The Effect of the HIIT Training Curriculum on Developing Some of the Kinetic Capabilities and Combat Adequacy of Iraqi Special Forces Fighters

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4

The Effect of the HIIT Training Curriculum on Developing Some of the Kinetic Capabilities and Combat Adequacy of Iraqi Special Forces Fighters

Riyadh Abdulhussein Abw Gree1* and Ammar Abbas Attiyah2
*Correspondence: Riyadh Abdulhussein Abw Gree, PhD. Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
1PhD. Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq


The purpose of this paper is to identify the effect of the training curriculum on developing combat competence, and the research sample consisted of fighters of the Iraqi Special Forces, totaling 250 (fighters) and 32 fighters were selected. The researcher used the experimental method, in his main designs using one group, and tribal tests were conducted At 7 am, the experiment took place in the private military field, and the training units were conducted by one group, as one group underwent subsidized training prepared for one group pre and post, and the duration of the program was two months, with (5) short units and (6) long training units weekly. And by (44) special training units and post-tests were conducted and the statistics were extracted by the statistical bag (spss), the researcher found that there are significant differences with statistical significance for the combat ability tests and in favor of the post-test in the experimental group and this indicates that the sample has developed well and this It indicates that the sample has developed well in this tactical combat test, which includes the performance of all physical and kinetic attributes and combat skills.


Special forces fighters. Statistical bag. Combat skills


In the midst of the great scientific development that the world witnessed, all countries, and developed ones, in particular, we're interested in sciences related to military sciences and invested all training curricula for the purpose of improving and developing the capabilities of their fighters for the purpose of increasing their military strength of all kinds. Therefore, specialists on the military side sought to conduct more research and studies to raise the level of performance of the soldier and officer alike. Their research focused on the physical aspects to raise the level of physical fitness and mobility of their military forces of all kinds and formations.

So, based on the idea of owning military power, studies have been constantly designing and developing training curricula that include many methods and methods that keep pace with the development that exists at the present time, including the intensive training that the fighter needs in order to be highly prepared. The Special Forces are on the highest possible readiness because Iraq has gone through and is still going through a difficult time in the fight against terrorism. One of the most important of these conditions and requirements is the good training of fighters. The broad and great interest in building armies and their numbers in a way that qualifies them to complete their work in maintaining security. The specialists on the military side have sought to conduct more research and studies to raise the level of performance for both the soldier and the officer, so their research has focused on Physical aspects to raise the level of physical fitness and mobility in order to contribute to raising the combat level of the Special Forces fighters.

The importance of the research comes to elevate the capabilities in preparing a proposed training curriculum according to the HIIT training method to develop some of the kinetic and functional capabilities of the combat sufficiency of the fighters of the Iraqi Special Forces in order to defend its people and land and be the fortress of the fortified homeland.

Research Problem

The tasks assigned to the Special Forces require special capabilities and high kinetic, physical and functional specifications with advanced combat efficiency accompanied by the highest morale and a clear military doctrine as well as the availability of a solid doctrine. Public life, on the other hand, means a clear identification of the enemy and the threats that a country may face and how the army is prepared to confront them.

Through the researcher’s experience and work in the field of training, as one of the valiant Iraqi army officers, and his field examination during military courses and official working hours, he noticed that there are several research and studies dealing with physical fitness and special exercises on the military side, but it was not enough. He noted that the physical training used in the training fields It is improvised and random training, and the approved curriculum for this has not been selected in a sound scientific manner, which does not make it the ideal curriculum in determining the level of physical fitness of Iraqi Special Forces personnel.

Hence, the researcher sees the necessity of finding a proposed training curriculum based on scientific physical training and efficient special tactical training in order to prepare an elite of Special Forces fighters.

Research Objective

• Develop the vocabulary of a proposed training curriculum according to the method of intensive training among the members of the research sample, fighters of the Iraqi Special Forces.

• Identifying the effect of the intensive training method in developing some of the motor, physical and functional abilities of the members of the research sample, fighters of the Iraqi Special Forces.

Research Hypotheses

There are statistically significant differences between the pre and post-tests in the investigated physical tests in favor of the post-test.

Research Fields

• Human field: A sample consisting of (32) fighters of the Iraqi Special Forces.

• Time field: (22/5/2021) to (19/7/2021)

• Spatial field: Training fields at the Iraqi Special Forces School and the Iraqi Special Forces School Dispensary in Baghdad.

