Research - (2021) Volume 16, Issue 6
The effect of meditative thinking of play plans on the divided and selective attention of basketball playersSalima Abdullah Alwan*
*Correspondence: Salima Abdullah Alwan, Studious Activities Unit, College of Arts, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 14-Nov-2021 Published: 22-Dec-2021
The aim of the research is to build a measure of meditative thinking of basketball plans and to identify their level among basketball players, and to identify the relationship, impact and contribution of meditative thinking to their divided and selective attention play plans, and to adopt the linking method of the descriptive approach on basketball players in Baghdad province for the sports system (272 players, of whom 5 were randomly selected for the reconnaissance sample, and (35) random players to build the scale, and then applied to 32 players (44.44%) of them, and were Building the specialized scale according to systematic steps sequentially by sociological measurement, to include (5) separate dimensions that include (20) paragraphs in the scale distributed over these dimensions with three alternatives, and the scientific foundations and transactions of both virtual, logical and discriminatory honesty, internal consistency and stability were verified, the application of the scale to the sample of application, and the application of Recahum system tests to measure both their divided and selective attention Thus, the processing of the results with SPSS), the conclusions and applications were that it is linked and contributes to the contemplative thinking of the plans of playing with both the divided and selective attention of basketball players with a moral relationship expelled and contributes to their upgrading, and affects their increase in these players, and it is necessary for basketball coaches to pay attention to the contemplative thinking of the play plans because of its positive role in increasing the level of divided and selective attention of basketball players.
Meditative thinking of basketball play plans, Divided attention, Selective attention.
The intellectual building of knowledge of basketball players, about the playing plan, is information that can be invested accurately to achieve meaningful or fruitful responses during the period of basketball matches, which are characterized by attack and return to defense at a very high speed, which means this matter is extremely important for their coaches in the need to organize the tactical information that The level of their mental perceptions corresponds to the nature of their thinking and their contemplation of this information and storing it in a feasible way to make the process of attention required during the course of these matches, as thinking is a mental process and a purely emotional communication, which a person relies on as long as he is of sound mind, especially when he is exposed to a specific problem or when he wants to achieve a desired gain. It is affected by human culture, experiences, and environment by the circumstances surrounding it, and it is useful to him in solving his problems and making his decisions, Thinking is the most complex type of human behavior. The characteristic that characterizes thinking is the humans ability to examine actions or things and review them in a symbolic and imaginary manner, not in an actual capacity. (Khawaldeh, 2012) The researchers interest is due to methods of thinking because it is one of the factors affecting the training process. worse in training or competition, given that our knowledge of the thinking methods preferred by the players helps us to determine the appropriate ways to determine the appropriate means to evaluate them, which ultimately leads to raising their level. (Al-Tayeb, 2006) Draw the necessary plans to understand it until it reaches the results, and then evaluate the results in light of the plans, . (Rabie, 2012) Hope is that pattern of self-awareness-related thinking, self-knowledge or self-reflection, which depends on reflection, self-control and deep consideration. (Salman et al., 2021) The purpose of the meditation method is to reach the control of external stimuli in such a way that they can reach the arena of feeling clear and free of distortions, so that the person does not see it as a threat to him and some studies have shown that this method is effective for people with pressure in the field so that we raise performance and make the worker more satisfied in his work, and it will be better to apply this method twice a day where the duration ranges from (15) to (20) d each time is to follow the closure The eyes are in the position of sitting and meditating for (20) minutes, and after opening the eyes about (15) d a muscle contraction of the left hand is performed as meditation exercises in motion lead to refocusing and observing ideas and can increase the effectiveness of this method by training to focus and pay attention to stimuli Such As: Visual focus on a fixed goal, using one or two easy words that do not provoke emotions to focus attention and use breathing from the nose deeply and focus on the air of lust and exhalation and can use the exercises of focusing the mind on a constant goal in the position of competition for a period that allows the calmness of the mind and get rid of negative thoughts dispersed, combining relaxation and mental perception. (Al Majid, 2005) also the development of mental skills must go hand in hand with the development of fitness elements, skills such as attention focus, mental perception, mental recovery and others must be planned for their development such as strength, flexibility and speed, and integration in preparation, especially in the early stages, must work to develop physical and skill skills along with mental and emotional, and to ignore such preparation hinders the achievements at the competitive level. (Shimon, 2001) Mental preparation is one of the most important elements of an individuals