Research - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 4
The impact of applying the K-W-L self-scheduling technique on first-year intermediate students' learning of basic volleyball skillsAyad Ali Hussein11* and Israa Fouad Salih2
*Correspondence: Ayad Ali Hussein1, Student Activities Division, College of Administration and Economics, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
In this Study, the methods and methods of learning were discussed within the requirements of the educational process in order to reach the best learning and the instructional resources that are accessible within the context of educational technology. The study's significance stems from its use of the selfscheduling strategy (K-W-L) self-table technique to the teaching of basic volleyball skills to first-year intermediate students. The researchers mentioned that the students have become accustomed to a special method of learning, including the method of listening and memorization of their academic requirements. This may give the student learning as well as information, but not to the required level. Because of its concentration on cognitive components, as well as the extent of its reflection on the skill aspect, the authors consider it necessary to promote new learning approaches in order to reach the students and help them attain the highest levels of learning and to understand the impact of these various instructional techniques in order to provide them with the finest learning experience possible. A group of kids from Salah al-Din Intermediate School for Boys were tested using the experimental approach. One experimental group represented a total of (25) students. A variety of statistical methodologies were used to show and discuss the findings. Within the parameters of the study, the authors come to several conclusions. The study has made some suggestions for improving volleyball skills learning.
KWL. Volleyball. Self-scheduling. Basic strategy.
Team games are distinguished by their various levels and the diversity of techniques and targets. The interest in this field helps to achieve the highest levels of sports achievement. Whether using mathematical and applied sciences. Alternatively, research means and advanced learning techniques can be used to set pretty obvious fundamentals because they are able to generate answers to challenges that the learner faces in order to achieve the highest levels. (Masanovic, 2018; Borzucka et al, 2020).
The goal of teachers on the educational process is to create and develop the best and most efficient methods and methods for a structure specific to the sports personality (Talab et al., 2017). The linking it to the methods and methods of teaching physical education as it contributes to achieving this goal. The physical education lesson is the basic element in which the educational process goes under the supervision and guidance of the teacher (Hamdan et al, 2018).
The teaching process has three stages. It consists of an educational material, a teacher and a learner. This process leads to learning. Furthermore, to extend the many areas of learning (cognitive, kinesthetic, physical and psychomotor) and establish a connection between the teacher and the student, educational resources should be used (Alzabari et al., 2019).
Several research in the field of team games, including volleyball, have been undertaken to discover the particular and necessary needs for that game utilizing proper learning methods. Which is one of the most essential aspects influencing the learning of the skill's technical performance and the development of the important motor attributes linked with it. As well as contributing to the learner's access to the best level of skill performance in particular when used correctly and in a meaningful way (Masanovic et al, 2018).
The self-scheduling strategy is one of the meta-knowledge strategies in which the student is the center of the educational process within the learning requirements and emphasizes the necessity of mental upbringing by creating an educational atmosphere that nurtures him to think, he can develop his thinking. The table strategy defines a set of steps and procedures that help in organizing thinking. It is summarized in three columns that require the answer to three questions within the learner's knowledge of the subject that he will learn and what has been discovered so far regarding the topic to be studied. Thus, it leads to the arrangement of his ideas and the presentation of the learner's efforts within the research study (Masanovic et al, 2019 ; Tsoukos et al, 2019).
As a result, the authors emphasize the importance of the study in determining the impact of utilizing the self-table technique K-W-L in teaching second intermediate students some basic volleyball skills. Most of the recent trends in learning methods emphasize and indicate the role of the student as the center of the educational process. However, the role of the learner is still limited to listening as well as receiving (Carvalho et al, 2020). Therefore, those in charge of the educational process must create opportunities for students in order to provide them with learning experiences through teamwork, thinking and creating an interactive environment among them. It is founded on new ways to stay up with quick scientific growth, so the student can become an effective base inside the school system's needs.
The authors found, by being a teacher in the field of education, which the students became used to the listening and memory strategy for learning academic terminology. The certain quantity of knowledge may be gained by the student that is reflected in the learning environment, but it is not at the level desired to be reached in order to find appropriate solutions. The use of traditional methods of learning has led to a lack of communication for students within their educational environment because of the emphasis on cognitive components and the depth of reflection on the skill aspect.
As a result, the authors set out to identify acceptable solutions by employing the self-table (K-W-L) technique in learning basic volleyball skills for second intermediate students as an educational method in motor skill learning.
