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The Effect of Rebounding Strength Exercises in Developing the Peak Ability and Shooting Skill of Advanced Football Players

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4

The Effect of Rebounding Strength Exercises in Developing the Peak Ability and Shooting Skill of Advanced Football Players

Mohammed Ali Majeed Zayer*
*Correspondence: Mohammed Ali Majeed Zayer, College of Arts, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
1College of Arts, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to preparing rebound strength exercises to develop the peak of ability and some basic skills for advanced football players, and identifying the effect of rebounding force exercises in developing the researched variables on the research sample. The researcher used the experimental method for its suitability to the nature of the research problem in the manner of equivalent groups (control and experimental) with pre- and post-test. The research community was determined from the players of sports clubs in Baghdad who participated in the reserve league for the season (2022/2023), which numbered (27) clubs, and then the research sample was deliberately chosen, represented by the (20) reserve players of Al-Zawraa Sports Club, who were divided randomly by The lottery was divided into two groups (control and experimental), each group consisted of (10) players, and the sample percentage was (3.7%) of the research community. The researcher made equivalence for the two research groups (control and experimental). One of the most important results reached by the researcher is that: The rebounding exercises had a positive effect in developing the top of the ability (explosive power and power characterized by speed), which led to the development of the scoring skill in the research sample, rebounding exercises used in the research were influential in achieving speed in performance through the decrease in time in the skill of scoring, as well as working to achieve the required accuracy with this skill by observing the results that appeared, development that appeared in the results of the experimental group is greater than the results of the control group, and this is evidence of the effectiveness of the rebounding exercises used on the research sample this achieves the goal of the research. One of the most important recommendations recommended by the researchers is that: necessity of relying on rebounding exercises when training players to develop muscular strength, especially (explosive power and power characterized by speed), necessity of adopting jumping of all kinds when rebounding exercises, and benefiting from the exercises prepared in this research in the training curricula of sports clubs and youth center.

Keywords

Exercises. Sports. Football players

Introduction

Sports competition between countries for the purpose of obtaining advanced positions has become a standard for the mathematically developed towns, as it reflects the extent of their progress and is a front for countries in international forums, as this is not by chance, but through the effort exerted by those in charge of the sport as well as the players, as well as following the scientific methods of sports training The standardized person who wants to raise the capabilities and capabilities of the players and reach the best individual and collective achievements. Football is one of the team games that is characterized by a great place among sports fans in all parts of the globe.

For the purpose of enabling them to outperform their competitor, they have followed scientific training methods to raise their capabilities and enable them to achieve the best achievements. Where training for football players represents a “scientific-educational process based on sound foundations whose goal is for players to reach integration in technical performance. Achieving this goal requires that the coaching plan and organize his players’ physical, technical and mental capabilities and moral qualities in a unified framework to reach them to the highest level of athletic performance.” (Ali, 2009).

The game of football is one of the activities that require its players to possess high physical capabilities, and muscular strength is one of the most important capabilities of football players because of its important role in raising the level of players’ physical efficiency because it is a competitive football game that has a long time and depends on a lot of movement It also needs a lot of contacts because it is a manly game, so the player is required to have the good muscle strength to be able to overcome the opponent in different playing situations, and it requires the players to physically excel over the competitor, which requires continuous training to raise their physical abilities and work to integrate them with basic skills. Mufti Ibrahim refers to muscular strength as “the special muscular strength of the muscles that work mainly in the specialized sports of the individual and that qualifies the muscles mainly in the kinetic performance of the practiced sport.” (Ibrahim. 1991)

The rebounding exercises are one of the important training methods in developing the physical abilities of the players, as well as having an impact on the performance of some basic skills because they consist of eccentric contractions followed by quick and direct central muscular contractions. She has a lot of basic football skills. This is what was pointed out by Ali Hassan, “Rebound strength exercises are used today to increase the explosive power, or characteristic of speed, speed of force, or rapid force of muscular contractions, like books and various training sources call them, and we often aim from rebounding strength exercises to increase and improve the strength of jumping in all its forms.” (Abu Jamous, 2011).

The coaches seek to develop the skill side of the players, because the game of football is a game of skills, which the players must master in order to apply it during the match, where the goal of it is to outperform the player over the competitor and take precedence over it, since the player who has the high ability to perform the skill has a higher ability to outperform the competitor. Therefore, coaches work to develop the skillful performance of players in order to reach the highest levels. This is what (Youssef Lazem Kammash. 1999) agrees with: “Basic skills in football constitute an important aspect of the daily training unit, based on the principle that basic skills are the basis of the football game, since without them the player cannot carry out the tactical duties assigned to him. He can be a good player if he absorbs the basic skills and masters them in the required manner. Thus, the most important duties of training is to work to bring the players to the highest level of training status.” (Kammash. 1999).

