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The Effect of the Mobile Correspondent Strategy on Positive Thinking and Learning the Skill of Receiving Serve among High School Students

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

2021 Conference Announcement - (2024) Volume 9, Issue 7

The Effect of the Mobile Correspondent Strategy on Positive Thinking and Learning the Skill of Receiving Serve among High School Students

Haneen Maysam abbass Al-Sade1* and NajlaaAbbas AL-Zuhairi2
*Correspondence: Haneen Maysam abbass Al-Sade, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
1College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences for Woman, University of Baghdad, Iraq

Received: 26-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. jbbs-23-87910; Editor assigned: 28-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. P-87910; Reviewed: 12-Oct-2022, QC No. Q-87910; Revised: 18-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. R-87910; Published: 26-Oct-2022
Citation: Imbalzano, Marco. ‚??Making Use of Machine Learning Algorithms for Multimodal Equipment to Assist in COVID-19's Assessment.‚?Ě J Bioengineer & Biomedical Sci 12 (2022): 325.
Copyright: © 2022 Imbalzano M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Sources of funding : 1

Abstract

1

Keywords

Mobile correspondent strategy. Positive thinking

Introduction

The game of volleyball is one of the games that is in continuous development in terms of skill or planning and needs to keep pace with and develop all interrelated sports sciences in order to develop and develop this effectiveness. Among these important sciences in education, development and improvement of the effectiveness of volleyball are teaching methods, strategies and methods used and modern that work to raise The level of technical performance and the development and development of attitudes and inclinations and build the personality of the learners through a set of strategies as success in the teaching process as indicated by (Jinan Sakr, Naglaa Abbas:2021) to achieve the required goals requires the adoption of regular and elaborate planning, as educators and teachers or teachers must have extensive knowledge of all its different aspects, so if we can provide useful strategies, models, methods and teaching resources, then this It can provide a new opportunity for educators to develop different aspects of students, such as the physical, skillful and psychological aspects.

Among these strategies is the mobile correspondent strategy, as it achieved content through the change in behavior resulting from learning. The mobile correspondent strategy confirms that the student is the focus of the educational process, and in it, most of the decisions are serve from the teacher to the student. More effective as a result of building new learning based on previous knowledge and experiences of the learner and linking them with new information. decision-making and group competition between other groups, developing learners' abilities and avoiding boredom, and competition between the group is considered a touchstone for evaluating the group by the teacher at the end of the educational unit. Which the teaching profession imposes on the shoulders of the teacher, and this is one of the most important goals of modern teaching strategies that seek to make the teaching process a joint process between its two poles, the student and the teacher. This is what she referred to (Sahab Ismail, Naglaa Abbas: 2022). The teaching process is considered the cornerstone of the desired behavior of individuals and the acquisition of knowledge, values, habits and other patterns of behavior, as the preparation process for teaching focuses on two complementary aspects: the theoretical side, the study theory, and the practical side that makes the student a teacher, in direct confrontation with reality, and puts his skills in the test of experience, As practical education is a real opportunity for learners to experience the educational process and practice the various teaching skills that they need to improve their performance) that all individuals, whether players or students, need to constantly use a certain type of thinking during the learning process to direct this process in the right direction where (Lama Samir and Zeina Hassoun: 2022) indicate that despite the efforts made by educational institutions and the quantitative and qualitative changes that have taken place in them, their educational programs, activities and methods are still relatively short of developing sound thinking methods among our students, and their programs and evaluation methods still depend on teaching facts. Therefore, we find that many students do not think well, not because they lack intelligence or lack mental ability, but rather they did not learn good thinking skills and did not receive good and correct guidance or the necessary training for it. Therefore, attention must be paid to teaching methods that stimulate thinking. One of the important types of thinking is positive thinking. The most important stages that physical education teachers should focus on in the teaching process are the initial stages of teaching in schools, whether they are primary or secondary schools, because students in these age stages need educational lessons that reinforce values, constants, and correct practices in them, in addition to promoting all the desirable qualities in their personalities. To create a conscious generation capable of serving the community and perhaps the most prominent of these lessons is the lesson of physical education, through which we can develop different and correct concepts in the hearts and personalities of our students this is consistent with the opinion of (Shahd Faiq, Iqbal Abdul Hussain: 2022). Where they indicated that schools are a dyeing field for the development of concepts, where their abilities grow and they are able to influence, direct, shape and determine their future directions, hence the importance of research based on the strategy of the mobile correspondent in positive thinking and learning the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball down to the correct performance to achieve the main goal from research.

