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The Effect of Small Educational Games in Developing Attention Concentration and Learning the Skills of Plump and Handling Basketball for Players Aged 14-16 Years

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4

The Effect of Small Educational Games in Developing Attention Concentration and Learning the Skills of Plump and Handling Basketball for Players Aged 14-16 Years

Ahmed Hatem Radi Aljnabi1*, Bahaa Hussein Abdul Ameer2 and Adnan Khairi Obaid Aziz3
*Correspondence: Ahmed Hatem Radi Aljnabi, General Directorate of Education in Babylon, Ministry of Education, Iraq, Email:
1General Directorate of Education in Babylon, Ministry of Education, Iraq
2General Directorate of Education in Babylon, Ministry of Education, Iraq
3General Directorate of Education in Babylon, Ministry of Education, Iraq

Abstract

The importance of the research is manifested in that the basic skills in the game of basketball are considered the cornerstone in the formation of the player in basketball, as these skills work on developing personal aspects and learning basic skills, in addition to this acquiring knowledge and information is of great importance, and may be characterized by small educational games that are appropriate in The learning process can be implemented as alternative learning tools in the learning process, as these games occupy a good place in the education plan, as they are considered one of the preferred means in the field of learning some basic skills. Regular games, especially in the game of basketball.

The research problem focused on: the lack of use of small educational games in the educational process, which is clearly reflected in the level of performance of educated individuals, as well as the need for diversity in the methods of presenting the material and conducting the learning process by adding excitement and suspense to move away as much as possible from boredom and routine and in an effort to try to participate learners and give them Interactive and positive roles in the methods of displaying the skill, which leads to the development and development in their mental abilities, including focus of attention as well as their motor skills, and on this basis, the researchers decided to develop a curriculum for preparing small educational games that would develop attention concentration and learn the skills of tapping and basketball handling for players of all ages 14-16 years

Where the research aims: preparing small educational games with basketball, as well as to identify the effect of small educational games on developing focus of attention and learning the skills of tapping and handling basketball for players aged 14-16 years.

he researchers used the experimental method by designing (the two equal groups) with the first and final tests to suit the nature of the research, and the research community was identified with the players of Al-Hilla Basketball Club at the age of (14-16) years, who numbered (16) players, the researchers chose the research sample with the main research from the The number of (12) players, they were divided equally into two groups, one of them is experimental, randomly, by lottery method, with (6) players, and the other is a control group with (6) players as well.

After preparing the appropriate tests, the initial tests were conducted for the members of the research sample, and then the vocabulary of the small educational games, which were applied within the educational units for the members of the experimental group, was carried out. unit, the time of the educational unit is (90) d, and after the completion of these units the final measurements were carried out and the appropriate statistical treatments were used. Suitable for learning the skills of tapping and handling basketball. The researchers also recommend the adoption of the educational curriculum with small educational games in developing the mental abilities and motor skills of players aged (14-16) years.

Keywords

Hilla Basketball Club. Basketball. Small educational games.

Introduction:

Basketball is one of the most important group games that found a wide spread during the late last century because of its indescribable suspense and excitement, as it contains multiple aspects of different levels of physical, physical, mental skill, and the skill aspect is one of the most important aspects determining the level of technical performance In this game, which includes multiple skills, as the basic skills in basketball are the cornerstone in the formation of the player in basketball, where these skills work on developing personal aspects and learning basic skills in addition to this acquisition of knowledge and information is of great importance, and small games may be characterized Which are appropriate in the learning process and can be implemented as alternative learning tools in the learning process, as these small games occupy a good place in the education plan, as they are considered one of the preferred means in the field of learning some basic skills. Regular games, especially in the game of basketball.

The importance of the research lies in that the basic skills in the game of basketball are considered the cornerstone in the formation of the player in basketball, as these skills work on developing personal aspects and learning basic skills, in addition to this gaining knowledge and information is of great importance, and may be characterized by small educational games that are appropriate in The learning process can be implemented as alternative learning tools in the learning process, as these games occupy a good place in the education plan, as they are considered one of the preferred means in the field of learning some basic skills. Regular games, especially in the game of basketball.

The researchers believe that the formation of small educational games based on scientific foundations, so that suspense and fun are mixed at times, and on the other hand, linking suspense and fun with how to learn with skill and physical qualities may be sufficient, in addition to a brief explanation and giving a model in the application of small games, which allows an actual test to compare The effect of using small games without interfering with other variables when compared to the traditional method with the trainer.

