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The Effect of Special Exercises on the Receiving and Handling Skills of Football Players Aged 13-14 years

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4

The Effect of Special Exercises on the Receiving and Handling Skills of Football Players Aged 13-14 years

Alaa Abed-Alqader Neama*, Mohammed Jamal Salman and Ameer Abbas Mahdi
*Correspondence: Alaa Abed-Alqader Neama, AL-ESRAA University College, Department of physical Education and sports science, Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
AL-ESRAA University College, Department of physical Education and sports science, Baghdad, Iraq

Abstract

The analytical view of the game of football shows the presence of many aspects that enter into its formation, and among these aspects: the physical, skill, tactical, psychological and others, and each of these aspects has an effective impact on it, and with regard to the skill side, this game includes many and varied skills such as the skill of receiving, handling, rolling and evading And scoring and other skills that reflect the aesthetically pleasing and interesting form. It is noticeable at various levels in football matches that there are basic skills that are used more and more frequently than the rest of the other skills, and this is what requires, in addition to other skills, to work on mastering them as much as possible because of the clear impact they have on the implementation and success of the required plans, and here we mean the skills of receiving and handling, The researchers noticed that they are former football players, and through field observations of the championship of the National Centers for the Care of Sports Talent in Football, which was held in the Talent Center / Baghdad, it was found a clear weakness of most players in the performance of the skills of receiving and handling in various playing situations, which negatively affects the Technical and tactical performance, as well as the result of the match The aim of the research is to prepare special exercises to develop the receiving and handling skills of the research sample, The experimental method with two groups, control and experimental, was used for its suitability in solving the research problem, The sample was chosen by the intentional method represented by the players of the National Center for the Care of Sports Talent in Football in Baghdad Governorate at ages (13-14), and their number is (20) players. The players were divided into two groups in a random way so that the number of each group became (10) players, The statistical package (SPSS) was used to process the data, The researchers recommended the necessity of emphasizing the training of the receiving and handling skills during the training units, as it is a major requirement in the success of the skill performance of football players (14-13) years.

Keywords

Special exercises. Receiving and handling skills. Football.

Introduction

Concerning the skill side, this game includes many and varied skills such as the skill of receiving, handling, rolling, dribbling, scoring and other skills that reflect the aesthetically pleasing and interesting form. It is noticeable at various levels in football matches that there are basic skills that are used more and more frequently than the rest of the other skills, It is known that each age group has duties and training objectives that correspond to its growth characteristics and achievement requirements, and this is reflected in the nature of education or skill training that must begin and continue with all age groups and according to their characteristics(FIFA) (1) , They recommend: the end of skill education with the age of (12) years, and the beginning of skill training with the age of (13) years and upwards. This explains the recommendations of the AFC Technical Committee (AFC) (2) , Regarding the research category: that players (13-14 years old) should participate during the football season in (25-30) matches, and this means that the players must get used to the skillful performance in conditions similar to the match, The importance of the research is shown by developing special exercises that are similar in nature to the appearance of these two skills in matches, such as the speed of action in a short time and the presence of the competitor; This is for the purpose of accustoming players to the possibility of effectively implementing these two skills in future matches.

Research Problem

Where the researchers noticed that they are former football players, and through field observations of the championship of the National Centers for the Care of Sports Talent in Football, which was held in the Talent Center / Baghdad, it was found clear weakness of most players in the performance of the skills of receiving and handling in various playing situations, which negatively affects the The skill and tactical performance as well as the match result, so the researcher decided to solve this problem within the limits of the research sample by placing special exercises (skill, compatibility, physical) that are compatible with the competitive nature of matches.

Research objective

-Preparing special exercises to develop the receiving and handling skills of the research sample.

-Knowing the effect of special exercises in developing the receiving and handling skills of the research sample.

Research hypotheses

-There are statistically significant differences between the results of the pre and post test in the skills of receiving and handling, and in favor of the post test for the research sample.

-There are statistically significant differences between the results of the posttest in the skills of receiving and handling between the experimental and control groups in favor of the experimental group.

Research fields

• Human field: Players of the National Center for the Care of Sports Talent in Football / Baghdad aged (13-14) years for the sports season (2021)

• Time field: ((27/2/2021) ) to (3/5/2021).

• Spatial field: Stadium of the National Center for Sports Talent in Football / Baghdad.

Research Methodology and Field Procedures

Research methodology

The experimental method with two groups, the control and the experimental, was used for its suitability in solving the research problem and achieving its objectives.