One of the basic skills in football is the skill of scoring, which is the highest heel among the skills, which distinguishes the team that is good at scoring from the one whose level is lower, and also distinguishes between the players within the same team for the player who masters the skill of scoring, it is the end of teamwork and is what the team aspires to. During the match, for this reason, one of the coach’s priorities is to give importance during the training units to the skill of scoring for the purpose of continuous, integrated and accurate training on it and achieving development for them.This is what (Mounir Gerges and et al) indicated, “The main goal of each skill is to hit the target, so the skill of scoring is one of the important and basic skills in football, and all skills and plans become useless unless they culminate at the end of shooting.” (Mounir Gerges and et al. 1998).

Hence, the importance of research on how advanced football players develop according to scientific foundations, through the adoption of rebound strength exercises in developing the peak ability and some basic skills of advanced football players, the researcher believes that these prepared exercises will contribute to the development of the research sample.

Research Problem

Physical abilities are an important factor in the game of football, so coaches always seek to develop the capabilities of their players, as it is a necessary and basic indicator of the game of football, as it has a direct impact on the physical and skill performance of the players during the match, as well as working to develop the scoring skill because of its great importance In a football game. Through the researcher’s experience as a player, coach, and academic in the field of football, as well as following up on some league matches and training units, the researcher identified the problem of the research in the presence of a significant number of players who do not have high physical abilities during matches, who have physical or skill performance and also when competing with the competitor, This negatively affects the player’s performance as well as the team’s performance as a collective system, as they cannot outperform competitors. One of the reasons for this decline may be the omission or lack of interest on the part of some coaches to develop physical abilities during training units that must be built according to codified scientific foundations. Note that abilities are one of the important things in the success of the players and the team by outperforming the competitor as well as building skills on them, and the researcher also noted neglect by some coaches by using the overlapping training between physical exercises and field skill, and this is what the researcher diagnosed to be a negative reflection on the players’ performance. It was also observed that there was a weakness in the players in the skill of long-scoring in terms of (strength, speed and accuracy), and this shows that there is a lack of muscular ability of the lower extremities, which led to a low level of strength and accuracy of scoring among the players, so it was necessary to address this problem because scoring is the goal of the team And the game because it is he who determines the winning team. This prompted the researcher to find a solution to this problem by adopting rebounding strength exercises that develop the weakness of the players at the peak of ability, as well as the strength, speed and accuracy of the long-scoring skill by following scientific methods in training.

Research objective

• Preparing rebound strength exercises to develop the peak of ability and some basic skills for advanced football players,

• Recognizing the effect of rebounding force exercises in developing the researched variables on the research sample.

Research Hypotheses

• There are statistically significant differences between the results of the pre and post-tests for the control and experimental groups in favor of the post-test.

• There are statistically significant differences between the results of the post-tests for the control and experimental groups and in favor of the experimental group.

Research Methodology and Field Procedures

Research Methodology

The researcher used the experimental method for its suitability to the nature of the research problem in the manner of equivalent groups (control and experimental) with pre- and post-test.

Community and Sample Research

The research community was determined from the players of sports clubs in Baghdad who participated in the reserve league for the season (2022/2023), which numbered (27) clubs, and then the research sample was deliberately chosen, represented by the (20) reserve players of Al-Zawraa Sports Club, who were divided randomly by The lottery was divided into two groups (control and experimental), each group consisted of (10) players, and the sample percentage was (3.7%) of the research community. The researcher made equivalence for the two research groups (control and experimental) as shows in the table 1 (Table 1).

Table 1: Shows the equivalence of the two groups in the research variables.

No. Variables Measuring unit Control Experimental T value Level Sig Type  Sig
calculated
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation  
1 Explosive power Cm 2.204 0.04351 2.207 0.04191 0.157 0.877 Non sig
2 Power Characteristic of speed Sec 7.5946 0.00222 7.5948 0.0023 0.198 0.845 Non sig
3 Shooting the ball for longest possible distance Cm 46.985 1.17024 47.065 1.19188 0.151 0.881 Non sig
4 Time and accuracy of shooting Degree/ sec 0.3889 0.0351 0.3723 0.04565 -.912- 0.374 Non sig
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 18

The information for the research was collected through Arab and foreign sources, testing and measurement, observation and experimentation, data dump form. A set of devices and tools were used, such as a computer, a video camera, a stopwatch, a whistle, signposts, footballs, a tape measure, tapes, a football field, boxes of different sizes, and obstacles of different sizes.