Thus, the researchers identified the research problem: in the lack of use of small educational games in the educational process, which is clearly reflected in the level of performance of educated individuals, as well as the need for diversity in the methods of presenting the material and conducting the learning process by adding excitement and suspense to move away as much as possible from boredom and routine and in an effort to try The participation of the learners and giving them interactive and positive roles in the methods of displaying the skill, which leads to the development and development in their mental abilities, including focusing attention as well as their motor skills. Basketball for 14-16 year old players.

Where the research aims: preparing small educational games with basketball, as well as to identify the effect of small educational games on developing focus of attention and learning the skills of tapping and handling basketball for players aged 14-16 years.

While the hypothesis of the research was: There is an effect of small educational games in developing focus of attention and learning the skills of tapping and handling basketball for players aged 14-16 years.

As for the fields of research, they represent the human field in the players of Al-Hilla Basketball Club at the age of (14-16). Hilla city.

Research Methodology

The researchers used the experimental method by designing (the two equivalent groups) with the first and final tests for its suitability to the nature of the research.

Community and sample research:

The research community was determined by the players of Al-Hilla Basketball Club at the age of (14-16) years, who numbered (16) players. (6) players and the other is a control, with (6) players as well.

Devices, Tools and Means Used in the Research

Means of data collection:

• Arab and foreign sources and references

• Testing and measuring.

Tools and devices used:

• A legal basketball court.

• Basketballs (10).

• Colored tapes, colored adhesive tape and a measuring tape (10 m).

• Paint and chalk.

• Medical scale (kg) to measure weight.

• One (1) laptop computer.

• Data registration forms.

Field Research Procedures

Determine search variables:

Attention test (1)

The purpose of the test: To measure the concentration of attention

Tools: Attention meter paper, stopwatch, pen

Test time: two minutes.

How to perform the test

When he hears the word (start), the referee turns the paper over at the moment the stopwatch is running, and the player starts searching in the form (*) and crosses out the number (79) line by line and from left to right, for a period of only one minute, and when he hears the word (stop), the player places a vertical sign Next to the numbers he reached.

The following indications are extracted

A = (general size), which is the number of numbers considered by the judge from the beginning of the test until the word (stop).

b = the number of combinations to be crossed out in the test paper from the beginning until the word (stop)).

B = the number of general errors (the number of incorrect combinations that were crossed out + the number of correct combinations that were not crossed out).

E = coefficient of accuracy of work and test execution.

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After the end of the first minute, the same test is repeated for a period of (one minute) as well, but in the presence of an audio-optical stimulus. When the start signal is given, the device that gives a regular sound at a rate of one accuracy per second and also gives a light signal every (five seconds), note that the device Place in the referee’s field of vision and at a distance of (1 m) from the place where the tested referee is sitting.

Correction method and calculating results (for the second minute): The same previous semantics are extracted, i.e. extracted a value (u2) where: u2 = A x E Then the concentration of attention is calculated using the following equation: K = u1 – u2

Champion and handling skills tests

First: Chest handling test: (1 )

The objective of the test: To measure the tester's ability to pass and receive the ball.

Tools used: a yard, a wall, an electronic stopwatch, a basketball, a registration form and a pen. Execution of the test: Each laboratory stands after a line drawn on the ground and at a distance of (270 cm) from the wall. When the start whistle is heard, the laboratory performs chest handling on the wall so that the ball is at the level of the tester’s head and quickly, then the ball is received after its rebound from the wall with repetition Perform chest handling until ten correct passes are performed.

Registermethod: Each test performs two attempts and takes the best of them. The time taken for the test is calculated from the moment of the first successful handling until the ball touches the wall at the tenth successful handling, and the time of performance is calculated in tenths of seconds.

Second: The plump test with running (Joe Nsen battery) : (2)

The objective of the test: - To measure the ability to control during the thump.

Tools used: yard, barriers, basketball, registration form and pen, duct tape, stopwatch.

Execution of the test: After placing the barriers (4 chairs) and the distance between one barrier and another (180 cm) and on one straight line, the starting line is determined on the ground at a distance of (360 cm) from the first barrier.

Pre-test:

The tribal tests were conducted for the experimental and control groups on two days, Saturday, corresponding to 12/6/2021, where the attention focus test was conducted, and then the handling and clapping skills were tested.

