Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 2
The Effect of Playing In Small Spaces According To The Feedback System on Learning Some Basic Football Skills For Boys of Besiktas Football School In Kirkuk CityAli Abdulaleem Mohammed Saber*
*Correspondence: Ali Abdulaleem Mohammed Saber, Assistant Professor, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Kirkuk, Iraq, Email:
Received: 02-Mar-2023 Published: 16-Mar-2023
This work aims at identifying the effect of playing in small spaces according to the feedback system to learn specific basic football skills for Besiktas Football School for young in Kirkuk city. In this study, the experimental method was used because it is suitable the problem of the study. The intentional method was adopted to select the research community the from the students of Besiktas football school in the city of Kirkuk, numbered (180) students distributed according to the age groups of the football game. As for the research sample, it was chosen randomly and by lottery, so the choice fell on the category of young, which numbered (34) students, and the non-committed students were excluded and their number (4) and the students who were used in the exploratory experiment and their number (10) to keep the number of the research sample (20) Pupils are grouped into: experimental and control, each is (10) students. Thus, it represented a percentage (11.11%) of the original population. The statistical package (spss) was used for data analysis and finding the results. ?? he experimental and control groups enhances their performance in rolling, handling, quenching by the pre and post-tests. Using the playing style in small spaces according to the feedback system teaching the buds category in football schools, clubs and academies is recommended.
Small spaces. Football skills. School
Scientific researching in the field of football has an essential and significant part in preparing the player to the highest levels of performance. In terms of sports, developed countries are interested in children and young people from the moment they join the football schools in sports clubs. Tests are conducted (physical, physiological, skillful, and psychological) for these young boys. Through the results of these tests, their capabilities and potentials are identified in addition to what can be achieved in the near and long future. Football for children is a source of fun, where we note that the child always loves to play football with his friends for fun. It is one of the factors that makes these children unite together to win because it is a sport that enhances their team spirit. The young category is one of the most important categories in football and a cornerstone in building a child or student to become a football player because of the factors that this category carries of good mental and physical development. The individual at this age is able to imitate and learn the behavior and style followed in front of him. At this age, the individual will learn the principles of football and play with his colleagues according to his ability and conditions so that we can gradually make him harmonize in order to develop himself with the help of the teacher or coach. Through this chapter, we can develop player’s technique through normal playing by football, where it is not possible in any way to impose training matters on him, but rather it must be limited to his physical, mental and motor ability.
Football in small spaces is one of the effective methods of training for all age groups in football with its different goals, especially the buds category, as this method guarantees suspense and excitement. This is one of the principles and primary factors for learning motor skills, which brings joy and pleasure to the children of the buds category, making them display their greatest positive energies with continuous directives (continuous, real-time feedback) by the teacher or coach during the exercise. They can be directed to implement the various motor skills specific to the game, as (Mustafa Al-Sayeh) refers to the continuous instantaneous feedback as “the information that is given to the student during performance with the aim of good performance, improving the situation or correcting a motor path” (7:189).
Accordingly, this study is important because it identifies the effect of the use of playing in small spaces according to the feedback system on learning the skills of (rolling, handling, and putting down) in football at Besiktas Football School for young in the city of Kirkuk.
Through follow-up, the researcher who is one of the football coaches in the city of Kirkuk, he noticed that the methods used by the coaches working on age groups lack the element of fun and fun a little, especially in the category of young. To give more time in the educational and training units to develop the physical aspects and follow the traditional methods, which may lead to early fatigue during exercise and boredom. Thus, this causes apathy among these children and a lack of rush to learn, and some may leave the football school. The main objective of the unit will not be achieved except to learn basic football skills. The researcher was interested in developing an educational program based on the style of playing in small spaces according to the feedback system, which is one of the important things in learning the various basic skills in football. In addition, it is one of the methods that brings joy to the young category, generates a spirit of competition and encourages them to adhere to the discipline for achieving the desired goals.
• Identifying the effect of playing in small spaces based on the feedback system in learning certain basic football skills of Besiktas Football School for young in Kirkuk city.
• The post-tests, showed some that the experimental and control groups are statistically different.
The human sphere: the category of Besiktas football school for young in the city of Kirkuk.
Spatial area: Turkmen Sports Club stadium.
Time Scale: 15/6/2019 to 3/8/2019.
Research Methodology and Field Procedures
The problem in this work specifies the methodology used in this work of this work, as the method is “the method that an individual pursues until he reaches a specific goal” (1:19). On this basis, the experimental method is used because it is suitable to the problem.
The intentional method was used for the selection of the students of Besiktas football school in the city of Kirkuk as a research community, numbered (180) students distributed according to the age groups of the football game.