Tests Used in the Research

First test

• Name of the test: long jump test from stability. (Salloum, 2004)

• Objective of the test: To measure the explosive power of the legs in the forward jump.

• Tools used A suitable place for jumping, with a width of (1.5) m, and a length of (3.5) m. It should be level, a tape measure, and colored pieces of chalk.

• Description of the test: The tester stands behind the starting line and his feet are slightly apart and parallel so that the instep of the feet touches the starting line from the outside as shown in the figure 1 (Figure 1).

revista-iberoamericana-long

Figure 1. Shows the long jump test from stability.

• Recording: The measurement shall be from the starting line to the last part of the body that touches the ground towards this line. Two attempts are given to each player and the best attempt is scored.

Second test

• Name of the test: jumping test on one leg for a distance of (30) m. (Mahmoud. 2009)

• Objective of the test: To measure Power Characteristic of speed of leg muscles.

• Tools used: tape measure, stopwatch, monitor watching the players, a striped square with a start line and an end line.

• Description of the test: The player stands touching the starting line with the jump leg and the free leg back. When the start signal is heard, the player jumps on one leg to the end of the line for a distance of (30) m as shown in the figure 2 (Figure 2).

revista-iberoamericana-jumping

Figure 2. Shows the jumping test on one leg for a distance of (30) m.

• Recording: The time taken for the player to travel a distance of (30) m is calculated for the player. Two attempts are given to each player and the best attempt is scored.

Third test

• Name of the test: -Test shooting the ball for longest possible distance from the stability. (Ali, 2008)

• The objective of the test: To measure the force of shooting the ball (by the distance that the player achieves by shooting the stability ball on the ground for the longest possible distance).

• Tools used: Football pitch, soccer balls, tape measure, whistle, burke, tape, flags attached to the sides of the test area.

• Description of the test: The test field is defined with a width of (30) m from inside the penalty area and towards the middle of the football field. The player stands behind the starting line with the ball in front of him fixed on the ground. The player kicks the ball from stability to the farthest possible distance towards the end line and within the limits of the test area. The attempt is not considered valid in the event of failure to kick the ball and not facing the test area if the ball is rolled on Earth from the beginning with the influence of the air or other influence as shown in the figure 3 (Figure 3).

revista-iberoamericana-shooting

Figure 3. Shows the test shooting the ball for longest possible distance from the stability.

• Recording: The player records the distance in meters and parts of a meter from the starting line to the place where the ball touches the ground. Each player is given two consecutive attempts and scores the best achievement.

Fourth test

• Name of the test: Test shooting at a divided target. (Modify). (Al- Khashab, 1999)

• Objective of the test: To measure the time and accuracy of shooting at a divided target.

• Tools used: a soccer field, soccer balls, a tape to mark the shooting areas for the test, a tape measure, a whistle, a stopwatch, a video camera.

• Description of the test: (5) balls are placed on the penalty area line, where the player shoots in the areas marked in the test and according to their importance and difficulty, and in sequence, kicks the ball one after the other, provided that the test is performed from the running position, starting with the first ball and ending with the fifth ball. The attempt is not valid if none of the four targets is hit on each side as shown in the figure 4 (Figure 4).

revista-iberoamericana-divided

Figure 4. Shows the test shooting at a divided target.

• Recording: The number of injuries that enter the four squares specified on each side of the goal, which measure (80 cm2), and by any foot of the feet, so that the scores for each of the balls are calculated as follows: (4) degrees when scoring in the field of No. (4). (3) Scores when scoring in the field No. (3). (2) Scores when scoring in the field No. (2). (1) Scores when scoring in the field No. (1). Description In the remaining areas of the goal or outside the goal, the player is given one attempt. Note: When the ball hits the bar that marks the squares, the highest score will be awarded to the player.

Exploratory Experiment

In order to give a clear and accurate picture of the vocabulary of the tests used, the researcher deliberately conducted a reconnaissance experiment for the tests that he intends to use in the research, together with his assistant work team, on the reserve players of the Air Force Club, who are from the research community, but outside the research sample of (15) players, on Saturday, February 12, 2022, where the experiment aimed to find out the suitability of the tests to the sample, and what problems are likely to occur and work to overcome them and to know the time taken for the tests.

