Full Length Research Paper - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 2
The Effect of the Fair Survey Strategy in Learning to Perform the Skills of Passing and Receiving the Serve in VolleyballHind Obaid Abdel Salam* and Hoda Abdel Samie
*Correspondence: Hind Obaid Abdel Salam, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 02-Mar-2023 Published: 16-Mar-2023
AbstractThe purpose of this paper is to preparing educational units for the skills of passing and receiving the transmission according to the fair survey strategy, and identifying the impact of the fair survey strategy in learning the performance of the preparation and receiving skills of serving in volleyball for the female students. The experimental and control research, and there are statistically significant differences between the results of the performance tests of the skills of passing and receiving the serve in the distance volleyball between the experimental and control research groups. University of Diyala for the academic year (2021/2022) who are continuing regular attendance at volleyball lessons. The research sample was randomly selected from them to reach (30), selected at a rate of (85.714%), and divided into two groups of equal number according to the requirements of the experimental design, and after determining the skill performance tests and applying the strategy on students of the experimental group for a period of (8) consecutive weeks.The results were processed statistically using the (SPSS) system so that the conclusions and applications can be applied in the practical lessons of the fair survey strategy in the practical lessons to learn the skillful performance of volleyball in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education, and that it is applied in the practical lessons of volleyball in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences In the College of Basic Education, it helps in improving the skillful performance of the skills of passing and receiving the transmission, and they strive to improve them among the students who learn without them. According to its stages, its individuality, and its good use in these lessons.
Fair survey strategy. Learn to perform. Passing and receive serve in volleyball.
"The volleyball game is one of the group games that need speed, attention and focus while playing it. Therefore, we need, while learning its skills, educational units that contain their content mechanisms that developmental processes and good thinking in order to reach the best levels in the learning process this is what both researchers have agreed upon (ruaa akram and abeer:12), especially since the skills of the volleyball game require High concentration in order to learn it, in particular, preparation and receiving the serve, as it is one of the most important skills in this game due to its offensive and defensive nature. Therefore, it is imperative for us to search for the latest methods, means, methods and strategies in order to learn and master them.(najlaa and others,2012:123) The fair inquiry strategy aims to stimulate and develop the thinking capabilities of the learners by putting them in front of a problematic situation in order to search for solutions to it by following the scientific methodology. (Ibrahim and Abdullah,. 2016:22) Likewise, “the fair investigation strategy is compatible with a society that consists of different individuals in terms of their views and interests and in a society in which there is a conflict between social values about which there is controversy, and this controversy needs a way that enables these individuals to understand among themselves to clarify the differences, to analyze the issues intelligently, and to take a rational stance on them, and this stance must be characterized by justice.” (najwa. 2006:300). As “the survey strategy depends on collecting information from multiple sources, as the learners participate in collecting it in the form of a group project.” (mohammed. 2011:257) In addition, “the students are distributed through the survey strategy into small groups that depend on the use of research, survey, group discussions, and planning.” Cooperative and one group consists of (3-6) members. The subject to be taught is divided into groups, and then each group divides its sub-topic into individual tasks and duties in which the members of the group work. Then the group prepares and brings its report for discussion and presents the results to the entire class, and the team is evaluated according to the work that he did and presented.” (kareman .2012: 159-160)
Due to the fact that the two researchers are specialized in teaching volleyball skills in Iraqi universities and through their continuous follow-up to the lesson of volleyball, they noticed that there are some skills in which the student encounters many difficulties during her performance despite all the attempts made by the school using the method used to reach the learners to an integrated learning Among these skills that they cannot master are the skills of passing, receiving, and serve, no matter how much effort the subject school exerts in the learning process. This leads to poor skill performance, as well as the lack of use of strategies that stimulate the learners’ mental motivation and motivation to learn and urge them to think and make them an effective element in the lesson and not to make the learners mere recipients, and the specificity of these two skills and their distinguished steps in a technique that may be almost more difficult than the rest of the skills and also because they are among the most important. Basic offensive and defensive skills. Therefore, the two researchers decided to search for a new strategy that might contribute to helping students facilitate the learning process since this strategy takes steps and the mechanism of its application takes the learner out of the traditional framework, which may be accompanied by a kind of boredom, lack of excitement and suspense, which leads to weakness in the learning process.
