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The Effect of Using the Reciprocal Method and the Additional Duties on Learning some Basic Football Skills for Students

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 2

The Effect of Using the Reciprocal Method and the Additional Duties on Learning some Basic Football Skills for Students


*Correspondence: Basim Naji Abdulhussein, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Kufa, Iraq, Email:
1Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Kufa, Iraq

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify the effect of using the reciprocal method with additional duties in learning some basic football skills. The research sample was chosen in a deliberate way from students of the second stage average. The research aims to identify the effect of using the two reciprocal methods with additional duties in learning some basic football skills. The two experimental groups used the same curriculum in terms of the number of educational units for each skill. Then the researcher used the appropriate statistical means to reach the accurate results using the statistical package (spss).

Then the researcher presented the results, analyzed and discussed them, in which the arithmetic means and standard deviations were presented and the results were put into tables and then analyzed and discussed the results in an accurate scientific manner. The most important conclusions and recommendations reached by the researchers: The group that learned by the reciprocal method achieved an improvement in learning most of the skills in soccer than the group that learned by the additional homework method. Directing the attention of teachers and coaches in the sports field by using the reciprocal method as a means of learning basic football skills respectively.

Keywords

Football skills. Sports activities. Implementation

Introduction

Recent years have witnessed scientific progress that covered all areas of life, including the fields of physical education. The level of performance in various sports activities increased as a result of studies and scientific research methods and the development of methods, devices and auxiliary tools in order to reach the best levels.

The educational process is based on an important goal, which is the transfer of knowledge and information from the teacher to the student in the appropriate way. A good teacher is the one who can diversify the use of different methods and methods and provide everything that is modern in his field to raise the state of boredom and boredom that accompanies the student while teaching skills at this stage. age and resulting from his use of a unified method for all students, as we know that the student is greatly affected by the methods and methods followed by the teacher, and that “teaching is a series of decision-making aimed at translating the educational goal into situations and experience with which the student interacts and acquires behavior through methods, teaching strategies and means.” Different methods used by the teacher, and they refer to what happened from the students’ learning. Therefore, the teaching evaluation depends on the extent of its impact on the students by acquiring information and experiences from the teacher to the student in any way or manner” (Moston. 1981).

Football is one of the games that depends in achieving the goals on the element of challenge and competition, it has received great attention to raise the level of technical performance, and that this level may lead to the success of the educational process. Fulfillment of duty and excellence in performance. The method of additional duties is also one of the modern teaching methods in which the teacher prepares and equips some skills and games related to the basic skill to be learned in the educational unit and places them in the parts where he feels that the students are not performing their activity and wait for their turn to perform the skill and the students perform this additional duty in the prepared activity advance from the teacher. Therefore, the importance of the research lies in using modern teaching methods (the reciprocal method and the additional homework method) and knowing the extent of the effectiveness of each of them on the teaching process with regard to reducing the lost time from the time-space to practice lesson activities as a result of waiting for students to take their turn in

Research problem

Football is one of the team sports included in the curriculum in the Ministry of Education. It includes a set of skills that the student is required to learn, and in light of the field researcher’s knowledge that he is a teacher, that the teaching methods used in school activities and physical education colleges for universities in Iraq may not be compatible with the needs of Learners and their requirements at this age stage, as well as for its inclusion of some aspects of the deficiency in the executive components of the lesson with regard to reducing the time lost from the time period for practicing lesson activities as a result of students waiting to take their role in the actual practice of the activity and the negative effects on the level of inclination and desire for the lesson.

Despite the increasing importance of the two methods of exchange and additional duties at the level of research and development, the current reality, through a preliminary survey conducted by the researchers, indicates a lack of real interest in the positive aspects of these methods.

Therefore, after reviewing many references and studies in the field of physical education in general and in the field of teaching methods, and in particular, the researchers decided to try my reciprocal style and additional duties in teaching to restore activity and vitality in the lesson and learn basic football skills for students

Research objective

- Recognizing the effect of the reciprocal method in learning some basic football skills for students.

- Recognizing the effect of the extra homework method, and learning some basic football skills for students.

- Recognizing the advantage of influencing either of the two methods in learning some basic football skills for students.