Research Problem

The problem of the research lies in looking at previous studies and the observation of the two researchers for the lesson of sports in secondary schools and they found that there is a weakness in the performance of the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball. The researchers attribute the reason for this weakness to the difficulty of receiving the transmission skill, which needs to employ all the means, methods and methods that facilitate the learning process and make the education process a fruitful process. Hence, the researchers resorted to experimenting with a new strategy, which is the mobile correspondent strategy, to try to find a strategy that facilitates the learning process in addition to this. Try to identify the effect of a strategy on positive thinking.

Research objective

1. Preparing a positive thinking scale for the skill of serve reception for high school students.

2. Preparing educational units with the mobile correspondent strategy to learn the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball for high school students.

3. Identifying the impact of the mobile correspondent strategy on positive thinking and learning the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball for high school students.

Research hypotheses

• There are no statistically significant differences between the pre and post results of the positive thinking scale and the skill of receiving transmission for the control and experimental groups.

• There are no statistically significant differences between the postresults of the positive thinking scale and the skill of receiving transmission, the control and experimental research groups.

Research fields

• Human field: It is represented by the students of the Literary Fifth of Al-Maymoon Preparatory School for Boys in Wasit Governorate (Al-Kut Center) • Time field: (27/2/2022) to (3/4/2023)

• Spatial field: The school's outdoor area

Research Methodology and Field Procedures

Research methodology

Choosing the appropriate approach with the nature of the research problem and its objectives is one of the necessary requirements in scientific research. Therefore, the two researchers used the experimental approach in the style of the control and experimental groups (with pre and post-test) to suit the research problem as well as the experimental approach. This is indicated by (Ahmed Yahya: 2000: 173) and confirmed by (Malath Haider: 2018:62) is “the method through which we control an independent variable (or variables), and we note the effect of this control on a dependent variable or variables.”

Community and sample research

The research community is represented by the students of the fifth literary grade in Al-Maymoon Preparatory School for Boys for the academic year (2021_2022), whose number is (85) students distributed to (4) divisions, and based on the requirements of the study, the sample for preparing the scale was represented by (40) students of Division (A.C) with a percentage of (47.5%) of the research community. The sample of the main experiment was chosen randomly and numbered (24). Students with a percentage of (28.2%) of the students of Division (B) were divided into the experimental research sample (12) students with a percentage of (14.2%) and the control (12) students with a percentage of (14.2%), while the exploratory research sample amounted to (10) students from Division ( d) at a rate of (11.7%).

Devices, tools and means used in the research experiment

• Volleyball court of legal sizes.

• One (1) camera stand.

• Colored adhesive tape (5) cm wide.

• video camera (z5)

• Volleyballs

• Compact discs (CD) number (3).

• Referee's whistle

Field research procedures

In line with the number of units of the weekly physical education subject allocated to the students of the literary fifth in Al-Maymoon Preparatory School for Boys in Wasit Governorate, the two researchers also relied on conducting a technical performance test, the skill of receiving the transmission with the hands from the bottom, which was used by each of (Hamadullah Abid, 2019:11). Haneen & Muna, 2021: 4) Saaea & Dr Luma, 2020: 4)) The registration conditions for each of the tests were the evaluation of the performance tested by the experts, and the score is distributed as follows: Preparatory section: its score (3), the main section: its score (5), the closing section: its score (2) If the two researchers applied the test, photographed it and presented it to (3) evaluators.