The purpose of this study was to see how the self-scheduling method (K-W-L) affected the second intermediate students' ability to master some basic volleyball skills. There are statistically significant variations between the two tests, pre and post-tests, favoring the post-test, so he learns basic volleyball talents. Areas of research include the human domain: first year students in Salah El-Din Intermediate School for Boys and Spatial domain: the outdoor playground of Salah El-Din Intermediate School for Boys.
The type of problem is what determines the nature of the method that is used to reach appropriate results. The researchers adopted the experimental method within the equal group (experimental). It deals according to the influential phenomenon, and it is more accurate in collecting data according to most sources.
The research sample consisted of (25) students from a community of (120) students whose ages ranged between 13-14 years. The research sample was chosen randomly from first year students attending Salah El-Din Intermediate School for Boys for the year 2020-2021. Students who did not adhere to the educational curriculum and who failed were excluded, so the number settled on (25) students, making up (20.12) of the total number.
1. A court for volleyball.
2. One Stopwatch.
3. Twenty five Flying balls (25).
4. One measuring tape (1).
5. One whistle (1).
6. Four Lenovo computers (4).
7. One medical scale.
The exploratory experiment
The exploratory experiment expresses the necessary requirements of the most important and necessary procedures in order to identify the exact scientific weight of the candidate tests, in order to avoid the obstacles and errors that the authors may face when carrying out the main experiment. The researchers conducted the exploratory experiment on a sample of first year students on Monday, 11-10- 2021. The number of students is (4). The purpose of which is to overcome the difficulties and obstacles that they may face and to know the time required to conduct the tests for the research
Within the distinct skills provided by, the educational program was applied (handling bouncing on the wall and passing the ball towards circles drawn on the ground). The educational program lasted nine weeks and adhered to the subject teacher's recommended terminology for the curriculum. There are eighteen educational units in the educational curriculum, with two educational units per week and day. There were three sections to the instructional unit (preparatory, main and final). The following was the time given for each section:
1- (20 minutes) for preparatory section.
2- (20 minutes) for the main section.
3- (5 minutes) for the closing section.
Pre tests were conducted on 12-10-2021
After the units of instruction were applied, the post-tests were conducted on (12-15).10. 2021. The post-tests of the research sample were conducted under the same conditions in terms of testing duration, equipment, and location, as the pretests
The statistical bag (spss) was utilized for this study to assess the research findings. For correlated samples, the authors utilized the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Al-Taie et al., 2017).
Basic Results (T test)
The findings of the two tests (pre- and post-test) for the experimental group are then presented. The arithmetic means, standard deviations, and (t) value of the experimental group are shown in the results of the pre- and post-tests of the skill tests (Table 1).
|Accuracy of sending||10.01||0.77||18.21||0.89||3.86||Meaning|
|The tabular T value (2.36) below the significance level (0.05) and the degree of freedom (24).|
The arithmetic means and standard deviations are displayed in table 1. By considering the pre- and post-tests, the accuracy for the skill of sending from the top facing as determined by the (T) value that was derived between the technical performance tests. The experimental group performed technically in the pre-test with an arithmetic mean of (4.10) and a standard deviation of (0.44). While it has an arithmetic mean of (7.64) in the post test and a standard deviation of (0.51). When (T) was calculated (3.25). tt falls below its tabular value of (2.36) under the significance level (0.05) and the degree of freedom (24). This demonstrates that the post test has a major advantage (significant difference). Regarding the test for transmission accuracy performed with the top pointing up, this group received a pre-test arithmetic mean of (10.01) and a deviation of (0.77). In contrast, we found that in the post test, the arithmetic mean was (18.21), and the standard deviation was (0.89). The calculated (T) value is equal to (3.86), that also is less than the tabular value of (3.86). This shows a substantial difference in favor of the post-test because it is below both the significance level (0.05) and the degree of freedom (25).
The researchers attributes this development in the learning level of the research sample to the use of the K-W-L. Where this method depends on the students' ability to interact as the focus of the teaching process to perform activities and duties, and this was confirmed by Jamal Saleh. One of the requirements of the educational unit is to integrate all learners into the same assignment to move into the learning process. The tasks of the learner being the executive responsible for the educational process through the use of the K-W-L. It achieves the intended purpose of the educational concept first by containing all students and at the same time working on developing skills for students, as well as the effectiveness of educational units using the K-W-L. Which contributed to the development of skill capabilities. How to use the K-W-L. It gave the learner an opportunity in the axes of experience that she passes through the foundations of learning and the increase in the learner’s motivation, because the volleyball skills require reconciliation and agreement in the body’s organs.