After that, the researcher conducted another reconnaissance experiment on the same sample, the Air Force Club auxiliary team, on Monday, February 21, 2022. This time was specific to the exercises prepared by the researcher, with the aim of identifying the validity of the exercises to be trained on and their suitability for the sample, as well as identifying the required load components and the possibility of an assistant work team.

Scientific Basis

Test Honesty

The honesty of the test is one of the most important scientific transactions for any test “The extent to which it measures the aptitude or the characteristic that it is designed to measure, that is, it is an estimate to see if the test measures what we want to measure by it.” (Al-Fartousi and Al-Husseini. 2020).

The researcher used the self-honesty of the tests, which is measured by calculating the square root of the test reliability coefficient, as shown by the law below (Bahi. 1999):

image

Test stability

Stability is one of the important and basic concepts for any test or scale that is intended to be successful. (Youssef Lazem Kammash) defines it as “it gives the same results consistently if it is repeatedly applied to the same group and in the same circumstances.” (Kammash. 2002)

The researcher proceeded to extract the stability coefficient for the tests according to the scientific basis, by applying the test and retest method, on a sample of (15) players from the Air Force Club reserve team and they are outside the main research sample but within the research community, the researcher conducted the first test on Saturday, 12/2/2022, which is the tests of the first exploratory experiment related to the tests, as it was approved because no problems appeared, and then the test was re-applied after (7) days on the same sample and under almost the same circumstances on Saturday 19/2/2022. The researcher sought to find the stability of the tests through the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson), as the results showed after being statistically processed that there is a high correlation coefficient for the tests, as shown in the table (2).

Objectivity of the test

It is one of the conditions that must be met in a good test, as (Mohammed Nasr El-Din Radwan) defines an objective test as “any test prepared in a way that guarantees the least degree of bias or subjective judgments of the score estimator on the (arbitrator) test. The assessment of the degree is clear and precisely defined, the more objective the degree obtained by the examinee is.” (Radwan. 2006).

In addition, because the tests adopted by the researcher in his research were clear and easy to understand, and depended on the degree, time and distance in their measurement, so they are far from bias and self-control of the arbitrators, so they are objective tests (Table 2).

Table 2: Shows the stability of the test results.

Variables Honesty Stability Objectivity
Correlation Real sig Correlation Real sig Correlation Real sig
Explosive power .962 0.00 .926 0.00 .967 0.00
Power characteristic of speed .951 0.00 .905 0.00 .958 0.00
Shooting the ball for longest possible distance .956 0.00 .915 0.00 .966 0.00
Time and accuracy of shooting .963 0.00 .928 0.00 .973 0.00
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 14

Pre-test:

The researcher conducted pre-tests on the two research samples (the control and experimental) and with the help of the assistant work team, on Wednesday, February 23, 2022 at four in the afternoon, in the stadium of Al-Zawra Sports Club / Al-Shaljia. As much as possible for the purpose of providing them when applying post-tests.

After completing the pre-tests on the two research groups, the researcher proceeded to apply his prepared exercises to the research sample (experimental group) led by the assistant work team and under direct supervision by him. The training started on Saturday, 26/2/2022, until Wednesday 20/4 /2022, that is, the work continued for (8) weeks and at a rate of (3) units per week, where the total number of training units reached (24) units, and the exercises were carried out in the main section of the training unit with a time ranging (25- 45) minutes, and the researcher used the two methods of periodic training. High intensity and repetition due to its suitability to the nature of the research variables to be developed, the researcher took into account the principle of gradual giving exercises in terms of the components of the training load, as well as giving sufficient rest periods between exercises and repetitions, and the ripple method was used in pregnancy (1:3).

Post-tests

After the specified time for training for the experimental group ended, the researcher conducted the post-tests on the two research samples (the control and experimental with the assistant work team on Saturday 23/4/2022 at four in the afternoon and at Al-Zawra Sports Club / Al-Shaljia stadium, and the researcher followed the same conditions Procedures and conditions for tribal examinations.

Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

Results and discussion: Table 3 shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, calculated and true (T) value, significance level, arithmetic mean difference, and deviation of differences in the pre and post-tests of the control group (Tables 3-5).

Table 3: Shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, calculated and true (T) value, significance level, arithmetic mean difference, and deviation of differences in the pre and post-tests of the control group.