Research hypotheses

- There is a positive effect of the reciprocal method in learning some basic football skills for students

- There is a positive effect of the additional homework method in learning some basic football skills for students.

- There are significant differences for the use of the reciprocal methods and additional duties in developing and learning some basic football skills for students.

Research fields

- Human field: Baghdad Intermediate School for Boys / Najaf Education - Time field: (16/10/2021) to (11/1/2022)

- Spatial field: outdoor arena in Baghdad Intermediate School for Boys

Research methodology and field procedures

Research Methodology

The experimental method was used for its suitability in solving the research problem

Community and sample research

It means the model on which the researcher conducts the entirety and focus of his work (the objectives and procedures of the research used by the researcher determine the nature of the sample that he will choose, which represents the study community

Therefore, the researchers chose the sample by the intentional method, and they are the second-grade students in the Baghdad average for boys. The research sample consisted of two divisions (A - B). The 30 students were chosen at random if (15 students) were chosen from Division A to represent the first group that used the method. The exchange and (15 students) from Division B to represent the second group, which uses the method of additional duties, and for the purpose of homogeneity, 6 students were excluded from the research group due to absence and disease, and thus the research sample became 24 students as shown in Table (1).

Table 1: Shows the number of members of the two research groups and the teaching method used.

Division name Groups Teaching  style Total   number Unlikely Number  of the sample
A First  group Reciprocal 15 3 12
B Second  group Additional duties 15 3 12
Total     30 6 24

For the purposes of homogeneity and equivalence between the two research groups in the variables of age, height and weight, and in order for the researcher to return the difference to the experimental factor, the two research groups must be equivalent and homogeneous in the variables that are related to the research and which are followed by an effect on the variable under study. The process of equivalence and homogeneity between the two research groups was carried out to adjust the variables of height, age and weight, as shown in Table (2).

Table 2: Shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the computed value of (T) for two group’s research in the variables of weight, age and length.

Variables Measuring unit First  experimental group Second   experimental group T value calculated
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
Age Year 15 14,70 16 15.72 1,82
Length Cm 16,56 157,15 18,30 159,23 0,194
Wight Kg 7,35 45,47 6,26 48,37 0,561

Note that the value of (table t) is (2.11) at a degree of freedom (17) and at a level of significance (0.05) greater than the value of (calculated t), and this indicates the equality of the two research groups and there are no statistically significant differences as shown in Table (2) For the purpose of achieving parity between the two research groups in some basic football skills that were identified as shown in Table (3).

Note that the value of (tabular t) is (1.74) at a degree of freedom (17) and at a level of significance (0.05) greater than the value of (calculated t), and this indicates the equality of the two research groups and there are no statistically significant differences as shown in Table (3). Means of collecting information:

Table 3: Shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, and the (calculated t) value of the two research groups in some basic football skills covered by the research.

Variables Measuring unit First  group Second  group T value calculated
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
Rolling a second 27,61 2,09 27,18 1,98 0,47
put out Degree 4,62 1,27 3,91 1,35 1,20
control number 13,50 2,50 11,82 4,27 1,05
short passing points 15,22 3,12 4,15 3,61 0,46
long passing points 6,79 2,22 6,20 2,05 0,56

- Arab and foreign sources

- Registration and data dump forms

- Personal interviews for the listed experts and specialists

- The International Information Network (Internet)

- Tests and measurements

- 3-3-2 Tools used in the research:

- Textile tape measure (linen)

- stopwatch

- Ropes to divide the goal for testing

- Legal footballs by weight and circumference

- Burke to plan the stadium

- colored pencils

- Whistle type (Fox)

- Plastic poles (flags)

- Legal football fields

Exploratory experience:

For the purpose of identifying accurate and reliable results and to know the obstacles facing the researcher when carrying out the main experiment, the researcher with the assistant work team conducted an exploratory experiment on (23/10/2021) at nine in the morning on a sample other than the research sample numbering (15) students who were not included in the main experiment and from the same The research community and the aim of which was:

- Knowing the difficulty and ease of the test.

- Knowing the errors that may occur during the implementation of the learning curriculum.

- Knowing the suitability of these tests to the performance of the sample.

- Knowing the adequacy of the assistant work team and its training.

- Ensure that the place is suitable for carrying out the test.

- Knowing the time taken for the examinations concerned with the research.