In addition, the self-scheduling strategy helped students to think and ask many questions about the topic of the lesson and enables them to focus their attention. It leads to new predictions and determines the most important information, and this is what he indicates. When using the self-scheduling strategy, it helps the teacher to stimulate thinking Students play the role of mentor and supervisor rather than the role of teleprompter. The student is the center of the educational process and allows the teacher to take into account the individual differences among students, which leads to the development of thinking and the desire to increase learning.
This Study aims to methods and methods of learning were discussed within the requirements of the educational process in order to reach the best learning and the instructional resources that are accessible within the context of educational technology. The study's significance stems from its use of the self-scheduling strategy (K-W-L) self-table technique to the teaching of basic volleyball skills to first-year intermediate students. The use of self-table strategy (K-W-L) used in the research had a positive effect on teaching some basic volleyball skills. The use of the K-W-L had an effective effect in bringing about the learning process. Benefiting from the K-W-L in learning some basic volleyball skills for students. Enhancing the teachers’ experience of the K-W-L by holding training courses to develop the skills necessary to apply it.
Al-Taie, B.F.K., Flayyih, H.H., Talab, H.R. (2017). Measurement of income smoothing and its effect on accounting conservatism: An empirical study of listed companies in the iraqi stock exchange. International Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2017, 11(3), pp. 710–719.
Alzabari, S.A.H., Talab, H.R., Flayyih, H.H. (2019). The effect of internal training and auditing of auditors on supply chain management: An empirical study in listed companies of Iraqi stock exchange for the period 2012-2015. International Journal of Supply Chain Management, (5), pp. 1070–1075.
Borzucka, D., Kręcisz, K., Rektor, Z., & Kuczyński, M. (2020). Differences in static postural control between top level male volleyball players and nonathletes. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-7.
Carvalho, A., Roriz, P., & Duarte, D. (2020). Comparison of morphological profiles and performance variables between female volleyball players of the first and second division in Portugal. Journal of human kinetics, 71, 109. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0076
Hamdan, K. H., Bachay, I. R., Flayyih, H. H., & Talab, H. R. (2018). Using Capital Budget and Sensitivity Analysis to Predict Future Cash Flows and Evaluate Investment Projects: Empirical Study at Iraqi Company for Production, Marketing and Meat and Field Crops. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 1-12. 10.3923/jeasci.2018.10510.10516
Masanovic, B. (2018). Comparative study of anthropometric measurement and body composition between junior basketball and volleyball players from Serbian national league. Sport Mont, 16(3), 19-24. https://doi.org/10.26773/ smj.181004
Masanovic, B., Bavcevic, T., & Bavcevic, I. (2019). Comparative study of anthropometric measurement and body composition between junior soccer and volleyball players from the serbian national league. Sport Mont, 17(1), 9-14. https://doi.org/10.26773/smj.190202
Masanovic, B., Popovic, S., & Bjelica, D. (2018). Comparative study of anthropometric measurement and body composition between junior soccer and volleyball players from national league. In Book of Abstracts 15th International Scientific Conference on Transformation Process in Sport “Sport Performance (Vol. 58).
Talab, H. R., Maki, M. I., Mohammed, Y. N., Flayyih, H. H., & Ibrahim, A. M. (2019). The role of e-Government on corruption and its impact on the financial performance of the government: An empirical analysis on the Iraqi government. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 14(4), 1349- 1356. 10.3923/jeasci.2019.1349.1356
Talab, H.R., Hasan, S.I., Flayyih, H.H., Hussein, N.A. (2017). Analysis of mental accounting: A case study of listed companies in Iraqi stock exchange. International Journal of Economic Perspectives, 2017, 11(4), pp. 684–699.
Tsoukos, A., Drikos, S., Brown, L. E., Sotiropoulos, K., Veligekas, P., & Bogdanis, G. C. (2019). Anthropometric and motor performance variables are decisive factors for the selection of junior national female volleyball players. Journal of human kinetics, 67, 163. https://doi.org/10.2478/hukin-2019-0012