As for the research sample, it was chosen randomly and by lottery, so the choice fell on the category of young, which numbered (34) students, and the non-committed students were excluded and their number (4) and the students who were used in the exploratory experiment and their number (10) to keep the number of the research sample (20) divided into: experimental and control, each is (10) students. The research sample is the original research community being analysed. (11:181). Thus, it represented a percentage (11.11%) of the original population.
Equivalence of the two research groups
To return the differences to the experimental factor, both groups, the experimental and control, should be totally equal in everything except for the variable of the former affecting the experimental not the control group (5:35).
Accordingly, the equivalence process was conducted on (Wednesday) corresponding to 19/6/2019 between the two groups in the selected basic skills in football (rolling, handling, putting down) (Table 1).
|Tests||Measuring unit||Experimental||Controlling||Calculate T value||Probability||Significance|
|* Significant if Sig values ≤ 0.05|
Through table 1, it is shown that the calculated (t) values of the performance in dribbling, deception, rolling, quenching reached (-0.866, -0.885, -0.885), respectively, with probabilities of (1,000, .2070, .2070). Since the values of the probability level are greater than (0.05), this shows that both groups are not statistically different. This indicates the equality of these two groups in the aforementioned skills.
The means used to collect information in the study
• Arab and foreign sources.
• Information network (internet).
• The exploratory experience. • Questionnaire.
• Tests and measurements.
• Exam results registration form.
• Statistical means of the system (SPSS).
Equipment adopted for this work
• Tape measure.
• 2 whistles
• 20 Footballs.
• (2) Japanese-made electronic stopwatches.
• Shirts for distinction while playing.
Identifying the basic skills
The basic skills were selected from among the vocabulary of the season (2019), which is scheduled at Besiktas Football School in Kirkuk, and they are:
• Rolling skill.
• Handling skill.
• Quenching skill.
Tests used in the research
The skills tests (rolling, handling, quenching) were reached after reviewing the sources and references concerned with football skill tests. After presenting these skills in a questionnaire to a number of experienced and specialized, some tests were selected:
The test of rolling the ball between (10) characters:
• Test aim: To measure rolling ability.
• Tools: a soccer ball, a stopwatch, and signs of suitable height, and the distance between each sign is (1.5 m).
• Performance: Behind the starting lines, and when the start signal appears, the tester runs with the ball between the poles by both feet and one. Figure 1 illustrates this. The player is given only one attempt or a retry if an unintentional foul occurs (Figure 1).
• Registration: we calculated the time taken to and fro (2:203).
Test of handling towards a small target (20 m)
Test objective: measuring the handling accuracy (Figure 2).
• (5) Soccer balls. 20m
• One sign.
• One tape measure.
• Small post target (100 x 75 cm).
Method: With a ball, the player is far (20 m) from the target and upon hearing the signal, he handles the ball while it is fixed towards the target.
Method of quenching: Each player is given five attempts (two scores are for the ball entering the goal and one for touching the crossbar or the column, and zero if it goes out (8:37).
Quench test: The name of the test: stopping the movement of the ball (depression).
The test aim: Measuring the stopping accuracy of the ball and re-controling with the foot, knee, chest or head.
Equipment: (5) footballs, tape measure.
Test procedures: - Layout of the test area (2×2) m.
• The tester is behind the designated test area.
• The coach stands with the ball on a line 6 m away from the test area.
Description of performance: After starting, a high ball is thrown to the tester, a player approaches the test area form the starting point for stopping the ball by any body part except the arms, returning to the starting point and begin again. So, the tester makes five consecutive attempts.
Five endeavors are given to each tester.
• When making a mistake, the coach repeats the attempt and the attempt is not counted.
• The ball is thrown with moving the hands from the bottom up. The attempt is considered unsuccessful if:
• The tester failed in stopping the ball.
• Cross any line in any area by more than afoot.
• Stopping the ball illegally in football (Figure 3).
Two (2) marks are given for each correct attempt.
• (10) Marks are calculated for the total of the five attempts (12:209-210).
The skill test exploratory experience: The research with the attached assistant work team conducted a pilot experiment on Saturday corresponding to 15/6/2019 on a sample of (5) students selected by the random method and they were excluded when implementing the educational program. This experiment targeted the following:
• Ensure the safety and suitability of devices and tools.
• Ensure the efficiency of the assistant work team and understanding of the conduct of the tests.
• Ensure that the tests are appropriate to the sample level.
• Knowing the time for doing the tests.
The exploratory experience of the training curriculum:
Before starting to refute the educational program, the researcher and the assistant work team makes an exploratory experiment (Monday17/6/2019) on (5) students who were also randomly selected, and aimed at the following:
• Verify the validity of the educational program.
• Ensure the appropriateness of the times and educational unit parts.