training, to achieve the best performance where the athlete learns to endure long and arduous training hours without boredom or boredom and to learn how to deal with bad luck from unexpected injury, or uncontrollable factors that have an impact on his sports activity according to his training program. (Bahi & Jad, 2004) The brain resembles a forest in which systems interact continuously and objectively, and indicates that individuals may live in an environment that provides many layers of sensory and cultural problems, and these ideas also indicate that individuals have the abilities to understand and grow. (Farraj, 2008) The stages of reflective thinking are united in feeling the difficulty – awareness of the problem, determining the difficulty – understanding the problem, evaluating and organizing knowledge – classifying data – discovering relationships – forming hypotheses, evaluating hypotheses – accepting or rejecting hypotheses, applying the solution – accepting the result or rejected it. (Al-Afoun, 2012) as the process of meditation differs from the process of imagination, which is one of the important mental skills that a person resorts to obtain new ideas and experiences. (Abdel-Hamid & Khalifa, 2000) The improvement or employment of mental skills and their acquisition does not depend on innate preparations. The mentality only, and the process of imagination or meditation is based on stimulating the mind to fly in horizons far from reality, in which the individual makes himself an active party and obtains a semi-living experience through his mental dealing with these things, and by means of thinking, the individual can come up with new ways of discovering known to him before Ghanim, (2021) and this is an inherent matter for basketball players in the tactical reflection of what they receive from the coaches or their assistants before or during the matches, when their directives extend to face filling the gaps or investing opportunities, as well as the modifications in the content of the plan as a result of the reactions of the opposing team in confronting it. This is necessary that these changes in the game plans do not affect the mental processes of the players, especially the attention process, which is the first of these processes, as attention is defined in general as a process that includes characteristics that distinguish it, the most important of which are selection, selection, focus, intent, attention and inclination to the subject of attention. (Al-Atoum, 2004) as defined as directing the individuals feeling or mental awareness to a new behavioral situation through some various stimuli in preparation for the behaviors that need to be managed. (Maseer & Flayyih, 2021). Rabie (2009) recalls that the world (Daniel) believes that the individual can perform several tasks at the same time and that the division or expansion of attention depends on the resources required by positions or tasks so that little control with the few resources that the individual needs to perform these tasks can the individual perform several tasks at the same time and the process of attention divided within three stages of attention is based on a process of knowledge and these stages are exciting environment to move to a stage of the environment to move to a stage Detect the senses, the exciting identification stage, and the response phase to the trigger until the response occurs. As for the determinants of selective attention, they may be external related to the objective characteristics of the stimulus and the circumstances of the situation. Among the factors affecting here are movement, variance, size, and the number of repetitions of the stimulus, and this is directly proportional to stimulating selective attention. There are also internal determinants, which mean subjective factors related to personality, tendencies and motives, and accordingly, the components of attention are Eclecticism is selectivity and continuity (Altameemi & Flayyih, 2021). And one of its characteristics is that it is a selective and early cognitive process, and its extent refers to the maximum period of time that the individual maintains on his awareness, i.e. sustained attention before switching to another stimulus. Muneer et al(2021) To draw attention has a positive effect on the activation of memory in the brain increases perceptions, especially audiovisual perception and helps to create acceptance or mobilization of information, storage and recovery, and this activation invokes To the type and strength of the alarm or sedative received by the individual, advanced psychological studies in this regard confirm that activation can occur whether forced or at the desire of the individual, but it is not possible to activate the brain forcibly and obtain desirable responses but on the organizer of the environment Training should create conditions for activation by moving away from coercion, no matter what kind of activation means affect the receptors of that activation. (Nazer, 2010), since meditative thinking about the plans developed by coaches for players is an internal process of the basketball player and cannot be observed without measurement (Ali & Flayyih, 2021). this requires building a measure that fits the specificity of basketball players and the current research to be the problem after diagnosing the level of this kind of thinking in an attempt by the researcher to answer the following question: Does there be a relationship to the contemplative thinking of the plans to play with the divided and selective attention of basketball players? Does the contemplative thinking of play plans affect the divided and selective attention of basketball players? The aim of this research is to build a scale of reflective thinking for basketball playing plans and to identify its level among basketball players, and to identify the relationship, effect and contribution of reflective thinking to playing plans with their divided and selective attention.