Community and sample research

The sample was chosen by the intentional method represented by the players of the National Center for the Care of Sports Talent in Football in Baghdad Governorate at ages (13-14), and their number is (20) players. The players were divided into two groups in a random way so that the number of each group became (10) players.

Homogeneity and equivalence procedures were carried out for the sample, and the results were as shown in Table 1 (Tables 1 & 2).

Table 1: Shows the homogeneity of the research sample members.

Variables
Measuring  unit
Mean
Median
Std. Deviations
Skew ness
Length
Cm
140.200 140.500 4.803 - 0.187
Mass
Kg
56.400 56.500 3.748 - 0.080
Age
Year 
13.100 13.000 0.876 0.342
Age training
Year
1.900 2.000 0.568 - 0.528
The value of the Skew ness coefficient is between ±3, indicating a moderate distribution.

Table 2: It shows the results of the tribal tests (arithmetic mean, standard deviation, calculated (t) value and significance of differences) between the experimental and control groups in the receiving and handling skills tests of the research sample.

Variables Measuring unit Experimental  group Control
group
T value Level sig Type sig
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
Receiving skill The second 10.064 1.005 10.007 0.961 0.130 0.898 Non sig
Handling skill Degree/second 1.153 0.326 1.089 0.194 0.534 0.600 Non sig
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 18

Methods and tools were used in the research:

• Arab and foreign sources.

• Data registration forms.

• Stopwatch.

• Legal footballs (10).

• Football field.

• Characters.

• Adhesive tape.

• Swedish terraces number (2).

• Whistle.

• Cone-shaped cones of different colors and sizes.

• Tape measure.

• A device for measuring weight and height.

Tests used:

• Receiving skill test ,Control directing the ball to the ground(Detacher Football) (3).

• Handling skill test, Modified Handling (AFC) Test (Haider Abd-el- Kader Neama) (4).

Pre-tests: Tribal tests were conducted on the members of the research sample in the variables investigated on 27/2/2021, which coincides with Saturday, at the National Center for Sports Talent Care in Football / Baghdad. The receiving skill test was applied, then the handling test.

The exercises used in the research:

The main experiment was started for the purpose of applying special exercises to the research sample on (1/3/2021), which coincided with (Monday) at the National Center for Sports Talent Care / Baghdad, and it lasted for two months, and the main experiment ended on (30/4/) 2021), which is on (Friday), and the experiment included the following procedures:

• Implementation of four training units per week on the days: (Friday, Saturday, Monday, and Wednesday).

• The number of training units during the period of application of the experiment reached (32) training units.

• Special exercises were applied in the main part of the training unit with a fixed time of (30) minutes.

• The total time for the special exercises in the experiment was (960) minutes.

First exercise: (combined).

• Objective: To develop receiving and handling without difficulties.

• Equipment: several soccer balls, five poles.

• Area: a triangle with a side length of 2m with cones placed on both sides of the triangle at a distance of 5m from the diagonal side.

• Number of players: (10) players or more.

• Explanation of the exercise: The ball is handled by player (A) to teammate (B), then player (A) moves behind the ball, and player (B) handles the ball to (C) and catches the ball as well, and so the performance continues.

• Training points-

• Receiving the ball inside the right foot and handling the ball inside the right foot.

• Receiving with the right foot and handling with the left foot.

• Reverse the second point.

• Receipt and delivery of any part of the foot.

Diversification: Diversification is to change the direction of play, as well as by introducing a second and third ball (Table 3).

Table 3: Shows some of the exercises used

Intensity  Time Rest between repetitions Number of repetitions Number of totals Rest between groups
Difficulty
1 180 seconds 60 seconds 9 2 90 seconds

Post-tests: The post tests were conducted after taking a two-day break from the end of the main experiment, and they were carried out on 3/5/2021, on Monday, under the same conditions as the tribal tests.

Statistical methods: The statistical package (SPSS) was used to process the data.

Presentation, analysis and discussion of the results

Presentation and analysis of the results of the pre and post test for the experimental and control groups in the test of receiving and handling skills and their discussion.

The researcher deliberately applied my skill test (receiving and handling) on the main research sample of the two groups (experimental and control) consisting of (10) players in each group, and the data on the pre and post tests for the two groups were unloaded, for the purpose of processing them statistically, as shown in Table 4 (Table 4).

Table 4: It shows the results of the pre and post tests for the experimental and control groups in the test of my skills (receiving and handling).