• Draw a good image of the way the work is being adhered to the educational program.
• Identifying the errors that hinder the work during the implementation of the main experiment.
Pre-tests for the research sample
The pre-tests for the selected basic football skills (rolling, handling, quenching) occurred on Wednesday (6/19/2019) for the experimental and control groups.
Educational units designed using (playing in small spaces according to the feedback system)
After informing the researcher of the most available scientific resources in kinetic learning and football and the educational units for skills (rolling, handling, quenching) were prepared using playing in small spaces while providing continuous real-time feedback during performance (Appendix 1). After that, the researcher supervised the implementation of these units on the experimental group on Saturday corresponding to 22/6/2019, and lasted for (6) weeks for (3) educational units, bringing the total of educational units to (18) units. The last educational unit was completed on Wednesday 31/7/2019. The control group was left for the method followed by the responsible teacher, and on the same vocabulary of the lesson set by the football school administration in implementing the curriculum used in the school and without using playing in small spaces according to the feedback system, which included (18) educational units also and under the supervision of the researcher.
The post tests of the groups following completing the implementation of the educational units. The setting and method of the post-tests time were used in which the test was conducted and the same assistant staff who conducted the post-tests without any obstacles on Saturday corresponding to (3/8/2019).
The statistical package (spss) to process the data and reach the results was used.
Presenting, Analyzing and Discussing the Results
Analyzing the results of the pre and post tests for the experimental and control groups
The ball rolling test between (10) characters in the pre and post-tests
The arithmetic means, standard deviations, the calculated (t) value, the probability and the different significance for the pre and post tests for the two groups (for the ball rolling test between (10) characters (Table 2).
|*Significant if Sig values ≤ 0.05|
Table 2 is the finding of the rolling ability test for the sample of the study. The two groups were significantly different, as the arithmetic means in the pre-test for the two groups were (1.40, 1.60), respectively, with standard deviations (.5160, .5160), respectively. The arithmetic means of the post-test were (9.88, 5.40) and with two standard deviations (.2700, .5160), respectively. After treating that statistically, the value of (t) for the experimental group was (56.069) and with a probability level of (.0000), and this percentage is less than (0.05). As for the control group, it had a value of (t) (-19.000) and a probability level of (.0000), and this percentage is less than (0.05). This indicates that the difference is significant for both groups.
Presenting and analyzing the results of the handling test towards a small target (20m) away in the pre and post-tests
Table 3 is the handling accuracy test results showing significant differences between the two groups, as the arithmetic means in the pre-test for the two groups were (1.30, 1.50), respectively, with standard deviations (.4830, .5270), respectively. The arithmetic means of the post-test were (9.83, 5.50) and with two standard deviations (.3590, .5270), respectively. After treating that statistically, the value of (t) for the experimental group reached (-40,256) and with a probability level of (.0000), and this percentage is less than (0.05). As for the control group, the value of (t) was (-13.416) with a probability level of (.0000). This percentage is less than (0.05). This indicates that the difference is significant for both groups (Table 3).
|Group||Pre-tests||Post-tests||value (t)||(Sig)*||Differences sig.|
|*Significant if Sig values ≤ 0.05|
Presentation and analysis of the results of the suppression test in the pre and post-tests
Table 4 is the test of stopping the movement of the ball (depression) for the sample showing significant differences between the groups, as the arithmetic means in the pre-test for the two groups were (1.30, 1.50), respectively, with standard deviations (.4830, .5270), respectively. The arithmetic means of the post-test were (9.97, 4.80) and with two standard deviations (.0670, .422 0), respectively. After treating it statistically, the value of (t) for the experimental class was (55,952) and at a probability of (.0000). This percentage is less than (0.05). The control group had a value of (t) (-12,676) and a probability level of (.0000). This percentage is less than (0.05). This indicates that the difference is significant for both groups (Table 4).
|Group||Pre-tests||Post-tests||value (t)||(Sig)*||Differences sig.|
|*Significant if Sig values ≤ 0.05|
Discussing the results of the tests for skills (rolling, handling, quenching)
Through the tables 2-4, the tests (rolling the ball between (10) pillars, the test of handling to a small target 20m away), stopping the movement of the ball (depression)) showed.
There is a tangible improvement that has occurred through the mean differences that appeared between the two tests in favor of the post test for both l groups. That is, both groups have achieved an improvement in performance, there must be some kind of improvement in the level of performance, but this improvement varies from one group to another, according to the method used in preparing the educational units, their content, and the exercises included in those units that are commensurate with the objective set for them. The goal is to teach the basic football skills of young category to build a proper waterline from the beginning and develop them at this age and make these skills develop clearly during their sports career. These skills are considered the backbone in achieving the goal of the match. “Learning and mastering the skills begins at the early age of the player, and from here this player becomes skilled and has the greatest sales in performing the skills” (3:127).