Measure of positive thinking

After reviewing many studies and researches, the two researchers prepared the Positive Thinking Scale based on (Assaad Mohieddin: 2015) consisting of (28) items. The paragraphs of the positive thinking scale amounting to (15), and after collecting the forms and analyzing the opinions of specialists using the chis quare, which confirmed the validity of (26) items because the calculated chisquare value is greater than the tabular value of (3.84) at a degree of freedom (1) and below the level of significance (0.05) The scale became composed of (26) items. The survey experiment of the scale was conducted on a sample consisting of (10) students in the classroom at the school. The experiment achieved the time it takes to answer the scale items is (5_10) minutes, and the instructions were clear and understandable. The scale on the preparation sample After completing all preparation procedures on a sample of 40 students on 27/2/2022, our researcher made a correction based on the total score of the scale because the scale depends on two alternatives for the answer, where the marking is either (a) or (b), To correct, the researchers used the correction key, which gives the answer to the positive paragraphs one degree, while the answer to the negative paragraph is zero degrees, and collects the degrees resulting from the answer to the paragraphs of the scale amounting to (26) paragraphs, so the total score for the scale is (26) degrees, while the mean is (13) degrees by collecting the highest score for scale 26 and the smallest score for scale zero, and dividing its total by two. The scale also requires a statement of discriminating ability for the scale. The scores obtained by the students for each paragraph were arranged in descending order, and the ratio (33%) was chosen for the upper group and (33%) for the upper group. The minimum and the exclusion of the high, as the sample in each group reached 13 students, and the coefficient of excellence is also required for each paragraph of the scale paragraphs, which numbered 26 paragraphs, as (0.30_0.70) was adopted as a test for testing the paragraphs within IPL standards, whenever the value of the discrimination coefficient for the paragraph ranged within (0.30-0.70). It was in terms of quality, and then the internal consistency of the paragraph with the total score of the field as a whole was verified by the simple Pearson correlation coefficient for all members of the sample of 40 students, where we found the correlation coefficients are different and when compared to the tabular value of the correlation coefficient it was found that the values of (26) paragraphs of The paragraphs are statistically significant and were accepted from the (26) scale paragraphs the two researchers verified the validity of the content of the scale that was presented to a group of experts and specialists in sports psychology, test and measurement, and volleyball, and after analyzing the responses of (15) from the opinions of experts and specialists using the chisquare and the calculated T-square value of all the paragraphs and comparing them with the tabular value (3.84). At a degree of freedom (1) and a level of significance (0.05), which confirmed the validity of all items of the scale for high school students, the two researchers verified the stability of the scale using the half-partition method, even and odd paragraphs. The value of the Pearson correlation coefficient was (0.76), in order to obtain the extracted correlation coefficient, which means stability for half of the scale only, and in order to obtain complete stability of the scale, the researchers applied the equation (Spearman's correlation coefficient), and thus the value of the stability coefficient of the scale reached (0.86), which is a high indicator of the stability of the scale. The stability coefficient calculated in this way represents the homogeneity of the items. That is, the two researchers applied the consistency of performance on all items of the test, and the (Queder Richardson) equation. The value of the stability coefficient calculated in this way was (0.82), which is a high indicator of the stability of the scale.

Exploratory experience

The two researchers conducted a pilot experiment on (10) students from the research community itself and outside the main sample before starting the tests in Al-Maymoon Preparatory School for Boys, in order to avoid mistakes.

Pre-test

A test for the positive thinking scale and the technical performance test for the skill of receiving the transmission was conducted on Sunday corresponding to (27.2.2022) in Al-Maimoun Preparatory School for Boys.

Method of Work Strategy

After reviewing the sources, the two researchers prepared educational units using the mobile correspondent strategy, and the implementation period was (8) educational units from (6/3/ 2022) until (30/3/2022), with two educational units per week, and it was on (Sunday and Wednesday), and the time of the educational unit was (45) minutes divided into three preparatory sections and its time is (10) minutes. It consists of an introduction, a general warm-up and physical exercises. The main section has a time of (30) minutes and is divided into two sides, the educational side and the applied side. As for the closing section, its time is (5) minutes. The role of the school is to divide the class. To (4) groups and each group defines a reporter for it and it is a variable in each educational unit. It is obligatory to move between the groups where the teacher is on the educational side showing a poster explaining the technical performance of the skill of receiving the transmission and performing in front of the students and the reporter records the notes in the assignment sheet, but on the side Applied Exercise The groups perform the exercises and the correspondent moves to the other groups after each exercise and records the positive and negative points in the assignment sheet and returns to his group and teaches them to perform and provides feedback to his group and so on with the rest of the exercises, and in the closing part the teacher evaluates the best group and praises them and then goes into the line.

Post-test

The post-tests were conducted by the two researchers on Wednesday (3/4/2022) in the same temporal and spatial conditions, and after the completion of the main experiment, the results of the data were processed using the spss social statistical bag system to extract the results reached by the two researchers.

Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

Results and Discussion

Discussion

Table (2) shows that there are significant differences between the pre and post tests in positive thinking and technical performance of the skill of receiving the transmission and for all the two groups, where the researchers attribute the reason for the emergence of the difference between the experimental group over the control group is the strategy and its role in acquiring information and the interaction of students in the lesson and taking into account individual differences and this What was confirmed by (Hind Obaid and Hoda Abdel Samie: 2004) "The participation of students in the lesson helps them to gain experiences and information about skillful performance according to their interaction in the educational unit and the exchange of experiences among them."

Table 1: Shows the pre and post-test for the control and experimental groups

Groups variables Pre Post T value Level sig Type sig
Arithmetic mean Standard deviation Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
Control Positive thinking 14.43 2.30 18.06 1.84 6.21 0.000 sig
Serve receiving
skill
6.25 0.45 7.26 0.45 5.76 0.000 sig
Experimental Positive thinking 14.25 1.19 22.25 1.06 18.27 0.000 sig
Serve receiving
skill
6.41 0.51 8.83 0.83 10.55 0.000 sig
The unit of measure is significant at the error level (0.05).