No.
Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test
Arithmetic mean of difference 
Standard deviation of differences 
Standard error of the mean difference
T value
calculated
Level Sig
Type Sig
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
1 Explosive power Cm 2.2040 .04351 2.2180 .05308 .01400 .02951 .00933 1.500 .168 Non sig
2 Power characteristic of speed Sec 7.5946 .00222 7.5751 .00260 .01950 .00395 .00125 15.607 .000 Sig
3 Shooting the ball for longest possible distance Cm 46.9850 1.17024 47.0350 1.18370 .05000 .03333 .01054 4.743 .001 Sig
4 Time and accuracy of shooting Degree/ sec .3889 .03510 .3980 .03529 .00910 .00238 .00075 12.101 .000 Sig
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 9

Table 4: Shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, calculated and true (T) value, significance level, arithmetic mean difference, and deviation of differences in the pre and post-tests of the experimental group.


No.
Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test
Arithmetic mean of difference 
Standard deviation of differences 
Standard error of the mean difference
T value
calculated
Level Sig
Type Sig
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
1 Explosive power Cm 2.2070 .04191 2.2660 .01174 .05900 .03872 .01224 4.819 .001 Sig
2 Power characteristic of speed Sec 7.5948 .00230 7.5449 .00260 .04990 .00378 .00120 41.696 .000 Sig
3 Shooting the ball for longest possible distance Cm 47.0650 1.19188 48.1350 .59304 1.07000 .97274 .30761 -3.478 .007 Sig
4 Time and accuracy of shooting Degree/ sec .37230 .045653 .44150 .039714 .069200 .044904 .014200 -4.873 .001 Sig
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 9

Table 5: Shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, the calculated and true (T) value, and the level of significance in the post-tests of the two experimental and control groups.


No.
Variables Measuring unit Control Experimental
T value
calculated
Level Sig
Type Sig
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
1 Explosive power Cm 2.2180 .05308 2.2660 .01174 2.792 .012 Sig
2 Power characteristic of speed Sec 7.5751 .00260 7.5449 .00260 25.960 .000 Sig
3 Shooting the ball for longest possible distance Cm 47.0350 1.18370 48.1350 .59304 2.627 .017 Sig
4 Time and accuracy of shooting Degree/ sec .39800 .035286 .44150 .039714 2.589 .019 Sig
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 9

Discussion:-

By observing the results of the research variables that were presented in the tables above, it was found that there were significant differences between the pre-test and the post-test in favor of the post-test. Preparing its vocabulary, such as the training level of the players as well as the training stage, as well as determining their number and quality, as well as diversifying the exercises. This was confirmed by (Muhammad Reda Ibrahim. 2008) “The trainers should take the following criteria into consideration the number of exercises used in training, age, level of achievement, and the need for strength games and sporting events and the training period or stage.” (Ibrahim. 2008).

As it had an effective impact in developing the research sample by increasing the kinetic energy as well as increasing the speed of eccentric and then central muscle contraction resulting from rebounding exercises. As indicated by (Zaki Mahmoud Rowish) “during the eccentric lengthening phase, a greater amount of elastic energy is stored inside the muscle, and this elastic energy is reused in the next central contraction phase, which leads to an increase in the strength of the working muscle.” (Rowish, 1998).

The researcher also believes that the reason for the development of the experimental group in the results of the explosive power test is due to the rebounding exercises set by the researcher, as the diversity in jumps and hops was done through double and single jumping, as well as the use of tools that help players to jump, these exercises worked to develop strength Explosiveness through high-intensity exercises as well as due to the increase in the speed of muscle contraction and the recruitment of the largest number of motor units as well as the increase in the speed of the tide-shortening cycle of the muscles working for performance, that is, the occurrence of a short time in the eccentric contraction to the central contraction, which led to a noticeable increase in muscle strength and (Muhammad Kadhim. 2001) points out that "most modern sources in the science of training confirm that these (rebound) exercises are the best and most effective in developing explosive ability." (Kadhim, 2001).

Also, (Rahim Ruwaih Habib) confirms, "There are types of rebound exercises that are limited to hops, jumps on barriers, rebounds, and deep jumps, with the aim of developing the explosive ability of the two legs and give high results and response." (Habib, 2012).

