The Effect of Special Exercises According To the Differentiated Teaching Method on Mental Motivation and Learning the Skills of Basketball and Shooting for Female Students

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 1

The Effect of Special Exercises According To the Differentiated Teaching Method on Mental Motivation and Learning the Skills of Basketball and Shooting for Female Students

Sahar Hur Majeed*
*Correspondence: Sahar Hur Majeed, College of Education and Sports Sciences for Girls, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
1College of Education and Sports Sciences for Girls, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Received: 05-Jan-2023 Accepted: 06-Feb-2023 Published: 12-Feb-2023


The study aims to prepare exercises for the differentiated teaching method in mental motivation and to learn the skills of handling and shooting basketball for female students. It also identifies the effectiveness of exercises, especially the method of differentiated education. Statistical significance between the pre and posttests of the two experimental and control groups in mental motivation and learning the skills of handling and shooting basketball for female students. Some of the significant results found in this study are the presence of statistically significant differences between the pre and posttests of the experimental and control groups in mental motivation and learning the skills for the aforementioned skills. The papers found the necessity of conducting a study-divided method of education in other stages of study and searching for new and diverse methods in proportion to each of these stages.


Special exercises. Differentiated education. Handling. Shooting. Basketball.


The contemporary world has witnessed many scientific and practical changes that we have experienced over the years, which has positively reflected on the education process as an effective tool that seeks to create a successful learning environment that helps learners acquire basic skills through physical, skill and mental development. Therefore, teachers of physical education and sports sciences were interested in the question of how to reach the best methods for developing the kinetic performance of their students, for the purpose of enabling them to play the game correctly according to its law (Bender, 2008). The philosophy of differentiated education is based on the principle of education for all, regardless of their abilities, level of performance and previous experiences. Through diversity in educational methods to obtain knowledge and develop kinetic skills, and thus takes into account the individual differences between learners (Alyaa & Uaid, 2021). Mental motivation is a state characterized by the human mind in terms of flexibility. Thinking, the ability to concentrate and pay attention, and stimulate the mind towards solving the problems. It faces and making decisions using higher mental processes (Cleary & Zimmerman, 2012). Basketball is characterized from other ball games of its great combination of offensive and defensive skills, and then appears more beautifully and accurately in its collective dynamic rhythm, which impresses the public, especially when scoring points with accuracy and speed by its players (Ghada & Ali, 2022). Despite its difference way of learning, whether it was direct or indirect, differentiated method of education still believed is the best way for its optimization of efforts and time and it is also taking individual differences in consideration (Weinberg & Gould, 2019).Several researchers with expertise in the area of basketball education chose a differentiated teaching approach as the most effective means of resolving the issue and achieving goals (Rasha & Abdullah, 2022). That can summarize some of them (Younes & Amin, 2020).