• The experimental approach was adopted, which is defined as “the approach in which we treat and control an independent variable to see its effect on a dependent variable, while observing the resulting changes and interpreting them, whether the experiment included an independent variable and a dependent variable or more than one independent variable or more than one independent variable.” (Magdi , 2019: 214) as a complement to that, the experimental design was chosen with two groups, the experimental and the control group, with tight control in the pre and post tests. Owaeed, I. (2022) and also Mohammed, N, MazinHadiKzar, Al-Selmi, A.D.H (2021).
The research community and its sample:
• The boundaries of a community were represented by female students of the third stage of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of basic Education / University of Diyala for the academic year (2021/2022), who are continuing to attend regular attendance for volleyball lessons. ), and (B), the main total research sample was randomly selected from them to number (30) at a rate of (85.714%) from their original community, and they were divided into two groups of equal number according to the requirements of the experimental design, as it was chosen from this community and from outside the main sample (5) female students. They were randomly assigned to represent the survey sample at a rate of (14.286%) from their original community.
Research Methodology and Field Procedures
The experimental approach was adopted, which is defined as "the approach in which we treat and control an independent variable to see its effect on a dependent variable while observing the resulting changes and interpreting them, whether the experiment included an independent variable and a dependent variable or more than one independent variable or more than one independent variable." (Al-Mahdi. 2019) Complementing this, the experimental design with two groups, the experimental and the control group, was chosen with tight control in the pre and post-tests.
Community and sample research
The boundaries of a community were represented by female students of the third stage of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education / University of Diyala for the academic year (2021/2022), who are continuing to attend regular attendance for volleyball lessons there are (35) female students distributed by nature in my divisions (A) and (B). The main total research sample was randomly selected from them number (30) at a rate of (85.714%) from their original community, and they were divided into two groups of equal number according to the requirements of the experimental design, and (5) female students were randomly selected from this community and outside the main sample to represent the exploratory sample at a rate of (14.286 %) of their original community.
Measurement and procedures
The two researchers adopted the technical performance test for the skill of receiving the ball with the arms from below in volleyball: (Najlaa et al., 2012: 116) and the technical performance measurement test for the skill of numbers in volleyball: (Najlaa et al., 2012: 137), and the conditions for registration for each of the two tests were by evaluating the performance of the test by experts, the degree distribution is as follows:
• Preparatory section: its degree is (3).
• Main section: its degree is (5).
• Concluding section: its degree is (2).
The two researchers prepared the curriculum for the educational units for the practical lessons for learning to perform the skills of passing and receiving serve in volleyball according to what was stated in the theoretical frame of reference for this strategy and employing them in the practical lessons in volleyball for the students of the third stage of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, and the educational exercises for these units were after reviewing many One of the scientific sources specialized in volleyball that deals with the details of the correct performance of them and the activation of the applied role of the students in the lesson by investing the knowledge side of the fair investigation on the performance of these two skills in a way that suits the motor programs, and according to the steps of applying the fair investigation strategy, which are six stages as follows:
• First stage: Orientation towards the educational task of skillful performance in volleyball.
• Second stage: the stage of searching and identifying the details of the performance of the two skills that are the subject of skill learning.
• Third stage: the stage of discussing the collected information and opinions about the performance of the two skills.
• Fourth stage: the stage of the debate between the two groups about the performance of the two skills.
• Fifth stage: agreeing on and supporting the opinion on the performance of the two skills.
• Sixth stage: the application of the performance of the two skills. Where the unit time is (90) minutes, the duration of the educational unit is divided into the sections of the educational unit as follows:
1. Preparatory section: its total time is (15) minutes for one educational unit, and it consists of:
• Warm-up: It includes exercises that aim to raise the basic physical capabilities of the body, and its time is (5) minutes for one educational unit.
• Physical exercises: It includes exercises that are related to the educational units subject of the lesson, that is, they are specific to certain muscle groups, in addition to special exercises by volleyball, and this takes (10) minutes for one educational unit.
2. Main section: its duration is (65) minutes for one educational unit and it consists of the following two parts:
• The educational part and the applied part: it includes explaining, presenting and clarifying the skill in detail by applying the steps of the fair survey strategy as follows:
• Defining the problem: The teacher identifies the problem, which is performing the skill and formulating a question, for example (what are the similarities between performing the preparation skill and performing the skill of receiving the transmission) as the class of the students of the experimental group is divided into two groups, each group is answered to the question in a specific way, and a third group is arbitrators there.
• Research stage: Each group deliberately searches for the style of performance and the tools that will be used in this performance.
• Competition stage: The students of each group perform the skill and the discussion is done to determine the best gradual exercise to perform the skill specified in the lesson.
