected by disasters to have resilience in dealing with them. Resilience is needed to restore the community to a stable condition at critical times (Nur Ariviyanti, 2014).
Volunteers who carry out disaster communication activities are the people that are committed to disaster issues. They are trained communicators, because they have attended various disaster training, and have quite many experiences in disaster management. Therefore, they are perceived by the community to have expertise and can be trusted in disaster management. The expertise and trust in these communicators can increase people's knowledge and willingness to do something (Niftah & Rahmat, 2017).
Recovery of the psychological conditions of disaster-affected communities carried out by volunteers requires effective communication measures. Therefore, people have a common understanding of the information that develops when facing or coping with the events. Incorrectly communicated information will create uncertainty that could exacerbate the situation (Rudianto, 2015).
Based on the analysis results and the discussion above, it can be concluded that the resource persons conducting disaster socialization in Pangandaran Regency have credibility because they were able to explain the material and answer questions from the public. The speakers have charm, because they value differences, and have the same views as a society. Also, the speakers have power, because they like to give praise, reprimand, and make people follow their advice.
Message conveyed in disaster socialization is structured, as needed, not contradictory, and accompanied by complete evidence. Therefore, it can be used as material for consideration in decision-making since the community understands and is ready to face disasters. Moreover, message conveyed in disaster communication becomes effective.
The level of community resilience in facing disasters is high because they are calm, always use procedures, belief in solutions, and always pay attention to other people as well as the causes of disasters. The residents are able to solve or resolve problems, hence, the resilience that is built in the community can bring about positive attitudes or commitment, accelerate recovery, reduce disaster risk, and be disaster prepared.
Disaster communication factors, which consist of communicator and message, have a significant relationship with the level of community resilience in facing disasters in the regency. Therefore, the better the communicator and the message conveyed, the better the community's resilience to deal with disasters in West Java.
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