Full Length Research Paper - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 5
The effect of Sakyo training (S.A.Q) in developing some physical and kinetic abilities and completing 110m hurdles for 16-year-old specialized school playersZainab Qahtan Abdulmohsin*
*Correspondence: Zainab Qahtan Abdulmohsin, College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences for Women, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 29-Sep-2022 Published: 13-Oct-2022
The event of crossing the barriers is one of the Power Games activities that have received great attention in the field of researches. Which led to many developments in training methods and its ways, and then led to an improvement in the level of achievement. So, the use of these modern training methods is one of the necessary requirements for upgrading hurdlers, so the researcher found that Sakyo training is one of the latest techniques used in the sports field and it depends largely on the right running model that depends on explosive kinetic patterns in sports that require maximum speed and agility, that why the sample consisted of 110 m athletes barriers from the School Specialized in power games, numbering (5) players, The study was validated to find out the effect of Sakyo exercises on physical, kinetic abilities and achievement. The researcher concluded that there is a positive effect of these exercises on the research variables.
Sports psychology. Sports excercise. Sakyo training. Physical. Kinetic abilities. complete, hurdles, school players.
Modern means have contributed in assisting trainers, students and those in charge of the training process in the field of physical education to change and overcome the old methods and ways that was used and relied on. the reliance on modern scientific methods leads to knowing the impact of sports training on developing technical and physical performance.
The activity of crossing the barriers is one of the power games activities that have received great attention in the field of researches (Mohammed & Kzar, 2021). Which led to many developments in training methods and ways,which then led to an improvement in the level of achievement. As the use of these modern training methods is one of the necessary requirements to improve the barrier activity players.
(Khaleq, 2003) mentions that modern training programs have taken a form and structure consistent with the new development in methods and means in the training process, which has become one of the goals of physical, skill, functional and psychological preparation for players, as it has been proven by experience that the use of modern scientific means in training leads to the athlete’s reaching the formalization of Optimum Sports (1:98) (Jovanovic et al., 2011) that the term Sakyo S.A.Q is derived from the initial letters of both transitional (speed), agility and kinetic speed (Quinkness). As (Polman et al., 2009) explain that the Sakyo S.A.Q training is an integrated training system that aims to improve both (acceleration, compatibility, response speed, and agility. (3: 494). S.A.Q exercises are considered one of the best training methods used in developing reaction speed, acceleration speed, agility, explosive power and general endurance level (4:183).
The power games competitions are among the most famous sports in the world, as their practice requires the integration of physical and physiological capabilities, technical aspects and psychological aspects. Therefore, the 3100 hurdles race is considered one of the strongest and most popular track races, which prompted coaches and runners to constantly and continuously search for modern methods of training. Through the researcher’s review of many sources, researches and the latest modern methods of training, she found that the Sakyo S.A.Q training is one of the latest techniques used in the sports field, as it largely depends on the right running model that depends on explosive kinetic patterns in sports that require maximum speed, agility and interactive kinetic speed As a main condition for achieving athletic achievement, the researcher adopted a study of this problem in developing some physical and motor abilities and completing 100 meter hurdles through Sakyo exercises (Hassan et al., 2019). Preparing Sakyo (S.A.Q) exercises in developing some physical and kinetic abilities and completing 110 meter hurdles for young people. Knowing the effect of Sayko (S.A.Q) exercises in developing physical and kinetic abilities and completing 110m hurdles for specialized school players.
Research assignments: There are hypotheses with statistical significance between the two tests, the pre and post tests in the research variables for the research sample.
Research Fields: The human field: a sample of 16-year-old specialized school players in the 110m hurdles event. Time field: for the period from 5/11/2021 to 5/1/ 2022. Location field: the stadium of the Specialized School for Power games in Baghdad
Definition of Terms: S.A.Q training: a term derived from the initial letters of both speed, agility, and quickness, which contribute to an improvement in acceleration time, muscular ability, agility and kinetic speed
The researcher used the experimental filter with two measurements (before and after) for one experimental group for its suitability and the research problem, as “choosing the scientific method to solve research problems is essential, as the problem is the one that imposes the method that can be used” (5: 47). The research sample: was chosen by the intentional method from the players of the Specialized School of power games at the age of 16 years, and their number is (5) players. The homogeneity of the research sample was carried out as shown in table ( Table 1).
|Variables||Skew modulus||Mediator||Standard deviation||Arithmetic mean||Measuring unit|
It is clear from Table. (1) that all the sample members were under the equilibrium curve in the variables related to homogeneity, which indicates the homogeneity of the research sample members in the homogeneity variables. Tools used in the research are (Arab and foreign sources, Questionnaire forms, Internet information network, personal interviews, Expert survey form, Length measuring tape, Medical scale to measure weight, hurdles of legal height and Boxes of different heights).