The exploratory experience showed the following:

• Appropriateness of equipment and tools used in the tests.

• Validity of the selected tests that we were able to apply the vocabulary of the tests used on the research sample

• The adequacy of the assistants in performing their task while conducting the tests.

Pre-tests

Pre tests were conducted for the sample of the two researchers in Baghdad Intermediate School for Boys in Najaf Governorate, at nine o'clock in the morning.

Main experience (curriculum)

Educational Units

The curriculum included (20) educational units distributed over 5 basic football skills, and 4 lessons were allocated for each skill. The instructional time for each skill amounted to (180) minutes. The total time for each of the two research groups was (900 minutes) approximately (15) hours. The period of the educational curriculum was from (30/10/2021) and in the two teaching methods (reciprocal and additional duties), noting that the time for a physical education lesson (45 minutes) in this curriculum is divided into the following:

- 10 minutes preparatory part (warm-up)

- 30 minutes main part (application of the educational curriculum)

- 5 minutes concluding part (calm down and leave)

When preparing the educational curriculum, the researchers took into account the following:

(That the exercises are appropriate to the level of the sample. The gradation in the sequence of exercises in terms of difficulty. The use of exercises that contain competition. That the exercises achieve the maximum extent possible of their purposes. What is to be learned and the number of educational units, as well as specifying the time of one educational unit).

In order to ensure the safety of the application of the educational units by the method (reciprocal and additional duties), they were presented to experts and specialists in the field of football and teaching methods in order to ensure that:

(Timing division of the parts of the educational unit as well as the time of each exercise. Suitability of the content of the educational methods to the level of the sample. Formulating the text of each exercise so that it expresses the content of the exercise in an easy linguistic style. Suitability of the exercises to the objectives set. The sequence of exercises according to their difficulty).

Steps to implement the educational units

Pre-tests were conducted for the skills used in the research and for the experimental groups, and the educational curriculum was implemented on students of the second intermediate school stage. By a specialized teacher and under the direct supervision of the researchers, the two methods (reciprocal and additional duties) were applied to the experimental groups.

The researchers followed the following steps in implementing the educational units:

- Before starting the application of the educational units, an educational unit was given to the students to get an idea of the educational method and how to implement the work.

- General and private warm-up, and it is the same for experimental groups.

- Giving the same educational material to the experimental groups (reciprocal and additional assignments).

- Using the methods under study in teaching the skill of scoring addressed in the research, but the difference in the method used is my agency:

• The members of the first experimental group learned the selected skills according to the reciprocal method.

• The members of the second experimental group learned the selected skills according to the additional duties

• Explanation of the skill to be learned by the subject's teacher in the same way for the two groups.

• Using more than one educational means to deliver the material to the learner. Using the following means

- Presentation of the live model by the subject teacher.

- Teacher asks some questions to the students to indicate the extent of their preparation for the lesson, as well as allowing the students to ask questions after explaining and performing the skill to be learned by the subject teacher and the experimental groups.

- Each educational unit contains exercises graded in difficulty.

- Begin applying the exercises given by the subject teacher.

- Giving students an opportunity to perform appropriate repetitions within the time allowed for each exercise.

- During the exercises, the teacher supervises the performance of the students and the two groups.

- Moving from one exercise to another at the instruction of the subject teacher.

- After the end of each exercise, a discussion is held between the students and the instructor to show the extent to which they are able to perform the exercise and reach the required level.

- The curriculum (educational units) was completed on (30/12/2022).

Post-test

Post-test was conducted on the members of the research sample after completing the implementation of the educational units on (2/1/2022). For the two methods (reciprocal and additional duties) and on the medium canned Baghdad / Najaf Governorate. In addition, under direct supervision by the researchers, in order to measure the amount of progress achieved by the learners in the two experimental groups. And then knowing the effect of the educational units using the method (reciprocal and additional duties) in learning the basic skills of football, the researchers were keen to create similar conditions for the pre and post-tests in terms of (place - time - auxiliary work team - devices and tools used) for the purpose of obtaining accurate results.

Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

Presentation and discussion of results

Presentation the results

It is clear from the results that appeared in Table (4) that the statistical differences were in favor of the post-test because all the calculated t values were greater than the tabular t value, which indicates the existence of significant differences between the pre and post-tests and in favor of the reciprocal method group, which fulfills the research hypothesis, noting that Tabular T value at a degree of freedom of 8 and at a level of significance (0.05)

Table 4: Shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations and (t) value calculated in the pre and post-tests of the group by the reciprocal method in some basic football skills.

Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test T value calculated
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
Rolling a second 17.61 2,09 22.61 0.91 2.63
put out Degree 4.62 1.25 7.60 0.51 6.22
control number 13.50 2.51 22.8 5.30 5,57
Short  passing points 15.21 3.16 27.55 2.08 5.70
long passing points 6.81 2.23 16.18 2.26 5,75

It is clear from the results that appeared in Table 5 that the statistical differences were in favor of the post-test because all the calculated t values were greater than the tabular t value, which indicates the existence of significant differences between the pre and post tests and in favor of the reciprocal method group, which fulfils the hypothesis of the first research note The value of the tabular t at the degree of freedom of 8 and the level of significance (0.05)

Table 5: Shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations, and (t) value calculated in the pre and post-tests of the group by the method of additional duties in some basic football skills.

Variables Measuring unit Pre-test Post-test T value calculated
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
Rolling a second 17.19 1.97 23.91 1.50 3.92
put out Degree 3,90 1.33 5.43 1.02 3.56
control number 11.80 4.90 19.72 5.19 3.2
Short  passing points 14,51 3.62 20.89 4.93 5.21
long passing points 6.20 2.50 10.11 3.21 4.60

Discussing the results

Presenting and discussing the results of (T) tests between the tribal and remote tests and for the two research groups in learning the basic skills of students in football in the variables investigated

The results presented in Table (4.5) showed that there were significant differences between the pre and post-tests for the two research groups, and to clarify the reasons for the effect of my methods (reciprocal, and additional duties) on the educational units prepared by the researcher as well as those used by the teacher in learning basic skills. The first experimental group that was used the reciprocal method has achieved development in the post-tests compared to the tribal tests, and the researchers attribute this development to the impact of the educational curriculum according to the educational method used in the research (Hamadeh. 1998) .

The reason for the differences is also due to the effective impact of the exercises applied in a reciprocal manner in developing the level of skill performance. The method of additional homework has achieved development in the post-tests compared to the tribal tests, and the researchers attribute this development to the students’ regularity with the educational units, from which students practiced the method of additional homework, as the attempts made to develop self-reliance for students, reduce waiting times and increase the amount of movement as the student moves from the station To another station to perform exercises similar to the original skill.

In addition to the appropriateness of the method of additional homework for the ages of the students and their skill, physical and motor abilities, which increases the learner’s pleasure and suspense and makes use of time and keeps him away from boredom “and thus does not waste their time and increases the effectiveness and amount of practice Where they are in constant movement between performing main and additional duties, and so on, and thus, these additional duties can represent paragraphs to link between the different activities and the performance of skills (Al-Basati. 1988).

It is clear from the results that appeared in Table 6 that the calculated t was greater than the tabular t value, which indicates the existence of significant differences between the two groups and in favor of the reciprocal method group, which fulfills the second research hypothesis, knowing that the tabular t value at the degree of freedom 17 and the level of significance ( 0.05), while the calculated (t) value for the control skill appeared less than the tabular (t) value, which indicates the existence of non-significant differences between the two groups.

Discussing the results of the post-test for the first experimental group (the reciprocal method) and the second experimental group (additional duties)

Through the results presented in Table (6) and the rates of development in learning basic football skills. It turns out that the achievement of the first goal in identifying the effect of the synchronization of the use of teaching methods in learning those skills, as well as the realization of the first hypothesis that there is a significant effect in learning between the pre and post tests and in favor of the post-test. The researchers attribute this to the number of units prescribed within the curriculum and for each skill, the number of appropriate repetitions during the educational unit, the benefit of its organization to increase the speed of learning, and the method of applied exercises appropriate to the degree of difficulty of the skill and its observance of the educational stage of the learners and in light of the students’ abilities. In addition to correcting errors first and staying away from difficult exercises because they may not take into account individual differences, and therefore the curriculum vocabulary agreed with what was mentioned (Mufti 1998) “that choosing the trainer (educator) for difficult exercises will increase the experience of some students and will not increase their experience all” (Hamadeh. 1998).