Literature Review

Potdevin et al. (2018) used two basic French groups that participated in a normal five-week gymnastics education program designed by the authors. Participants performed the identical warm-up routine and activities for each of the five weekly courses. The experimental group consisted of (10 females and 8 males, 12.4 0.5 years old) got irregular video feedback while mastering front cartwheels to flat back landings. Video feedback was provided after every five tries, along with self-evaluation and spoken directions from the instructor. The positive control (12 girls and 13 boys, 12.6 years) got the identical instruction as the experimental group but did not get visual feedback. Even just the video feedback group showed significant changes between the fifth lesson and all previous lessons. The results, showing major movement modifications as a consequence of experience in a structured program, were compatible with qualitative study findings confirming the relevance of video feedback. This research emphasizes the potential use of video feedback in promoting motor control, motivation, and self-evaluation in a physical education program proposed for children. In the future, pedagogical research should look into how students could use video feedback technology to improve their ability to self-regulate, with the possibility of giving students the right movement input based on their different levels of expertise. De Meyer et al. (2014) examined motivational variables involved in managing instructional behavior in terms of physical education using the Self-Determination model. Most of the research on recorded instructional practices was undertaken in a laboratory. In order to increase the ecological validity of the current research, physical education instructors real-world regulating teaching conduct was recorded and evaluated. Attempting to control educational actions during a particular physical education class, as noticed by exterior raters, was positively associated with students perceived trying to control classroom behavior and, through these preconceptions, to emotion regulation and amotivation in such a sample of 702 secondary school students and 56 teachers. Despite the low occurrence of regulating instructional practices, these relationships were found, demonstrating that students could be extremely susceptible to regulating teaching behaviors. There were no links between what was seen as controlling behavior, what motivated students to be independent, and how students felt about instruction that helped them be independent. Fradejas Medrano et al. (2018) investigate the psychological features of school sports performance as compared to gender and sports modalities. In addition, connections between the parameters of the psychological factors associated with sports performance questionnaires in men and women are established. Through the survey, the study employs a quantitative approach of descriptive analysis. The sample consists of 816 adolescent athletes aged 12 to 18 (411 males and 405 females) who participate in many individual and group sports. The findings reveal statistically significant variations in the psychological aspects of stress regulation and performance appraisal, with males scoring higher than women. In addition, the findings demonstrate statistically significant variations in the dimensions of mental performance and team cohesion in connection to the psychosocial factors of the men and the sports modalities performed. Identifying these disparities in mental capacity between football players and those who participate in swimming and gymnastics. Yadolahzadeh (2020) investigated the effects of visual imagination, stress, and coping training on female swimmers’ ability. The research comprised 30 female professional swimmers (aged 12 to 15). The 15 swimmers were allocated to the experimental group randomly, while the remaining 15 were randomized to the comparison group. The experimental group was given instruction in visual imagination and managing stress. Stress management was evaluated using the short-term form of the following: anxiety, depression and stress scale, while mental imagery was examined using the movement Imagery questionnaire revised. In addition, swimming performance was tested by swimming 25 meters of front crawl. After the treatment program, the experiment group members substantially improved on the depression, anxiety, and stress (mean difference between pre-test and post-test was 4.37), movement imagery questionnairerevised, and swimming ability (mean difference between pre-test and post-test was 0.83 seconds). According to the statistics, stress management training and mental imagery may greatly boost the performance of female swimmers. Accordingly, these results should be thought about by swimmers and their coaches, and they should be a part of how they swim. Semidara, (2021) investigated the impact of combining physical skills practice with psychological skills training on the athletic performance of international school students in Lagos. From a population of three hundred and fifty (350) pupils, forty (40) early teenage boys and girls were randomly chosen and divided into two groups: an experimental group and a control group. The design used for the investigation in the experimental and control groups was the pretest, posttest,. The individuals in the experimental group were taught physical skills practice of basketball shooting techniques together with the psychological skills training constructs of mental imaging and mental practice, while the participants in the control group were trained in physical skills practice alone. The research demonstrated that the improvement in early teen overhead shooting technique was due to the therapy of mental images and mental practice provided to the experimental group but not to the control group. Due to the psychological skills supplied to the experimental group, there was evidence that physical skill practice supplemented with mental imaging and mental practice greatly improved early adolescent lay-up shot shooting technique compared to those of the control group. In early teens, psychological skills training, mental imagery, and mental practice improved strategy and greatly boosted basketball shooting. Li and Shen (2022) argue that it is important to establish a modern and scientific basketball special syllabus overarching goal system, combine the basketball syllabus trying to teach theory with the basketball instructional educational curricula, and implement a range of instructional to cultivate students' practical implementation ability. Finally, the method of basketball instruction is enhanced. The application impact of the basketball syllabus provided in this research against the backdrop of national fitness is examined using an example. The results of this study show that the basketball curriculum model for teaching has a certain amount of viability and effectiveness. Alsentali (2022) assess the influence of mental fitness determinants on the provision of psychological, physical, health, and social capacities in a group of student athletes, where mental ability plays a significant role in enhancing athletes' performance on the sports field. Ninety-one male and ninety-one female students were picked at random from the community of college athletes at Northern Border University. Participants of this study showed a high level of statistical significance agreement regarding the significance of mental fitness in enhancing social competence environmental, psychological, and all other majors and sub-items were categorized by their significance and high degree of achievement in achieving the goals of this research. The report also advised that mental fitness standards be disseminated to all college students and that a permanent strategy be developed to promote mental fitness requirements for university students. Hidayat and Sujarwo (2022) increased student learning results in basketball and shooting content during the school year's academic session. There was a total of 35 participants that involved in this survey. This investigation is a twocycle classrooms action research study. Each cycle is comprised of two meetings including planning, action implementation, observation, evaluation, and reflection. Students' outcome was gathered using student learning activity survey forms and topic evaluations. Using descriptive method, the acquired data has been analyzed. The results of the research show that the use of the transformation Learning Model to the teaching of basketball shooting may enhance student learning. The mean result of the first election cycle results is 70%. Overall learning attained by pupils equals 70%. The mean result for second cycle learning outcomes is 79%. Complete learning attained by pupils equals 95%. Based on the study findings and discussion, it is possible to infer that the implementation of the “Discovery Based Learning Model” of basketball and shooting instruction may enhance learning results. Complete learning attained by pupils equals 95%. On the basis of the study findings and discussion, it is possible to infer that the implementation of the “Discovery Based Learning Model” to basketball and shooting instruction may enhance learning results. Complete learning attained by pupils equals 95%. Students respond well to the adoption of the Discovery-Based Learning model since they are able to actively engage, and the learning environment is highly pleasant. In Viktor et al., (2022) the participants in the study were 18 students from the college. Participating in the experimental study were ten 9- to 10-yearolds and eight 13- to 15-year-olds with intellectual development impairments enrolled in the sports pages general physical training. The experiment presented the author training course on track and field sports, which was designed for athletes with a mental development aberration at a special educational establishment. The training course was supported by scientific literature, personal experience, and research of physical education instructors who have worked with students with mental retardation at the proper level of physical development and physical fitness. Progressive training of the skeletal system for physical activity led to the enhancement of test sports indicators for response time and dexterity, as well as coordination skills, among students in the sports department. The created suggestions for physical education instructors are intended for use in conducting sessions with students who have special needs, taking into consideration the emotional condition and physical health of individuals with different deviations. The results showed that including students with mental disabilities in the instructional experience, taking into consideration the individual characteristics of psychophysical innovation, creates an ideal environment for increasing motor fitness and visuospatial indicators. The recommended suggestions for physical education instructors allow for the organization of training sessions that take into consideration the unique characteristics of the psychological development of students with special needs. Duc and Thanh (2022) developed the characteristics for test and evaluation of academic achievement of a highquality education curriculum, graduating with a degree in Basketball of Sport Training, in conformity with the curriculum practical conditions in order to accurately assess learners' qualifications and confirm the enhanced quality of the training for bachelors of Bac Ninh University of Sport.