Table 2: Shows the results of the post-tests for the experimental and control groups.

variables Experimental Control T value Level sig Type sig
Arithmetic mean Standard deviation Arithmetic mean Standard deviation
Positive thinking 18.06 1.84 22.25 1.06 7.87 0.000 sig
Serve receiving skill 8.83 0.83 7.28 0.45 5.64 0.000 sig
Unit of measurement (degree) Significance of differences (0.05) degree (sig) less than (0.05) degree of freedom n-2 (22).

The researchers attribute that students' learning in groups improves skills, develops performance, clarifies mistakes, helps continuous guidance, generates ideas and discusses them, and increases knowledge by dividing students into groups and forming social relationships among them, cooperating in harmony and exchanging opinions, and this is confirmed by (Shahd Faiq and Iqbal Abdul Hussain: 5:2022) and (Basma Naeem:2010) Quoted from (Abdullah Hassan:2005) Caring for the learner and making him the focus of the educational process and the center of activity, respecting his abilities and opinions, and overwhelming him with acceptance, kindness and encouragement is an important factor that helps in learning.” (Ghada Ibrahim confirmed: 2022) learning the skill within groups has a positive contribution to achieving goals and mastering the skill between him and his colleagues, and learning according to the mobile correspondent strategy increased the decision-making ability of the learners, as the player or student’s possession of this ability is very important in the game of volleyball, and this is what she referred to (Malath Haider, Dr. Naglaa Abbas: 2021) where you see that making the right decisions in the game of volleyball is one of the most important aspects that a player has. Making the student the focus of the educational process. This is the first goal of the mobile reporter's strategy, which came in agreement with Ray (Dania Salman and Shaima Jaafar:2022) Which confirmed that when the player is the focus of the educational process and gives him the freedom to express his opinion without fear or hesitation, this is positively reflected in the generation and discussion of ideas and opens the way for him to deep understanding and thus improves his level of performance of skills and contributes to increasing the knowledge of the player and increasing the knowledge structure and increasing his ability to use Experiences in the situations they face. Giving them feedback had a positive effect on forming the correct performance, stimulating motivation, and saving time and effort, as learning any skill requires focus and attention of the students by the teacher, and this is what he referred to (Adnan Suleiman Zaytoun and Fawaz Al-Abdullah. 2008) "Feedback is defined as the process that aims to provide the learner with direct learning results so that in light of it he can correct his learning paths and thus improve his learning outcomes. The learner's knowledge of the results of his learning is a motivation for him to focus and continue to master learning and good comprehension and understanding. The researchers believe that the use of exercises that It depended on the gradation from easy to difficult in learning, which led to the development of skill and the development of positive thinking among the members of the experimental research group, and this is what I refer to (Muhammad Yasser Dabour. 1997) "The learner, once he knows how to apply the skills and return them correctly, leads to increased success and raises the level of ambition, so the previous response is strengthened and the probability of its occurrence increases. It also works to increase the individual's information about the situation, so he tries to avoid the mistakes he made and adjusts the method until he heads in the right direction." In addition to the evaluation that is at the end of the educational unit, it had a role in the learning process, as we find it necessary for the success of learning and improving performance and making it developed because it shows the imbalance in performance and corrects the educational path, and this is what he referred to (Loay Al-Sumaidaie: 2010) (Fatima Naim and Aseel Jalil:2023) “Evaluation is a continuous process for measuring learning outcomes and aims to improve the purposes and content of the learning process and ensure that the desired goals are achieved.”

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions

• Achieving the construction of a positive thinking scale for the skill of receiving serve in volleyball for the students of the second stage in the Department of Physical Education and Sports Sciences.

• The ease of applying the positive thinking scale for the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball for the students of the second stage.

• There is an effect of the mobile correspondent strategy on the skill of receiving the transmission for the students of the second stage

• The members of the experimental group outperformed the control group in positive thinking and performing the transmit reception skill.

Recommendations

• Urging the teaching staff to rely on the mobile correspondent strategy.

• Need to adopt the lateral thinking scale of the current study on other samples of students of both sexes and to know the difference between them in volleyball and in other activities.

• It is preferable to use the mobile correspondent strategy, as it includes the learning of many students and their access to a good stage of learning,

• Permanent diversification by using exercises to increase students' desire and impulsiveness to learn.

• Conducting research and other studies to compare the strategy of the mobile reporter with other strategies, or with various other methods to see their impact on positive thinking.