The link method is adopted from the descriptive approach and is defined as a method that relies on the collection of data in the field in multiple ways, and includes scouting, descriptive and analytical study. (Abdulraza, 2021). The limits of the research community are represented by the basketball players (electrical industries, housing, Salikh, Air Force, Civil Defense) in the Baghdad Governorate for the sports season (2020/2021), numbering (72) players distributed by nature on these clubs that represent a community The number is limited, the specificity of the research dictated the selection of three samples of them, as (5) players were chosen at random for the exploratory sample, and (35) players were randomly selected to build the scale, and the remaining (32) players for their class (44.44%) of them.
The research required the availability of a scale to diagnose and know the level of reflective thinking for the plans for playing basketball, which led the researcher to build a new scale for it that fits the specificity of the sample by conducting official interviews with specialists and by adopting the theoretical framework for reflective thinking, the researcher put (5) separate dimensions from each other All of them agreed on it, and then included (20) items in the scale distributed on these dimensions with three alternatives graduated according to Likerts method of correction and in the positive direction only as follows: They always apply to me (3), They apply to me often (2), They never apply to me (1) ), by adhering to the foundations and rules of drafting paragraphs that they should not be newsworthy and begin with an act that expresses the present time, is not negative or ambiguous and contains one goal. For the scale after the researcher took their agreement to modify it without deleting and merging it by (80%) according to the Bloom criterion. The results were arranged in descending order by 27% of the two peripheral groups, which amounted to (9.45), as they were rounded to (10) in each of them, and then treat the differences between these two groups with a t-test for uncorrelated samples, and as shown in the table (1):
|The dimension||T||Group||Number||Arithmetic mean||standard deviation||(v) calculated||Sig.||The sig. of the differences||Discrimination|
|Feeling the difficulty of the plan||1||Supreme||10||2.9||0.316||6.6||0.000||Sig.||Featured|
|Determine and understand the difficulty of the plan||5||Supreme||10||2.7||0.483||7.398||0.000||Sig.||Featured|
|Evaluate and organize knowledge of the plan||9||Supreme||10||2.6||0.516||4.714||0.000||Sig.||Featured|
|Evaluate assumptions about the plan||13||Supreme||10||2.6||0.516||5.196||0.000||Sig.||Featured|
|Implementation of plan solutions||17||Supreme||10||2.5||0.527||6.091||0.000||Sig.||Featured|
After achieving the measure of the discriminatory honesty of the paragraphs, the same construction sample grades were addressed to achieve internal consistency between dimension and scale, between paragraph and dimension, and between paragraph and scale by finding correlations to Pearsons simple correlation factor, all of which were moral at the level of significance (0.05) and degree of freedom. (33), and the researcher did not delete or add any paragraphs after this procedure, and after the researcher verified the honesty of all kinds mentioned, i checked the stability using the equation (Alpha- Kornbach) which reached the factor (0.898) which is a high and acceptable link, and after Completing the scientific foundations of the scale and experimenting on the survey sample of 5 players and the researcher did not face any obstacles in the clarity of the measurement instructions, and after this procedure applied the scale form in its final form (supplement:1) to the sample of the application number (32) players, and then measured each of them by the tests of the Recahome system to measure both the divided and selective attention of basketball players (supplement: 2), The researcher verified the processing of research results with the statistical bag system (SPSS-V26) for both percentage, computational medium, standard deviation, t-test testing of unrelated samples, simple correlation factors (person), and art factors Alpha-Kornbach, one sample t-test, linear regression factor, contribution ratio, standard grade error, F test for better regression model matching, and law (T) on regression effect.