Results and Discussions
For the purpose of determining some of the physical and motor abilities of the effectiveness of 100m Hurdles, the researcher reviewed the specialized sources and similar research, and tests were presented to a group of experts with experience and specialization, and what suited the research was chosen as shown in table (Table 2).
|Tests||measuring unit||Aim of test|
|1||Sargent vertical jump||Cm||explosive power|
|2||choose three hops for each foot||distance||The power of speed|
|3||Choosing the 30m sprint from flying||time||Transition speed|
|4||Running like a zigzag||second||Agility|
|5||Running 100m Hurdles||second||Achievement|
Exploratory experience: The researcher conducted the exploratory experience on Wednesday, 10/11/2021 at 4:00 p.m. on the playground of the Specialized School for Athletics. and its purpose Knowing the work of the assistant team, Familiarize yourself with the workflow of the tests, Learn how to perform Sakyo exercises and Adjusting rest and work times within the training program.
Pretest exams: The researcher conducted the pretest exams on Monday, November 15, 2021 at four o'clock in the afternoon on the power games stadium of the Specialized School in Baghdad
The prepared a training curriculum using Sakyo S.A.Q to develop the research variables and it was applied to the research sample as follows (Mohammed, 2018) :
The training course took 6 weeks
1. The training units were 18 training units
2. We used coercive and sub-forced intensity and used high intensity interval training
3. Use the curriculum during the special preparation period
4. In her curriculum, the researcher used sayko exercises with gradual repetitions
5. Taking into account the gradation in the curriculum in terms of intensity, comfort and repetition
Posttests exams: The researcher conducted the post tests on Monday 3/1/2022 at four o'clock in the afternoon at the specialized power games stadium in Baghdad.
Statistical means: The researcher used the spss statistical bag for its suitability to the research. Presentation and discussion of the results of the physical, kinetic and achievement variables of the experimental research sample (Table 3).
|variables||Indication||the value of T||posttest exam||pretest exam||measuring unit|
|2||three hops test||Valuable||2,78||3,41||0,68||5,62||0,21||4,56||distance|
|3||running 30cm from flying||Valuable||2,78||3,22||0,81||4,22||0,37||5,26||Second|
|4||running zigzag shape||Valuable||2,78||4,08||1,004||7,18||1,28||9,32||Second|
Through Table 3 it shows the arithmetic mean, standard deviations, and the two values of (tabulated and calculated t), where the calculated t-value appeared for choosing the vertical jump 2.83, choosing three tracks 3.41, choosing running 30m and 3.22, and running a zigzag shape 4.08 And the achievement is 2.96, which is greater than the tabular amount of (2.78), and this means that the difference is significant.
The researcher attributes the moral differences to the exercises used in the training curriculum, which are the Sakyo exercises, which have a great impact on physical abilities such as transitional speed, agility, achievement, and strength characterized by speed and explosiveness (Al-Selmi et al., 2019). The study (Mohamed, 2017) agrees with what came of the most important results that led to the development of physical and kinetic abilities and achievement through the use of Sakyo exercises, which are considered one of the best quality functional exercises for track races because they simulate the neurokinetic stimuli of performance in terms of acceleration, fixation and deceleration, as well as improving The harmonic agility that the obstacle rider relies on when performing the starting stage (18304) and that the Sakyo S.A.Q exercises are a distinctive training method for developing the maximum speed as it reduces the runner’s arrival time from zero to the maximum speed and the transitional motor speed that requires maximum muscle contraction or repeated muscle contractions in the shortest Possible time and this appears in the stage of starting short-distance races in athletics that depends on reaction time (Mohammed et al., 2021). The researcher believes that the training program using Sakyo exercises contributed to the development of speed-distinguishing forces and led to an improvement in speed and worked on consulting the motor units that led to the participation of a large number Which results in a strong and rapid contraction that increases performance and speed (5:123).