• The stage of debate between opinions: each group performs the gradual exercise that helps to perform the skill, and the school listens to the opinion of the arbitrator group and the point of view of each team.
• Agreeing on opinion: After the discussion, the arbitrator group presents with the teacher the exercise that helps in performing the skill and writing it on the paper.
• Implementation stage: the performance is applied by the two groups, then the switch.
3. Concluding section: It has a time of (10) minutes for one educational unit and includes the recreational aspect that contains calming exercises for the students or a small game to activate the students as well as evaluating the performance of the students collectively.
As the duration of the application of the educational curriculum for the fair investigation strategy reached (8) weeks in the physical education lesson of volleyball on the female students of the experimental group, while the control group applied the method used to learn the skills of the two researched skills in the same period of time in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, and the researcher was satisfied with supervising them without The intervention in their education, and after the completion of the experiment, the two researchers verified the results using the Social Statistical Portfolio System (SPSS) version (V26), as each of the following values was automatically calculated: the percentage, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, and the (Leven) test for homogeneity of variance.
The t-test for uncorrelated samples and the t-test for correlated samples.
Results and Discussion
Results were discussed in tables (Tables 1-3).
|F-test Leven||Level sig||
|Performance receiving the ball with the arms from below||Experimental||2.47||1.407||0.271||0.607||0.247||
|Non-significant when (Sig) < (0.05) at the level of significance (0.05) and the degree of freedom n-2 = (28)|
Test and MeasuringUnit
|Groups and number||Comparison||
arithmetic mean of difference
standard deviation of differences
|Performing the skill of passing up volleyball (degree)||Experimental (15)||pre||3.8||1.821||4.667||1.633||11.068||0.000||Sig|
|Performing the skill of receiving serve in volleyball (degree)||Experimental (15)||pre||2.47||1.407||5.133||1.552||12.808||0.000||Sig|
|The statistical difference is significant at the level of significance (0.05) and the degree of freedom (n) - (1), as (Sig) ≥ (0.05).|
Test and MeasuringUnit
|Performing the skill of passing up volleyball (degree)||Experimental||15||8.47||0.516||6.629||0.000||Sig|
|Performing the skill of receiving serve in volleyball (degree)||Experimental||15||7.6||0.507||5.398||0.000||Sig|
|The statistical difference is significant at the level of significance (0.05) and the degree of freedom (n1 + n2-2) = (28), as (Sig) ≥ (0.05).|
Referring to the results of the pre and post-tests in Table (2), it is clear that the students of the third stage of the department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the experimental and control research groups, all of them improved in their learning performed the skills of preparation and receiving volleyball in the post-tests than they were in the pre-tests, and by returning the results of table (3) show that the students of the experimental group outperformed the students of the control group in improving this skillful performance in volleyball and for each of the two skills studied. The educational model that the students need in providing the answers they are looking for, in addition to the appropriate number of times of applying the educational curriculum exercises with the fair survey strategy, and the good distribution of the survey groups of the students within the experimental group, which allows the exchange of experiences among them, which facilitates the process of building the motor program for the performance of each of the two skills, as well as the set of controls for them, as Alba attributes the emergence of these results indicates that the educational situations included in the fair survey strategy helped them to form a knowledge structure that supports the motor program through the nature of the role assigned to each learner, in which she must harness information and experience in redrawing the motor program for each skill in the correct manner that is required to match the model displayed, as well as the sufficient space of freedom in performance according to the parameters of this model, as the improvement in skillful performance depends on the improvement of the fine-tuning of the motor program for performance, This is what all of (Al-Selmi, A.D.H., Fenjan: 251) agreed upon.