Collection Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test T value Level sig Type sig
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
 Experimental group Receiving skill The second 10.064 1.005 7.255 0.428 8.357 0.000 Sig
  Handling
Skill
Degree/second 1.153 0.326 2.261 0.451 7.171 0.000 Sig
Control group Receiving skill The second 10.007 0.961 9.198 0.392 2.475 0.035 Sig
Handling
Skill
Degree/second 1.089 0.194 1.589 0.465 3.000 0.015 Sig
Degree of freedom (n-1) (20-2 = 18), * D if the degree of significance level (Sig) ≥ (0.05).

Presentation and analysis of the results of the post-test for the experimental and control groups in the test of my skills (receiving and handling) and their discussion.

After unloading the data for the two post-tests of the experimental and control groups from the researcher and processing them statistically, as shown in Table 5 (Table 5).

Table 5: It shows the results of the post-test for the experimental and control groups in my skill test (receiving and handling).

Variables  Measuring unit Experimental  group Control
group
T value Level sig Type sig
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
Arithmetic mean 
Standard deviation
Receiving skill the second 7.255 0.428 9.198 0.392 10.585 0.000 Sig
Handling skill degree/second 2.261 0.451 1.589 0.465 3.283 0.004 Sig
Significant when the significance value ≤ 0.05 under degree of freedom of 18

Discussing the Results

Discussing the results of the pre and post tests for the experimental and control groups in the receiving and handling test:

The results shown in the tables above showed the significant differences between the experimental and control groups in the (receiving and handling) test in favor of the experimental group, as the researcher attributes this to the regularity of work according to the correct methodology in following up the units by the trainer, as well as the commitment and cooperation of the sample in the procedures for applying the exercises skill in the curriculum within the specified time period in question, In another view, and by presenting the results of the aforementioned statistical tables, the researchers attribute the significant differences between the pre- and post-tests and in favor of the post-test of the experimental group to the regular method of performing the prepared exercises and the repetition of different playing situations through those training units, and the increase of these situations by increasing the duties that they require Those units, which in turn led to the development of the skill (receiving and handling) involved in the study, The repetition of exercises in the stadiums for the type of sports event leads to the development of basic skills due to the multiplicity of situations and difficulties that accompany them during matches in those stadiums(Marwan Abdel Hamid) (5),The researchers also attribute these moral differences to the regularity and continuation of the exercises prepared by the kiss, which had a positive impact on the development of (receiving and handling) under study, as the players underwent a number of training units (interrupted by positive rest periods) in which the players conducted similar exercises to the competition matches. This, in turn, also contributed to the development of these two skills, because in these exercises the players make a high effort and with different stresses, and through that, the players (the skill of receiving and handling) will inevitably be developed, The exercises contribute a large share in their impact on the development of the individual's physical and skill abilities (Muhammad Allawi) (6).

Conclusions and Recommendations

• Special exercises are important and effective in developing the receiving and handling skills of football players (14-13) years.

• The skills of receiving and handling are a major requirement in the success of the skill performance of football players (14-13) years.

• The results showed the existence of significant differences in favor of the experimental group in the skills of receiving and handling football players (14-13) years.

Recommendations

• Adopting special exercises to develop the receiving and handling skills of football players (14-13) years old.

• The necessity of emphasizing the training of receiving and handling skills during the training units as it is a major requirement in the success of the skill performance of football players (14-13) years.

• Using exercises and exercises similar to the atmosphere of the match and competition to develop the necessary skills for the game, in addition to developing the skills associated with each type of exercise used.

References

FIFA, ( 2019) Education and Technical Development Department, Grassroots, Switzerland: RVA Druck und median.

AFC,( 2020)The Technical Department of Asian Football Confederation's" Certificate Coaching Manual, Malaysia: AFC House, 57000 Kuala Lumpur. Detacher Football-Bund.(2018), Das Test manual fur die technomotorische Leistungsdiagnostik (der Talentförderung). (Bitter & Loose GmbH: 48268 Greven.

Haider Abdel Qader Nima,(2020) The effect of a training curriculum on some variables (physical-kinetic-functional-skill-tactic-cognitive-psychological) for the players of the National Center for the Care of Sports Talent for Football at the ages of (13-14) years. Baghdad.

Marwan Abdel Hamid.(2001) Scientific encyclopedia. Amman, Al-Warraq Foundation. i 1.

Muhammad Hassan Allawi. (1987) The psychology of training and competitions, Cairo. House of Knowledge 4th floor.

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