Research Methodology and Field Procedures

Research methodology

The researchers used the experimental method by designing a group (one) with two tests, before and after its suitability to the nature of the research problem, as “the experimental method is the deliberate and controlled change of the specific conditions of an accident and the observation of the resulting changes in the accident itself and its interpretation and the reasons that affected it.” (Al-Kazemi. 2012)

Community and sample research

The Research sample consisted of fighters of the Iraqi Special Forces, totaling 250 (fighters) and 32 fighters were selected.

Means, devices and tools used:

• Arab and foreign sources.

• International information network.

• Interview.

• Questionnaires.

• A foreign-made 4-swan type stopwatch.

• Medical scale for measuring height and weight.

• A German-made pressure and pulse meter, type sprints.

• An assistant work team of officers and teachers of the Special Forces.

• A tape measure of 50 meters.

• Field of violent training.

• Whistle.

• Figures of 10.

• Hand-held calculator (Casio).

• Medical scale to measure weight.

• A computer with its accessories.

• stationary

• A smooth wall of not less than 4 m in height.

• Flexibility Bench

• Balance ball

Field Research Procedures

Heavy Duty Training Range Test 2500m Combat Proficiency:

• Test name: Intensive training field (Fitness field) 2500 meters.

• Objective: To measure combat proficiency.

• Equipment: hard training and shooting range, whistle, stopwatch, red flags, white flags, travel equipment.

• Performance description: The fighter runs (2000m) with the full-size travel equipment, weighing (28,750) kg, as follows: They start from the starting line from a standing position by jogging quickly to cover a distance of (2000) meters to reach the first obstacle, the training field and fast jogging towards the obstacles, as follows:

• First: The Burma Bridge Square, 5 meters high and 10 meters deep, up and down. And then travel a distance of (20) meters to

• Second: for a distance of 20 meters towards the second barrier and hanging and running with hands under the stairs, a length of 10 meters and a height of 2 meters

• Third: sprinting for a distance of 20 meters towards the third barrier, which is climbing the monkey, 2 meters high and 10 meters deep.

• Fourth: sprinting for a distance of 20 meters, which is a balance beam with a height of 170 cm and a depth of 10 meters.

• Fifth: Quick sprint after that for a distance of 30 meters towards the fifth barrier, which is a climbing wall 250 cm high.

• Sixth: Run fast for a distance of 30 meters towards the sixth barrier and cross the barrier 150 cm high.

• Seventh: sprinting for a distance of 20 meters towards the seventh barrier for a distance of 20 meters, climbing the net, then hanging with the hands, climbing with the hands and descending from the other side, is 5 meters high.

• Eighth: sprinting for a distance of 20 meters above the tires fixed on the ground for a distance of 10 meters.

• Ninth: Fast running for a distance of 50 meters above the ground (battle trench), the width of the barrier is 4 m, its length is 1 and its depth is 1.5 m.

• Tenth: sprinting for a distance of 25 meters (tyre barrier / crossing the swamp),

• Eleven: sprinting for a distance of 9 m and crossing an obstacle (graded pit) depth of 1 m, length of obstacle 1 m, length of stands 50 cm, width of barrier 40 cm,

• Twelfth: Run fast for a distance of 9 m to the barrier, a moving iron crossbar, 1.25 cm high and 4 m wide.

• Thirteenth: The wall barrier is 2 m high and 4 m wide, and the distance between the twelfth and third is 30 m.

• Fourteenth: Barbed wire barrier, height 50 cm, length 8 m, width 3 m. The distance between the fourteenth and fifth barriers is 15 m.

• Fifteenth: The mana (stabbing hole) 1 m long, 4 m wide, 1 m deep, 10 m between the fifteenth and sixteenth,

• Sixteenth: The tunnel blocker is 4 m wide and 1 m high. There are squares; each square is 1 m wide. The distance between the sixteenth and seventh barriers is 10 m.

• Seventeenth: Barrier (the front of the house) width 4 m, height 4 m, length of the railing 4 m, length of the column of the railing 3 m, the length of the first bench is 1 m, the height of the first bench is 2 m, the length of the second bench is 1 m, the height of the second bench is 1 m, the distance between the column of the railing and between each bench is 1 m.

• Eighteenth: Barrier (Throwing Trench) 3 m long, 150 cm deep, pit width 2 m, height above the ground 1 m

• Nineteenth: the zigzag blocker, the height of the barrier is 1 m, and the zigzag run between the barriers is zigzag.

• Twenty: blockers of different heights, sprinting for a distance of 9 m and passing hurdles 10 m long, 2 m wide, 80 cm high, the first and second 90 cm and the third 100 cm.

• Twenty-one: The obstacle (the spindle barrier) is running fast for a distance of 3 m, crossing the barrier, width of 2 m, length of 1 m, roundabout.