The reason for the improvement in the level of the experimental group members to the educational program (educational units) (playing in small spaces according to the feedback system). It led to a focus on the performance of skills (rolling, handling, putting down) in the form of free performance, and with the colleague and related to basic movements, which increases the player's sense of ball and compatibility with it. The slight improvement in the level of the control member, the method used by the teacher or coach, because the repetitions of the skills (rolling, handling, suppression) improved in the performance level of the members of this group.
Analysis and discussion of the post-tests between the two groups
Presentation and analysis of the post-tests between the groups: Table 5 the post-tests between the two groups showing significant differences, as the arithmetic mean of the post tests of the experimental group (rolling, handling, quenching) was (9.88, 9.83, 9.97), respectively, with standard deviations (.2700, .3590, .0670), respectively. As for the arithmetic means of the controls in the post-tests, it reached (5.40, .5270, .4220) and standard deviations of (.5160, .5270, .4220), respectively. After treating that statistically, it was found that the values of (t) amounted to (24.284, 21.469, 38.288), respectively, with a probability level of (.0000, .0040, .0040), and these percentages are less than (0.05) (Table 5).
|Group||Experimental||Controlling||Value (t)||(Sig)*||Difference s sig.|
|*Significant if Sig values ≤ 0.05|
Discussion of the Post-Tests between the Two Groups
Through the results that appeared in table 5, it was found that the experimental research group had achieved its goals in the moral effect. The educational units prepared within the educational program (playing in small spaces according to the feedback system) in accordance with the degree of difficulty of the skill and the age level of the pupils (young) and continuous guidance through the use of feedback and the optimal use of tools and supplies necessary for learning have contributed to this. The tests of the experimental group (playing in small spaces according to the feedback system) are the best in terms of moral differences in the performance of skills (rolling, handling, quenching). As we note that the level of performance of the rolling skill was very clearly better in the experimental research group than it was in the control group, and this is because of the educational program and its content of playing style based on a scientific organization that suits the level of the research sample members. Sami Al-Saffar has pointed out, “One of the distinguishing characteristics of young ages is the love of rolling the ball, which must be used in the education process”. (9:67)
The superiority of the experimental group over the controls could be due to the handling skill and to the educational unit (playing in small spaces according to the feedback system), which is interspersed with direct and continuous passing with the colleague while giving continuous feedback. Referred to by (Taha Ismail) "that the correct handling instills in the players awareness and awareness to use the tactical handling in the best use".(10:110)
This superiority is because of the fact that this method of playing seems to be easier, more interesting, exciting and understandable. What happens is that it allows students to have continuous play time away from boredom and early sense of fatigue, which leads to focus on performing the task. Therefore, this generates the desire to implement the objectives of the educational unit. This was confirmed by (Najah Mahdi) that "any skill can be learned quickly and easily if the learner possesses the sincere desire, excitement and motivation to learn it".(6:22) Through this method, these students are able to carry out the repetition of the implementation of skills (rolling, handling, putting down) by giving continuous real-time feedback from the teacher or coach. (Khalil Ibrahim) indicates that "when the learner receives information during motor performance, that is, when he feels errors, he works to modify his responses".(4:128) Thus, this style of play is the most effective in the early stages of learning to learn the required skills. Thus, the researcher believes that the educational units in the style of (playing in small spaces according to the feedback system) can be the best for the process of learning motor skills (rolling, handling, quenching) for the ages of young boys (beginners).
As for the traditional method the teacher or coach adopted, it is the most popular method among teachers or trainers, which is a method that is not without its positive features. However, it is necessary to think about using the rest of the methods that would contribute to accelerating the process of learning and developing skills in a manner commensurate with the remarkable development in sports achievements and in various games, and these results are consistent with the objectives of the research.
Conclusions and Recommendations
• The experimental and control groups clearly improved in the performance of rolling, handling, quenching through the results of the pre and post-tests.
• The experimental group outperformed the controls in the level of skill performance (rolling, handling, and quenching) through the outcome of the post-tests.
• The adoption of playing style in small spaces according to the feedback system is better than the traditional method used in football schools when teaching the buds category.
• The necessity of using the playing style in small spaces according to the feedback system teaching the buds category in football schools, clubs and academies.
• Disseminating the results of this research to coaches in football schools, clubs and academies to benefit from them in teaching skills (rolling, handling, quenching).
• Conducting research and other studies using this method on other skills.
A model of an educational unit using the style of play in small spaces according to the feedback system
Educational objective: Teaching the skill of handling for the young category. Unit time: (45) minutes
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