Learning is not measured by the amount of what you memorize, but rather by the amount of what is coded, stored, and easy to retrieve as quickly and as efficiently as possible. And quality means the ability to retrieve the required information and the crisis in solving the problems that the learner faces, and this can only be achieved with the presence of thinking activated by appropriate educational strategies (salah, 2001:8) Also, "the new information should depend on the knowledge previously acquired, for example, the section that is organized according to the principles of structuralism when studying a specific topic, students can be encouraged to think and discuss regarding their experiences and opinions on the subject studied." (OCDE. 2007:240 ) The researchers also attribute the emergence of these results to the improvement in the level of strategic thinking, which in turn helps the learners to identify the subtleties of the details of skill performance as well as activating the comparison with the model to be accessed to improve the motor program corresponding to the performance of that model, which helped It contains the specific points in the educational exercises and educational tools that helped facilitate the brain’s reception of this information that the female learners employed in their skillful performance of each of the two skills, as “knowledge of the performance requirements leads to the ease of learners’ absorption of the elements of motor skills.” (Adel and others. 2009:235) In addition, “Thinking has a positive role in students’ excellence and progress inside and outside the educational institution because their performance in educational tasks, school tests, and life situations during and after study are the products of their thinking, and according to it, the extent of their success or failure is determined.” (Raad and rafeeq 2019:135) In addition, "no one can deny the role of the brain in controlling attention, perception, remembering, learning and other cognitive processes." (Adnan, 2004:38) Likewise, "principles, generalizations, and mathematical skills depend heavily on concepts in their formation, comprehension, or acquisition." (fareed, 2003:199). The researcher also attributes the emergence of these results in the improvement and superiority of the students of the experimental group in learning the performance of the two skills of passing and receiving the transmission in volleyball to the role of the fair inquiry strategy in creating and providing an educational environment of active learning characterized by focusing on the role of the student learning in it and activating her role in the lesson through research and deliberations with The peers of the female students and the legitimate competition in learning the performance between them, and the good selection of the researcher for the competitive educational exercises that are appropriate for the application of the strategy as well as the educational methods to enhance this competition, which increases the opportunity to interact with the educational environment and then reflects positively on the good learning of the two skills studied, taking into account individual differences in learning Volleyball skillsThis is what both (Daniya Salman and Shaimaa Jaafar) agreed on: 56) and Hanin Muhammad and Mona Talib also agreed on it: 58).. Also, "one of the characteristics of the active learning environment is that it makes the learner an element capable of initiating and interacting with peers and expressing what he has with a large margin of freedom as well as its role in shifting the focus of the educational process from the teacher to the learner. The characteristics of the active learning environment can be identified in that it is rich in a variety of information sources." It includes opportunities for asking questions and clarification, and the spirit of cooperation and positive participation in work prevails. (muhsin, 2016:244) as "the success of the learner is measured in the extent of his ability to memorize information and retrieve it as it is, which prevents the development of his mental skills. We have to learn how to choose appropriate thinking methods, which is the key to achieving our success in that." (saeed and marwan. 2003:30) This was agreed upon by both (Salima Abdullah Alwan,: 160-175). As for the improvement in learning the performance of the two skills of preparation and reception of transmission in volleyball among the students of the control group, the researcher attributes it to the continuation of the students to assess their skillful learning in volleyball for the two skills under study in the same period in their attendance of educational units and the positive role played by their teachers in the lesson In order to reach the level of their performance as best as possible and the good use of auxiliary tools and multimedia, however, the level of skill improvement of the students of this group did not exceed what the students in the experimental group had reached, who were taught to learn to perform the two skills with the fair inquiry strategy, as it is "a natural phenomenon of the learning process is There must be development in learning as long as the teacher follows the steps of the sound foundations of learning and teaching, and for the beginning of learning to be sound, the explanation, presentation and rehearsal must be clarified on the correct performance and focus on it until the performance is consolidated and stable( dhafer. 2002:103). The two researchers (Tamara Ahmed Yas and mawahib Hamid Noman) agreed upon:135) the need for volleyball teachers to rely on the use of modern educational methods that develop their thinking and motivate them to increase their inclinations and attitudes towards learning the skill, and this plays an important role in achieving positive results in the performance of The skill of preparing and receiving the serve is one of the more difficult skills because of the speed and strength of the ball, so it requires continuous training in order to reach the goal. The two researchers (Zeina Hassan and Najlaa Abbas agreed :12) that the use of feedback in correcting the mistakes that the student makes when applying the skill plays a role in improving the performance of the students and learning some basic skills in volleyball, and this was confirmed by Wajih Mahgoub, who said, "The greater the amount of variables in the forms of exercise, the greater changes were given in the type of learning."this is agreed upon by (hayder nazar and abeer:213).
• The vocabulary of the fair inquiry strategy can be applied in practical lessons to learn the skillful performance of volleyball in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education.
• The application of the fair inquiry strategy in the practical lessons of volleyball in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education helps in improving the skillful performance of the skills of passing and receiving the serve, and they strive to improve them among students who learn without them.
• Necessary to pay attention to the development of the capabilities of female volleyball teachers in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences in the College of Basic Education and to improve their knowledge of the fair inquiry strategy to apply it in practical lessons according to its stages and individuality and to use it well in these lessons.
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