Hartati et al. (2022) examine the influence of a tactical strategy on innovation and commitment in basketball learning. In this research, the pre-experimental design technique of intact-group comparison was utilized. This test's sample consisted of sixty eleventh-grade students from a university. This research used innovation and commitment questionnaires based on a Likert scale calculation. Innovation in the study revealed that the p-value was below the significance threshold (0.049 < 0.05). It indicates that the proposed group has a substantial impact. Student learning yielded a p-value that was more than the significance threshold (0.568 > 0.05). It shows that the proposed group got a lot better after being treated with the basketball training model for tactical approach. Applying the logistic regression model, Nagamine et al., 2022 identify the structure of plays and fouls in university basketball games to determine the association across wins and losses and their structure. Twenty games conducted in university courses were selected, and the recorded plays/factors were graded on a 5-point scale. 52 actions were seen. After applying singular value decomposition to the whole data set, the items with insignificant loadings were eliminated from the study, and a correlation matrix was calculated between just the items with significant loadings. Another vital component analysis was conducted, and exploratory factor scores for every qualification were calculated. The results were produced as a quired twodimensional environment was explained as Individual abilities and skills that result in fouls/violations and Individual – group skills, which had a significant effect on wins/losses even though fouls supplied a change of offence committed and raised the likelihood of a losing score. Awad, 2021 used two experimental groups, as well as before and post assessments, on a sample of sixty-five students in second year classes from the University of Sharjah, Department of “Physical Education and Sports Sciences”. On a sample, researchers evaluate selective attention. The main investigation, in addition to completing skill tests, was followed by the application of the syllabus for the strategic approach of innovative organizations. The researcher then used suitable statistical ways to obtain the results, and based on the results, he drew a number of conclusions, including that the selective attention control aided the students in the smart diverse culture in thinking methodologies and problem-solving, and that the influence of the selective attention was significant. The researchers took over the experimental class, as they outshone the comparison group in improving attacking skills in conjunction with basketball. The following are the researcher's recommendations: Assess the pupils and determine their degree of focus at the start of each class. The academic season, the acceptance of academic units prepared according to the strategy of innovative institutions in understanding complex attacking skills with sports, the need to pay attention to contemporary teaching techniques that carry with them strategies based on psychological and constructivist theories.