(Khaleq, 2005) confirms that performance is closely related to physical and motor abilities. The mastery of technical performance depends on the extent to which the requirements of this performance are developed in terms of special physical and motor abilities. Rather, the level of this performance is often measured on the extent to which the individual acquires these special physical and motor qualities. (6:88)
Under the influence of the results reached by the researcher through field experience and appropriate statistical treatments, the conclusions were reached, which is that the training curriculum and the Sakyo training contributed to the development of explosive power, which is distinguished by speed, transitional speed, and agility. In light of the results, similar research and studies are conducted using modern training methods, and Sakyo exercises are conducted on other age groups and on other sports activities. Also, Sakyo exercises are conducted according to physiological variables to know the changes in the physiological system through these exercises.
Abass, Z. K., Flayyih, H. H., & Hasan, S. I. (2022). The Relationship Between Audit Services and Non-Audit Actuarial Services in the Auditor’s Report.International Journal of Professional Business Review,7(2), e0455-e0455. https://doi.org/10.26668/businessreview/2022.v7i2.455
Al-Khoury, A.,Hussein, S.A.,Abdulwhab, M.,...Abed, I.A.,Flayyih, H.H. (2022). Intellectual Capital History and Trends : A Bibliometric Analysis Using Scopus Database. Sustainability, 14(16), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811615
Al-Selmi, A. D. H., Al-Shawi, S. S., & Mohammed, S. H. (2019). The effect of continuous training on myoglobin muscle and on some specific fitness elements and basic skills of badminton players. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.01
Al-Selmi, A. D. H., Fenjan, F. H., & Al-Rubaye, S. A. J. (2019). Effect of taking some of dietary supplements according to special forces exercises to develop some physical abilities, speed and accuracy smash shot for badminton young players. https://doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.05
Flayyih, H. H., & Khiari, W. (2023). An Empirical Study to Detect Agency Problems in Listed Corporations: An Emerging Market Study. Journal of Governance and Regulation .
Hassan, R. G., Mohammed, N. B. & Abbas, S. R. (2019). Effect of an educational program with visual effects on the development of sensory perception, motor compatibility and accuracy of basketball correction for deaf students. Modern Sport journal, 18(3). https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/230857
Jovanovic, M., Sporis, G., Omrcen, D., & Fiorentini, F. (2011). Effects of speed, agility, quickness training method on power performance in elite soccer players.The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,25(5), 1285-1292. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181d67c65
Khaleq, E. A. (2003). Mathematical Training (Theories - Applications), Dar Al-Maaref, Alexandria.
Khaleq, E. A. (2005) Sports Training: Its Views and Applications, 12th Edition, Dar Al-Maaref, Alexandria
Mohamed, A. A. O. (2017). The effect of speed, agility and running speed (S.A.Q) training on developing the performance of Taji Nokata groups among judo players, Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Physical Education for Boys, Benha University.
Mohammed, N. B., & Kzar, M. H. (2021). The Effect of the Kemp Model on Some Compatible Abilities and Learning the Skill of Peaceful Shooting in Basketball for Female Students.Revista iberoamericana de psicología del ejercicio y el deporte,16(5), 4.
Mohammed, N. B., & Kzar, M. H. (2021). The effect of the use of exploratory exercises in improving concentration of attention and skills of chest handling and correction of basketball stability for people with special needs.Revista iberoamericana de psicología del ejercicio y el deporte,16(4), 7.
Mohammed, N. B., (2018) Effect of training exercises according to the visual kinetic synergy in the learning of chest handling and high basketball dribblikg for Down syndrome. Modern Sport, Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 80-88. https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/161064
Mohammed, N., Kzar, M. H., & Al-Selmi, A. D. H. (2021). The effect of an educational curriculum based on metacognitive skills in teaching some offensive skills on the specialized school of basketball in Baghdad governorate.Revista iberoamericana de psicología del ejercicio y el deporte,16(3), 4.
Polman, R., Bloomfield, J., & Edwards, A. (2009). Effects of SAQ training and small-sided games on neuromuscular functioning in untrained subjects.International journal of sports physiology and performance,4(4), 494-505. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.4.4.494
Saeed, H. S., Hasan, S. I., Nikkeh, N. S., & Flayyih, H. H. (2022). The Mediating Role Of Sustainable Development In The Relationship Between Producer Cost Expectations And Customer Desires. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management, 17(10), 13–21. https://doi.org/10.46754/jssm.2022.10.002