The results and their discussion
The results of two models of linear regression show the relationship and contribution of reflective thinking to basketball playing plans with each of the two types of attention studied among basketball players, that is, the higher the level of reflective thinking for the basketball playing plans, the greater the level of divided attention and selective attention directly, and the researcher attributes this result represented by the effect of this The kind of thinking that was clear in supporting the cognitive structure of the players in a way that increases their empowerment in activating mental processes and in a positive direction, because of the role of attention in mental processes, which is considered at the beginning or first and that the last, which includes cognition and research in memory ... and others, is the one that It has a role as a whole in implementing the players plans through the application of moves and coverage in the playing plans. Attention is the important role in determining the speed and locations of each of their team players and the players of the opposing team, and providing information that can be combined with the information provided by the product of reflective thinking in order to interact with the reality information in the matches. So that the contemplative thinking supports the players in implementing their plans as an attempt to achieve the coachs tactical goals. Since as long as reflective thinking represents the climax of mental processes, training cannot ignore it and it becomes necessary for the trainers to make efforts for its development. Facing problems and changing phenomena and events, and the person who thinks reflectively has the ability to perceive relationships, make summaries, and benefit from information to support his point of view, analyze premises, and review and search for alternatives. (Abdel-Wahhab, 2005; Mohammed & Kzar, 2021) And that perception is only achieved by the presence of attention. (Rabie, 2010) as the individual tests the meaning he has reached by comparing it with other meanings in his cognitive structure or with the meanings that have been reached as a result of other sensory inputs, and the meaning test includes generating links that relate to other phenomena stored in the cognitive structure of the individual. Is the new meaning formed well related to other ideas associated with it that can be formed from the things stored in its cognitive structure, does the new idea formed agree with the ideas existing new ones.(Ismail, 2011) Remodeling the alarm triggers attention, so innovation is necessary to avoid boredom and must be interesting in terms of its nature and spatial position and must be changed to draw attention as well as the intensity and modernity of this exciting to have applied importance in many scientific fields. (Melhem, 2009; Ali et al., 2021) The practice of mental processes is carried out only by training and the two men who work to work hard to exercise their underlying skills, as mental development emerges through a rich, stimulating and healthy environment with a range of experiences, attitudes and stunts. (Hamid, 2007), The human brain also contains multiple cognitive structures that form the methods of thinking, and may be pictorial, linguistic, touchy, auditory, or mental images and these structures exist different locations of different neural inputs, and words that are difficult to imagine are more difficult than words that have images in memory. (Baivio, 2009) The results showed that the diameter of the eye expands while focusing attention on the tasks, and it expands whenever the focused tasks require complex mental operations, that is, the most difficult tasks. The practice of reflective thinking makes the individual possess a set of characteristics and traits that appear in his behavior. Later, these characteristics are represented in reducing impulsiveness or recklessness, listening to others with their understanding, empathy and emotional empathy, and flexibility in thinking, scrutiny and control. (Al-Thaqafi, 2013) (Table 2,3,4,5)
|variable||Total marks||hypothetical mean||Arithmetic mean||standard deviation||F||(Sig)||indication|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||60||30||42.31||7.244||9.614||0.000||Sig.|
n = 32 (t) a function if (Sig) > (0.05) at the level of significance (0.05) and the degree of freedom (31) the unit of measure (degree)
|influencer||affected||Simple Correlation Coefficient (R)||Linear Regression Coefficient 2(R)
(The coefficient of determination)
|Contribution percentage||Standard Error of Estimation|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||Divided attention||0.945||0.893||0.889||2.638|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||selective attention||0.912||0.832||0.826||2.888|
|influencer||affected||variance||sum of squares||Two degrees of freedom.||mean squares||(F) computed value||Sig.||indication|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||Divided attention||regression||1734.214||1||1734.214||249.223||0.000||Sig.|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||selective attention||regression||1237.25||1||1237.25||148.322||0.000||Sig.|
n = 32 (F) value of a function if the value of the Sig. > (0.05) * level of significance (0.05)
|affected||Variables||beta b||standard error||value (t)
|Divided attention||fixed limit||28.345||2.806||10.101||0.000||moral|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||1.032||0.065||15.787||0.000||moral|
|selective attention||fixed limit||33.726||3.073||10.976||0.000||moral|
|Reflective thinking of basketball playing plans||0.872||0.072||12.179||0.000||moral|
Sig. (t) value if the (Sig) score is > (0.05) at the significance level (0.05)
Basketball players in Baghdad province are the focus of this study, which aims to build a measure of meditative thinking of basketball plans, and to identify their level, as well as to identify the relationship, impact, and contribution of meditative thinking on their divided and selective attention play plans.
The researcher adopted their test by means of the RehaCom Cognitive System, which is one of the most important systems of modern psychological laboratories with high accuracy by objective measurement, and it is a diagnostic and treatment tool, and appropriate tests can help in particular to identify weaknesses or cognitive deficiencies, through two visual tasks And audio for each laboratory, and the maximum score for each test is (100). From the results, the researchers concluded to the reflective thinking of playing plans is related to both the divided and selective attention of basketball players with a positive correlation. The contemplative thinking of playing plans contributes to raising the level of both the divided and selective attention of basketball players with a positive moral relationship. The reflective thinking of playing plans affects the level of both divided and selective attention among basketball players with a positive Sig. relationship. It is necessary for basketball coaches to activate the reflective thinking of playing plans because of its positive role in increasing the divided and selective attention of basketball players with a direct moral relationship.
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