Educational curriculum Small educational games:

After the researchers reviewed the sources and similar studies, the educational curriculum was prepared before applying it to the sample, and it included several small educational games. At a rate of (2) units per week, where the educational curriculum started on 15/6/2021 until 10/8/2021, where the time of the educational unit reached 90 minutes, and the educational unit was divided into three main parts:

• Preparatory section 20 minutes.

• The main section is 60 minutes.

• The closing section is 10 minutes.

The aim of the small educational games was to develop the focus of attention through the games that were prepared for this purpose, as the researchers focused greatly on developing the focus of attention because of its great importance in learning the skills under study, in addition to that all the games were targeting the skills of handling and tapping in basketball.

Post-test:

After completing all procedures and applying small educational games to the research sample and to the experimental group, the final post-tests were then conducted under the same conditions and for all members of the experimental and control sample on Saturday, 08/14/2021.

The statistical methods used in the research:

The researchers used the statistical bag for social sciences (SPSS) to extract the results.

Presentation, analysis and discussion of results:

Presentation of the results of the pre and post tests of the control group for the variables investigated (Tables 1-3).

Presentation of the results of the pre and post tests of the experimental group for the variables investigated:

Discussing Results

The results that were presented in Tables 1 and 2 for the mean values, standard deviations, and calculated (t) values for the tests (focusing, tamping, handling) showed that there were significant differences between the pre and post tests for the control and experimental groups and in favor of the post tests, and the researchers attributed the reason for These differences for the members of the control group to several variables and influences that interfered in the development process led to the emergence of moral differences between the pre and post tests, including the exercises that were used by the team coach, as he used exercises in multiple ways and methods, as well as the use of general and special physical and kinetic exercises, which are interspersed with The skill and mental aspect at the beginning of the preparatory section, as these exercises collectively contribute to the development of (focusing of attention, tapping, and handling).

Table 1: It shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, the (t) value calculated for the interconnected samples, the level of test significance, and the significance of the difference for the pre and post tests of the control group for the variables investigated.

Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test Value (T)
Calculated
Sig level Sig type
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
focus attention time 2.976 0.113 1.596 0.194 24.683 0.000 Sig
Plump Degree 4.30 1.22 8.25 0.85 12.478 0.002 Sig
pectoral handling a second 18.15 1.39 14.90 2.25 9.691 0.001 Sig

Table 2: It shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, the calculated (t) value of the interconnected samples, the level of test significance, and the significance of the difference for the pre and post tests of the experimental group for the variables investigated.

Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test Value (T)
Calculated
Sig level Sig type
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
focus attention time 2.946 0.103 1.905 0.203 17.013 0.000 Sig
plump Degree 4.15 1.09 6.65 1.31 4.265 0.004 Sig
pectoral handling a second 18.10 1.07 14.10 1.80 5.241 0.005 Sig

Table 3: Shows the arithmetic mean and the standard deviation in the results of the dimensional tests for the control and experimental groups of the investigated variables.

Variables Measuring unit Control Experimental Value (T)
Calculated
Sig level Sig type
Mean Std. Deviation Mean Std. Deviation
focus attention time 1.905 0.203 1.596 0.194 11.254 0.001 Sig
Plump Degree 6.65 1.31 8.25 0.85 4.369 0.005 Sig
pectoral handling a second 14.10 1.80 14.90 2.25 8.126 0.002 Sig

As for the members of the experimental group, the researchers suggest the reason for the existence of the moral difference to the members of this group using the small educational games that were prepared and selected, which were appropriate to the nature of the sample. On the members of this group, it aimed to increase awareness of the mental aspect of the members of the experimental group, as most of those games were complex and characterized by complexity and multiplicity of goals, which makes the players need to use higher mental processes, especially focus attention because of its importance in the ability to accuracy and excellence of movement as well On determining and estimating the place and goal of skill and movement, and this depends on accurate coordination in muscle contraction and relaxation, and in the game of basketball, focus plays a big role due to the specificity of the game with open skills and the changing environment, and this is what was focused on when preparing small educational games.