• Twenty-two: wall and porch blocker Fast running for a distance of 9 m, length 1 m, width Twenty-third: Tunnel blocker Fast running to the tunnel barrier for a distance of 9 m, tunnel length 2 m, width 80 cm.

• Twenty-fourth: The tire blocker is 10 m long and 3 m wide. Moulds are installed above the ground.

• Twenty-fifth: The added objection is a water pit or a water swamp, 30 m long and 50 m wide. A rope from crosses it and when passing, the fighter shoots and throws towards the target.

• Recording: Measuring the level of combat proficiency by recording the time in minutes, seconds and tenths of a second from the beginning of the test until the end of the shooting, as well as calculating the launches that hit the target.

Exploratory Experience

An exploratory experiment is a preliminary experimental study carried out by the researcher on a small sample before entering into the procedures that follow this experiment therefore, the reconnaissance experiment was conducted on Saturday, on 17/5/2021, on the Special Forces Arena, and on the sample of (5) fighters (Dictionary of the Arabic Language), without the research sample, to verify the following purposes:

• Validity of devices and tools used in the research

• Adequacy of the work team.

• Obstacles and difficulties facing the researcher and the assistant work team.

• The validity of the field and laboratory tests and their suitability for the research sample.

• The time required to complete the research procedures.

• Avoiding the mistakes that the researcher and the work team face.


The pre-tests for the experimental group were conducted on 05/22/2021 on Saturday at (7) am as follows:

1. The wide jump from stability (explosive force).

2. The bar until the exhaustion of the effort (strength length).

3. Combat adequacy.

4. Cooper ran 2400 meters (measurement of the efficiency of the circulatory and respiratory systems (aerobic endurance) through running.

Main Experiences

Main Program

The researcher prepared special exercises that fit the research sample and the objective of the study, including exercises to raise some of the physical and functional abilities and combat sufficiency of the sample.

The one who works to raise the morale of the fighters mentally, mentally and physically, is based on taking the opinions of experts in sports and military training, in addition to the researcher’s experience as a military.

Implementation of the training curriculum began on (22/5/2021) on Saturday and ended on (19/7/ 2021) on Monday. The curriculum consists of (22) training units per month, i.e. (44) units during the implementation period, performed at a rate of (5-6) Units per week A long week (6) training units from Saturday to Thursday, Friday is a break and a short week (5) training units per week starts from Saturday to Wednesday, or Thursday and Friday is a rest, as the training units are implemented in the morning.

The training unit is performed at (7) until (8.30) for the morning unit, which includes special exercises for (Hiit) for speed of all kinds, strength of all kinds, agility and stamina and using the principle of raising the intensity while reducing the size. Stun and physical training.


The post-tests were conducted after the end of the training period on Wednesday 14/7/2021 at the same time at (7) am - and the same sequence as the pre-tests.

Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

Presentation, Analysis and Discussion of the Results

Presenting the results of the arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the pre and post-tests of the research sample in table 1 (Table 1).

Table 1: Shows the results of the arithmetic mean and standard deviation of the pre and post-tests for the research sample.

tests Pre-test Post-tests
Difference between arithmetic mean
Difference between standard deviations
Type sig
Arithmetic mean
Standard deviation 
Arithmetic mean
Standard deviation 
Illinois Agility 15.975 2.594 12.204 0.657 3.771 0.441 0.000 sig
Flexibility to bend the torso from standing 5.781 5.661 17.031 6.083 11.250 1.023 0.000 sig
Combat efficiency 2500m 22.407 2.287 19.718 2.283 2.689 0.559 0.000 Sig
Significant at the level of significance (n-1) = 31. 

Discussing the results:

By looking at Table 1, we note the significant differences between the pre-test and the post-test of the research sample, and the researcher attributes this to the method used in the intensive training, as the researcher focused during the training period on giving intensive and precise exercises whose impact on the abilities selected in this research and because the fighters need To special, comprehensive motor abilities, but the need is for more elements or abilities than others. Therefore, the work of the curriculum is focused on intensive training in strengthening these motor abilities and combat sufficiency. These exercises were prepared according to accurate scientific foundations and distributed extensively in the right way according to scientific sources and experts in this field. The focus was on some parts of the lower and upper body because the fighter moves a lot and bears the combat burdens of a gun, equipment and other requirements of the battle and military equipment. Therefore, intensive training was prepared that contributes to raising the level of the selected abilities, which are the lower and upper parts of the body, and my test was chosen (Illinois for agility and flexibility, bending the trunk from standing) to show the extent of the development of the selected parts with their motor abilities, and that the most important points of the training curriculum are due to the effectiveness of applying HIIT special exercises to one experimental group in achieving the goal of developing it compared to the previous results in the tables, This confirms the validity of the contents of the proposed program and its effectiveness in influencing the development of kinetic abilities. It has an impact on expanding the range of motion of the fighters in various directions and situations through HIIT exercises that were applied to the fighters. The exercises that expand the range of motion of the fighter are taken from a position that enables him to use the kinetic ability that got with various pictures.