The researcher attributes the development of the experimental group in strength and speed to the exercises that were used, which contributed a large percentage to the development of the research sample. In addition, the rebounding exercises used in the research work on developing muscle strength through an increase in the elasticity of the muscle and kinetic energy, as well as an increase in the speed of muscle contraction. The fact that these exercises affect the nervous muscular system, which leads to an increase in the transmission of nerve impulses to the working muscles, as this leads to a fast and strong muscle contraction, and thus this leads us to muscular-nervous compatibility between muscles and nerves, causing the recruitment of the largest number of muscle fibers. (Hara) also indicated, "There are two main ways to develop rapid strength, the first by developing muscular strength, and the second by increasing the speed of muscle contraction." (Hara. 1975).

“The deep jump exercises are a way to develop the work of the musculoskeletal system so that it responds with more force and speed during the performance of movements that require a muscle stretch, immediately followed by a shortening of the muscle itself.” (Abdul-Ridha. 2010).

By looking at the results of the tests in the above tables related to the skills, it becomes clear to us that there are significant differences in its results and in favor of the post-test, as the researcher attributes this development to the rebounding exercises that were applied by him to the research sample as they were based on scientific foundations and consistent with the nature of the research objective on the one hand. They studied physical and skill variables and the type of working muscles." Rebounding exercises affect the muscle response quickly and speed up the frequency of skill movements, which is directly reflected on the speed and mechanism of movement." (Al-Quraishi. 2016).

These exercises were working on developing the skill side with the physical side of the individuals of the research sample, i.e. the researcher deliberately combined the physical exercises (explosive power and speed characteristic power) with the skill and specifically the development of the skill of longdistance scoring accompanied to improve accuracy by placing forms that are required to be corrected, as it was The researcher aimed to develop both sides because the exercises that develop the physical aspect are beneficial to raising the skill level of the players, and this is what enabled the players to develop their skills. This is what (Muhammad Hassan Allawi) agrees with, “It is the special physical abilities that enable the athlete to perform various motor skills of the various colors of activity.” (Allawi. 1989).

(Hanafi Mahmoud) also pointed out to this, "In order for the player to perform the skill in the ideal way, his muscles must be strong so that he can make the required effort, especially in matches under the pressure of the opponent, to surpass him on the one hand, and on the other hand he can perform the skill with the required strength." (Mukhtar. 1980).

Speed, strength and accuracy were adopted by the researcher in the essence of the exercises that he prepared for the purpose of developing the research sample, as they are among the necessary needs that the football player must master in implementing the skill performance during the matches, and because the football game has become of a character that requires players to possess speed and strength And accuracy when implementing skills during the match, as it helps them to outperform the opponent and succeed in skill performance.

This is what is agreed with (Muwaffaq Asaad Mahmoud), as he indicates that “a football player must be characterized by his performance of basic skills with speed, strength, accuracy and perfect skill performance.” (Mahmoud. 2008).

It should also be noted that the researcher followed the principle of gradation in giving exercises to the sample of the research, as it seemed to be applied from easy to difficult, i.e. making the players jump with both feet and then jump over the obstacles and then move to the boxes. Carrying training and changing its components (intensity - volume - rest) by increasing the number of repetitions and changing the intensity of training as well as giving appropriate rest periods between exercises and also between groups in proportion to the goal of training and with the capabilities of the research sample, and for the purpose of reaching the highest possible level in developing their abilities, the matter Which made the development of the level of the research sample members quick and clear by noting the results of the tests. This is what (Youssef Lazem Kammash) indicated to him: “The coach must follow the scientific method in his training in order to raise the level of physical qualities, and follow the gradual method to raise the level of the players in order to achieve the desired goal.” (Kammash. 2002).

Conclusions and Recommendations

• Rebounding exercises had a positive effect in developing the top of the ability (explosive power and power characterized by speed), which led to the development of the scoring skill in the research sample.

• Rebounding exercises used in the research were influential in achieving speed in performance through the decrease in time in the skill of scoring, as well as working to achieve the required accuracy with this skill by observing the results that appeared.

• Development that appeared in the results of the experimental group is greater than the results of the control group, and this is evidence of the effectiveness of the rebounding exercises used on the research sample. This achieves the goal of the research.

Recommendations

• Necessity of relying on rebounding exercises when training players to develop muscular strength, especially (explosive power and power characterized by speed).

• Necessity of adopting jumping of all kinds when rebounding exercises.

• Benefiting from the exercises prepared in this research in the training curricula of sports clubs and youth center.

• Conducting similar studies on different samples by changing the abilities and skills used in proportion to their abilities.

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