Relationship between Mental Motivation and Learning the Skills of Basketball and Shooting

As a result of the advancement of civilization, there are now stricter standards for the physical fitness of individuals, and there are still several obstacles to the development of sports talents. College physical education materials are required for the development of basketball abilities. The connection across college physical education and basketball abilities is intensifying. College physical education facilities become the starting point for basketball skills, which has a significant impact and long-term advantage on basketball abilities. The professional supervision, information sharing, structure and administration, and cultural legacy of college sports facilities impact the development of basketball talents. College athletics give human capital and technical direction for the improvement of basketball abilities (Griffin et al., 2019).

In recent times, the numbers of college and university students in Iraq has increased annually. The overall enrollment in different types of higher education in Iraq will reach 0.88 million in 2021 (Jinga, L., & Kimb, 2020) , and university students are a vital force in the cause of basketball skills. “Modern and scientific university of physical education” can not only fully motivate and inspire students' exuberance for sports and facilitate them to master one or two lifelong sport projects, but also develop students' perspectives on sports and health and facilitate the attainment of teaching objectives. University graduates entering society provide more sport resources to society, strengthen the sports environment, and stimulate the development of basketball abilities more effectively. For the strong growth of the complete training program, therefore, the continued development and improvement of college physical education curricula are vital (Figure 1).


Figure 1. The relationship between college and university physical education curricula and the basketball skills.

The goal of this quantitative study was to explore the effects of video feedback on motor active learning, self-assessment ability, and motivation in a schoolbased learning environment with beginning children playing basketball. As a result of the researcher expertise in the area of basketball education, we chose a differentiated teaching approach as the most effective means of resolving the issue and achieving the study's goals. The significance of the research is in the preparation of particular exercises for the diversified teaching approach in mental motivation and the acquisition of handling and shooting abilities in basketball, as we believe in the nature of the game (Rubiana et al., 2022; Cai, W., & Baek, 2022).

Motivation of the Study

The research aims at preparing exercises and identify the effectiveness of these exercises for the differentiated teaching method in mental motivation and to learn the skills of handling and shooting basketball for female students. Statistical significance between the pre and post-tests of the two experimental and control groups in mental motivation and learning the skills of handling and shooting in basketball. Also, there are statistically significant differences between the post-tests of the experimental and control groups.

Methodology and Field Procedures

Research Methodology: The researcher used the experimental method (with two equal groups).

Research community and sample: The research community consisted of the students of the second stage of the “College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Girls” at the “University of Baghdad” for the academic year (2020– 2021). There were 102 students in total, with (40) female students chosen from two sections (C and D), with (20) female students for each control and experimental group.

The means, tools and devices used

Research Methods (Hassan et al., 2019):

• References (books and scientific papers).

• Observation and experimentation.

• Personal interviews.

• Skill tests.

• Mental Motivation Scale.

Tools and devices used (Israa & Malih, 2022):

• Basketball court (legit).

• Legit Basketballs (20).

• Measuring tape to measure the length.

• Medical scale.

• Stopwatch number (2).

• Signs (8).

• Personal laptop.

Tests Used in Research

Mental Motivation Scale: The researcher used the mental motivation scale developed by researcher Mohamed Abdel Moneim Taher in 2018 on a sample of second-year students in the “College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences” after reviewing a set of psychological scales that scale mental motivation (Maarib & Malih, 2022). The scale consists of six areas ( cognitive integration; self-confidence; psychological adjustment; creative thinking and mental focus-orientation towards learning). The scale consists of 34 items and the answer alternatives are (agree-agree to some extent; disagree to some extent; disagree at all). Agreeing is 95%, and thus the lower and upper degrees of the mental motivation scale become 34-136 degrees.