And through stretching, relaxation and bending exercises during the training units, where these HIIT exercises helped the fighters to increase movement in a wide range of injuries as possible, especially the injury of the spine, as the bending exercises helped effectively to strengthen the back muscles and thus gave sufficient flexibility in movement and developed because of the effect of kinetic exercises, HIIT exercises have an impact on developing speed and agility. This is what the test measures. “Agility capabilities are considered to be kinetic abilities, as (Fleishman) put the agility factor among the speed factors, as agility is not more than a factor (speed) with a change of direction. Agility requires a rapid response to changing situations and according to Hara, Larson and Clark, "Agility is one of the components of kinetic fitness, while Bard, Meiji and Jensen emphasized one of the basic components of physical performance" (Abdel-Khaleq. 1999.).

Also, the significant differences in the variable running (2500 m) with travel equipment weighing (28,750) kg to the proposed training curriculum made a clear and very large development in battle fitness through the development of skillful and combative physical training and the difficulty of training doses through intensity and size, and he tried The researcher is to be hard on these fighters, whether in the implementation of training units or through the implementation of kinetic, skill and combat tests, as they do not become easy prey in the hands of those who do not have mercy on them "Light training means lavishing the soldiers and providing all their needs that they ask for, and it will affect the soldiers’ fear and will lead to their death indirectly"( Herbert).

The researchers believe that the daily combined exercises and under the supervision of a number of qualified physical training teachers, which are carried out using weights in a gradual manner and training at distances similar to the test, as well as the emphasis on developing speed at this distance, as the distance is (2500 meters) of the distances with medium length as well as the The development of the force scale according to the form and purpose of its use in the battle, i.e. the load to achieve the harmonious weight of the military equipment on the members and devices of the body, and David stresses that the soldiers are required to carry weights or realistic loads in the field, which are the same loads they are supposed to carry in real war situations, not It is correct to leave some equipment at the back, and they must be physically fit to carry this equipment which they are expected to use during combat and to walk with it for long distances marched with all their equipment (Crane. 1981).

Conclusions and Recommendations


The researchers reached the following conclusions:-

• The emergence of a noticeable change in the capabilities of the Special Forces, because of the use of concentrated training on some of the physical capabilities of the fighters, and their improvement as a result of the careful use of stress and restraint on the members of the research sample.

• The (Hiit) training has improved the level of actual performance during the daily battles and incursions training, through in-kind observation of the fighters.

• The proposed training curriculum has a moral and mobilization effect in developing combat competence. The fighter needs all the elements that help him to bear the burdens of the tasks he is assigned to, as he is fighting the fiercest task on earth, which is entering the difficult battles.


• To benefit as much as possible from the proposed training curriculum prepared for Special Forces fighters.

• Using the HIIT training method in developing the physical fitness of fighters.

• Incorporating combat exercises and skill performance into the training programs and placing special units for them within the programmes.

• The need to open specialized training courses for teachers on an ongoing basis to find

• Specialized teachers.

• Conducting similar field research in this field to benefit as much as possible from these fighters and to bring them to a high level of combat proficiency.

• The introduction of the proposed curriculum within the training curricula of the armed forces, as it has proven to have a significant impact in developing combat competence.


Dhafer Hashem Al-Kazemi. 2012. Practical applications of writing educational and psychological letters and thesis, Baghdad, Dar al-Kutub and Documents, p. 173.

Dictionary of the Arabic Language, Dictionary of Psychology and Education, Cairo, 1st Edition, Part 1, General Authority for Amiri Press Affairs, 1984 p. 74

Essam Abdel-Khaleq. 1999. Sports Training, Theories-Applications, 9th Edition, (Alexandria), p. 169.

Herbert.A.Deveise.Physiology of ,Exercise,3su,ed,Brown,Compuny,Printed in .U.S.A.A.P.171.

David E. Crane. 1981. Basic Principles of Infantry Fighting and Survival in Battle, (Translation) Ramzi Abdul Majeed, Military Magazine, Volume 1, January, p. 303-207, Ministry of Defense - Combat Development Directorate, Baghdad.