Appendix 1: Shows the paragraphs of the positive thinking scale.
No. Paragraphs
1 When he outperforms my colleague in performing the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball, I: A- I feel frustrated and unable to overcome it
B_ I feel that I can surpass them through perseverance and effort
2 Always feel when performing skill
A_I find it difficult to face the variables that occur during the performance B _ I can face any variables and benefit from them
3 When the school asks me to perform a skill, I: A: I don't care if my performance is good or not
B_ I think about the necessity of presenting my best level
4 I always think:
A_ My inability to perform the skill of receiving the transmission B- I have the ability to perform the skill even if it is difficult
5 I feel Ali:
A- Make every effort to learn the skill of receiving the transmission
B_ Performing what is required of me in performing the skill only
6 Describe things:
A _ the ability to learn and acquire the skill of students B _ the inability to learn and acquire the skill of students
7 always feel:
A_ With guilt when I fail to perform the skill of receiving the transmission
B_ I do not blame myself too much, and consider the mistake as the beginning of learning the skill of receiving the transmission
8 I see:
A- Fully attentive to my rights and duties in the lesson while learning the skill of receiving the transmission
B_ I find it difficult to learn the skill of receiving serve
9 My fellow students describe me as:
A- A responsible person who counts on performing the skill of receiving the transmission
B_ A person who is dependent and does not depend on him when learning the skill of receiving the transmission
10 When I encounter a specific problem when learning the skill of receiving the transmission, I: A- I face it and try to find a solution to it
B_ I ignore it and forget about it until I find a way to solve it
11 When the teacher asks me to perform the skill of receiving the transmission in front of my classmates, I: A-
I feel anxious and stressed about my inability to perform the skill properly B_ I feel confident and able to perform the skill correctly
12 I am a student known for:
A_ I am distinguished by diligence and perseverance while learning the skill of receiving serve
B_ Quick to surrender when I find it difficult to learn the skill of receiving the serve in volleyball
13 When a teacher asks me for an opinion, I:
A_ I express my opinion frankly and at all times
B_ I find it difficult to express my opinion honestly
14 My life matters.
A- Even if I didn't achieve everything I aspired to
B _ when it is full of achievement and ambition
15 My fellow students describe me as:
A_ patient when learning the skill of receiving the transmission
B_ I lose my patience easily while learning the skill and being exposed to situations
16 I always feel:
A_ Indifference, as my classmates accuse me of being selfish when learning the skill of receiving serve in a lesson
B_ I was upset because my classmates accused me of being selfish when learning the skill of receiving
serve in a lesson
17 When I get angry, I:
A_ I find it difficult to distinguish between true and false in learning the skill of receiving serve
B_ I realize what I am doing with full awareness when learning the skill of receiving transmission
18 When some of my colleagues hold wrong ideas about me, I:
A- Work on changing ideas when learning the skill of receiving transmission
B_ I don't care about it when learning the skill
19 Failure experiences when learning the skill of receiving transmission represent to me: A- A lesson from which I draw lessons for a better tomorrow
B _ unhappiness and pain
20 I imagine that the level of my performance of the skill of receiving the serve at the end of the semester: A: It gets much better
B - never change
21 I see that my fellow students:
A- Most of them are cooperative when learning the skill of serve reception
B- Most of them are not cooperative when learning the skill
22 Competition during the lesson when learning the skill of receiving the transmission represents to me: A - a positive aspect of self-realization
B _ a negative aspect that hinders the achievement of goals
23 I think that the way to succeed in learning the skill of receiving the transmission is:
A-Learning and earnest
b_luck
24 To perform the skill of receiving the transmitter correctly, I: A_ I rely on my experiences and my ability to learn the skill
B_ He relied on chance to learn the skill of receiving the transmission
25 I:
A- I am able to stop myself from continuing to get angry while learning the skill of receiving messages
B- I can't stop myself if someone got angry while learning the skill of receiving the transmission
26 I see that adhering to the teacher's instructions when learning the skill of receiving the transmission: A_ Restrict the freedom of the student and make learning the skill boring
B_ It helps the student to learn the skill of receiving the transmission correctly

Appendix 2: explains the correction key for the positive thinking scale, showing the answers that indicate the presence of positive thinking.

No. 1 Zero
1 B A
2 B A
3 B A
4 A B
5 A B
6 A B
7 B A
8 A B
9 A B
10 A B
11 A B
12 A B
13 A B
14 B A
15 B A
16 A B
17 A B
18 A B
19 A B
20 A B
21 A B
22 A B
23 B A
24 A B
25 A B
26 B A

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