 

Table 6: Shows the arithmetic means, standard deviations and the calculated (t) value for the two groups of research in the post-tests of some basic football skills.

Variables Measuring unit Reciprocal  method Additional  duties T value calculated
Mean standard deviation Mean standard deviation
Rolling a second 23,92 1.52 22.62 0.90 2.94
put out Degree 5.43 1.02 7.64 0.51 7.77
control number 19.71 5.19 20.29 5.30 0.23
Short  passing points 20.30 5.20 19.70 5.31 2.51
long passing points 16.19 3.21 10.11 5.26 3.96
This is what we see through the results of the second group, which is taught in the manner of additional duties, and for this reason, balanced exercises were chosen in this manner in order to obtain better results. The two researchers believe that the clarity of the general objective of the educational curriculum and its relevance to the level of the novice learners and their abilities led to a clear improvement in performance, and this was indicated “The clarity of the objectives and their identification in behavioral images or specific performance levels, they have meaning and effectiveness” (Collda. 1989).

This appeared in both groups, but the effect was different between them. The researchers attribute it to the reciprocal method, to creating social relationships and working with others, and to analysis and observation, and students work for each pair (two), one of whom leads and the other gives feedback and makes behavioral decisions during the lesson. the lesson. Here, it must be noted that there is no preference in one method over another because each method has its objectives, implications and applications in a manner consistent with the level of the learner, his age stage, the type of effectiveness, and the learned skill, and the available capabilities. The researchers attribute the reason for the emergence of these differences to the group (the reciprocal method) that this method gives an essential role in the educational process, as it gives the student an opportunity to evaluate the performance of his colleague through the communication of the performer and the observer with the teacher, which provides equal opportunities for both students in the performance and the process of reinforcement and correction of errors through regressive transgression As it “helps to guide the learner about movement or achievement before, during or after the performance and is one of the important axes to help the learning process” (Schmidt, 1982)

This method prepares the learner for a major role in the learning process through his interaction with his colleague and the teacher directly according to previously prepared duties and using direct feedback and this is what Muston confirmed. This method provides frequent opportunities for duty training with someone who specifically does the monitoring process. The researchers believe that some learners often learn from their peers who are of their level or slightly better than them and do not learn from those who are less than them when performing technical skills. "Because in this method, each student (student) completes the work by himself and makes decisions in the postteaching stage by himself as well, and decisions are transmitted to the learner, which makes him more responsible for his learning, and the role of the teacher is to make decisions in the entire pre-teaching stage" (Al-Rubaie and Hamad. 2010).

Conclusions

- There are significant differences between the pre and post-tests for the two teaching methods, in favor of

- Post-tests.

- The group that learned by the reciprocal method achieved an improvement in learning most of the skills than the group that learned by the additional homework method.

- The presence of non-significant differences between the two groups in the skill of controlling the ball in

- Post-tests.

- Each skill has specificity in learning by imposing the motor style of the skill to be learned

Recommendations

- The researchers suggest using the reciprocal method and additional duties in teaching basic football skills.

- The necessity of training the physical education teacher to apply the reciprocal method and other educational methods through holding and organizing qualifying, training and development courses and preparing them as teachers capable of using the best educational methods.

- Conducting similar research and studies using other methods in teaching beginners in order to achieve better educational and educational goals.

References

Mouska Moston. 1981 .teaching physical education, edition ,charled . Mellil publishing company. ph7.

Amr Allah Al-Basati. 1988. Foundations and Rules of Sports Training and Its Applications, 1st Edition, Alexandria, Dar Al Maaref , p. 26.

Mufti Ibrahim Hamadeh. 1998. Modern Sports Training, Planning, Organizing, and Leading: (Cairo, Dar al-Fikr al-Arabi), p. 199.

Fouad Suleiman Collda. 1989.Educational Objectives and Teaching Curricula: (Alexandria, New Publications House), p. 177.

Schmidt, 1982 A; Motor control and Learning , A Behavioral emphasis: (Champaign Hlinois) P 528.

Mahmoud Al-Rubaie and Saeed Saleh Hamad. 2010. Modern trends in teaching physical education: (Erbil, Manara Press), p. 220.

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