When preparing small educational games, the researchers also focused on developing games that depart from the traditional routine exercises that are applied in the usual ways and methods. By playing in small spaces according to playing situations (matches) that contribute to raising mental, physical and motor efficiency and thus is reflected in the skill aspects, and there is no doubt that small educational games are one of the most important aspects of motivation for players, whether beginners, youth or advanced training and education, in order to obtain the guidelines The game and the follow-up of cognitive development to ensure a positive, safe and enjoyable environment for all ages. The size of the small stadium, the small number of players in the competition, the ease and flexibility of the established laws and their seriousness had positive effects on focusing the attention of the members of the experimental group, and this is consistent with what was stated by (Wajeeh Mahjoub) “The understanding of Realizing the movement and forming a clear picture of its concept and what it is, has a great impact on learning, and that Turkish G Attention affects the individual’s ability to move, improves and develops it, helps to understand and realize other motor issues, and focus attention in movement facilitates the process of linking movements” (1). The researchers also attributed the reasons for the moral difference of the members of the experimental group for the skills of tababa and handling to the small educational games that contained suspense and fun, and in addition to that, they contained all skills and there was a spirit of competition in learning and this was brought by (Muhammad Hassan Allawi) "who confirmed that the presence of Small games help both sexes to discover their potentials and to develop their physical, cognitive and motor abilities through their participation and application to small games” (2).

The researchers also attribute the reason for the development to the influential role of small educational games, and this indicates that the implementation of the games proceeded accurately and programmed to develop these skills, as “the practice of playing and exercises when left to chance cannot achieve educational goals, but on the contrary, where the learner’s play must be achieved from Through purposeful education that takes into account the characteristics of the growth of individuals” (3 ), as well as the kinetic experiences gained from small games and their contents for this important age group, and the introduction of these small games in the main section of the development unit helped provide the opportunity for learners to creativity and renewal in vital energy and expression about their individual motor abilities, which helped in achieving the unit’s development goals, as “recreation means exerting an effort vigorously and actively to perform work or effectiveness” (4).

As for the difference in the results of the experimental group in the post-tests at the expense of the members of the control group, it came because these small games contain possibilities, movements and exercises, as well as changing the places of play and arousing excitement and the spirit of competition so that the emerging player does not feel bored and bored, as well as giving freedom to move and take certain positions Which led to the development of the mental aspect represented in focusing attention and the skill aspect of tamping and handling because situations are variable, as well as reducing the player’s fear element. Therefore, finding a creative player depends on the information he possesses and making his decision appropriately.

The researchers also attribute the reason for the moral difference of the members of this group to the small games that have been prepared and applied according to the mental, motor and skill capabilities of the learners, which led to a good response by the learners and the development of their skill performance, and this confirms that the learners “do not respond to the learning process in one way and that It is necessary to use new and different educational methods to build and develop the capabilities and knowledge of the learners” (2), in addition to that, the characteristic of these games was characterized by diversity and suspense, and this was reflected in the development of the technical performance of the skills under study, and this is consistent with what was advocated by (Qasim Al-Mandalawi) that the use of "Diverse and purposeful games have a positive impact on skill development" (3)

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions:

1. Small educational games have an impact and a positive role in developing focus.

2. Also, the duration of the small educational games was suitable for learning the skills of tacking and handling basketball.

Recommendations

1. The researchers recommend the adoption of the educational curriculum with small educational games in developing the mental abilities and motor skills of players aged (14-16) years.

2. Conducting similar studies on team and individual activities and different age groups.

References

Ahmed Muhammad Khater, Ali Fahmy Al-Baik: Measurement in the Mathematical Field, Dar Al-Maaref, Egypt, 1978.

Hammam Al-Qazwini: Recreational Education, Baghdad, Arab House for Printing, 1988.

Ali Al-Diri and Ahmad Bataniah: Methods of Teaching Physical Education, Amman: Dar Al-Amal for Publishing and Distribution, 1987.

Fayez Bashir Hammoudat and others. Basketball Foundations and Principles, University Press, Mosul, Mosul University: 1983.

Qasim Al-Mandalawi (and others): Tests, Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education, Mosul, Higher Education Press, 1990.

Muhammad Hassan Allawi: Encyclopedia of Sports Games, 3rd Edition, Cairo, Dar Al Maaref, 1983.

Mustafa Mohamed Zeidan. Basketball for coach and teacher, Arab Thought House, Cairo: 1998.

Wajih Mahjoub: Kinesiology, Kinetic Learning: (Mosul, University of Mosul, 1989.

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