Passing Test (handling and receiving) (Aldossari, 2018; Van et al., 2021) • Purpose of the test: To measure the laboratory's ability to quickly handle and receive.

• Performance specifications: It performs (10) proper handling.

• Test conditions:

Recording: The performance time for the test is calculated from the time the ball touches the wall in the first positive handling until the ball touches the wall in the tenth successful handling. This time is calculated in seconds and tenths of a second.

Free Throw Test (10 Throws) (Salloum te al., 2004):

• Purpose of the test: To measure the shooting accuracy of the free throw.

• Scoring Calculation: One score is calculated and recorded for each successful throw (the ball enters the basket).

Exploratory experience: The researcher conducted an exploratory experiment to measure mental motivation and skill tests in basketball on Sunday 10/25/2020 on a sample of (4) students who did not participate in the basic experiment (Kzar et al., 2022). The purpose of the exploratory experiment was to know the challenges that the researcher might encounter in the course of work (Mohammed, 2018).

The equivalence of the two research groups: Before starting the application of the educational module, the researcher tried to verify the equivalence between the control and experimental groups as shown in Table 1 (Table 1).

Table 1: Equal search groups (control and experimentation) in the tests under consideration.

To Variables Unit of measurement Experimental Controlled   Significance
Arithmetic medium Standard deviation Sample number Arithmetic medium Standard deviation Calculated Rate of mistakes
1 Mental motivation degree   72.6 11.81 - 70.5 13.27 0.64 0.52 Unconcede
2 Handling and receipt time 20 20.82 1.95 20 20.81 2.30 0.02 0.98 Unconcede
3 Free throw. number 2.1 0.91 1.90 1.07 0.63 0.52 Unconcede

Conducted field research: The field research procedures consisted of the pre-tests and the application of the educational module based on the control and experimental groups, then the post-tests.

Pre-tests: The pre-tests of the mental motivation scale and two tests (handling and receiving - free throw) for the research sample were conducted at exactly nine o'clock on Wednesday morning (24/10/2020).

The duration of the educational module took eight (8) weeks, divided into four (4) weeks to develop the skills of handling and receiving and four (4) weeks to develop the skills of free throwing, for a total of sixteen (16) educational units for the time of one educational component (90) minutes.

To achieve the objectives of the research, the researcher prepared skill exercises in a differentiated teaching style, as the two skills were explained and presented and were applied by the students and gave corrective feedback by mentioning the most important errors in performance and how to avoid them, as well as enhancing optimal performance. The female students were divided into three levels (good, medium, and weak), and this facilitates the process of giving each group of educational units that suit their abilities and level of performance. Periodic tests to determine the effectiveness of skill exercises in regular education. If the teacher wants to take into account the individual differences among learners, we work to provide the same stimulus to all and accept different outcomes from them. In differentiated education, we present the same stimulus with various tasks and methods to achieve the same outputs.

Post-tests: The post-tests were conducted on the two research groups (control and experimental) and in the same modules and conditions that were in the pre-tests on Wednesday (12/30/2020) to calculate the number of differences.

Results and Discussion

Presentation and analysis of the results of the pre- and post-tests of the control group

Table 2 shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the calculated t-value for the pre and posttests of the experimental group (Table 2).

Table 2: The arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the calculated t-value for the pre and posttests of the experimental group.

Variables Unit of measurement Pre Post Calculated T Sample size Rate of mistakes Significance
Arithmetic medium Standard deviation Arithmetic medium Standard deviation
Mental motivation Degree 72.6 11.81 97.8 10.27 8.41 20 0.000 Moral
Handling Time 20.82 1.95 14.88 1.56 12.3 0.000 Moral
Free throw Number 2.1 0.91 5.75 0.91 10.6 0.000 Moral

The error rate for mental motivation, handling, receipt and free throw was (0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000) (greater than (0.05), indicating the morality of the tests.

Presentation and analysis of the findings of the pre and post-tests of the control group

The error rate for the tests (0.000, 0.000, 0.000, and 0.000) respectively is smaller when compared to (0.05) and this indicates the morale of the tests and favors remote tests. One of the basic phenomena of the learning steps is the development in learning as long as the instructions that the teacher follows be according to the proper scientific steps and foundations of the learning process. In addition, he should practice the right performance and focuses on it until the consolidation and stability of performance. Table 3 shows the values of the computational circles, standard deviations and the t value calculated for the tribal and remote tests of the control group (Table 3).

Table 3: The values of the computational circles, standard deviations and the t value calculated for the tribal and remote tests of the control group.

Variables Unit of measurement Tribal Post Calculated T Sample Rate of mistakes Significance
Arithmetic medium Standard deviation Arithmetic medium Standard deviation
Mental motivation Degree 70 13.27 83.5 8.21 6.64 20 0.000 Moral
Handling Time 20.81 2.30 17.6 1.33 6.13 0.000 Moral
Free throw Number 1.9 1.07 3.85 0.87 10.56 0.000 Moral

Presentation and analysis of the findings of the remote tests of the control and experimental groups:

Table 4 shows the values of computational circles, standard deviations and t value calculated for remote tests of the control and experimental groups (Table 4).

Table 4: The values of computational circles, standard deviations and t value calculated for remote tests of both groups.

Variables Unit of measurement Control Experimental Calculated T Rate of mistakes Significance
Arithmetic medium Standard deviation Arithmetic medium Standard deviation
Mental motivation Degree 97.8 10.27 83.5 8.21 4.86 0.000 Moral
Handling Time 14.88 1.56 17.62 1.33 5.94 0.000 Moral
Free throw Number 5.75 0.91 3.85 0.87 6.72 0.000 Moral

The error rate for tests (0.000, 0,000, 0,000) respectively is smaller when compared (0.05) and this indicates the morale of the remote tests and in favor of the experimental group. The reasons behind the results which were illustrated in the tables above, were the nature of the skill exercises prepared in a differentiated teaching style. They were characterized by ease and gradualness in proportion to their abilities, tendencies, and physical and skill level, which contributed to increasing mental motivation, and this was confirmed by (Billingsley, 2009).Recognizing the different needs of learners, their previous information, their willingness to learn, their level, their preferences, and their preferred learning patterns and then responding to those in the learning process is a hectic process. The mentality can make the learner interested in the work that they do and give an incentive not to find new and purposeful ideas. The mental motivation is based on the assumption that everyone has the ability to think creatively and be aroused. So, a person's mental motivation needs to be boosted by working in small groups or with a colleague. This means that groups don't stay the same from one topic to the next but change from one topic to the next.

The attributes reasons for these differences and in favor of the post-tests to the nature of the skill exercises prepared in a differentiated learning style, which had a great impact on learning the skills of handling and free throwing in basketball, and this is confirmed by (Berlant & Smith 1998) that the use of differentiated teaching method variables as a structural In general, the lesson will lead to an improvement in the level of performance and an increase in the rate of learning for individuals and the entire educated group.

Teaching according to scientific foundations has a clear impact on the learners, and given the regularity of the students of the experimental group to perform the exercises prepared according to the scientific foundations through gradation from easy to difficult and repeating them and providing them with feedback, taking into consideration the principle of individual differences between the students, this development in the level did not come randomly but rather was the result of training in the stages of motor learning, which led to a positive impression on the yield and results of the educational process.


The educational units prepared according to the differentiated teaching method of the experimental group and the educational units prepared according to the method followed in the control group have contributed to learning the skills of handling and free throwing basketball in varying proportions. To provide a greater opportunity through the sufficient time and the number of repetitions required for continuous learning and evaluation, this method positively affected the learning of the two skills under discussion. The skill exercises prepared in a differentiated teaching style contributed to the development of the mental motivation of the students. The researcher recommends using the differentiated method in practical lessons to develop mental motivation and learn the skills of handling and free throwing basketball for second-stage students. The need to introduce a differentiated teaching method that is based on giving additional time provided the corrective feedback and explanatory information for other basic skills in basketball to make use from it. In the education process, it's important to think about how the differentiated teaching method could be used in other stages of study and to look for new and different ways to teach at each stage.


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