Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 2
The Relationship of Attention Is Divided With Learning to Perform Some Volleyball Skills for Students of the Fifth PreparatoryFatima Naim Abdullah Al-Aboudi* and Aseel Jalil Katta
*Correspondence: Fatima Naim Abdullah Al-Aboudi, College of Physical Education and Sports Science from gill, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 02-Mar-2023 Published: 16-Mar-2023
The study aimed to identify the level of attention divided through the survey system, and to identify the level of transmitting skills from the bottom, receive the transmission and prepare volleyball among the fifth preparatory students, average, and to identify the relationship of the divided attention by learning to perform transmitting skills from the bottom, receiving the transmission and preparing their volleyball, The two researchers assumed that there is a moral connection relationship between the results of the attention test divided into the results of tests learning to perform both the transmission skills from the bottom and receive the transmission and prepare the volleyball at the research sample, and the researchers adopted the curriculum Descriptive in the style of correlation on a sample chosen randomly by (30) students at (28,846%) of medium mercy students within the formations of the General Directorate of Karkh/2 continuing in the regular working hours of the year (2021-2022), and after identifying search variables and measuring tools, each of them and their application And processing its data (SPSS), the two researchers concluded that the middle school students have an acceptable level of divided attention, and they have a skill performance level for both transmission, reception and preparation, and it needs to be improved, and the divided attention links with a high positive relationship with the performance of each of the skills Release, reception and preparation in volleyball, and the researchers recommended that it is necessary to take care of the adoption of measurement technology in psychological laboratories to support the process of motor learning in the physical education lesson, and it is necessary to pay attention to developing the capabilities of physical education teachers and their knowledge of how to use the regional system of cognitive to support the motor learning process in the physical education lesson And it is necessary to increase the interest of the Ministry of Education in activating the mechanisms of cooperation with the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research on developing the capabilities of physical education schools within continuous education courses.
Divided attention. Learning skill performance. Volleyball skills.
The improvement in learning skillful performance depends on an increase in examining the details of the skill and its parts accurately by directing attention to more than one part of the presented model, so that the motor program is drawn in accordance with the determinants of proper performance and avoiding common mistakes, which calls for attention to divided attention as it is the first of the mental processes which through the senses can be directed to observe and receive information about that skill. Divided attention is defined as “the individual’s attention to multiple, rapid stimuli at the same time, and his response to them as the response requires him, and this is called divided attention.” (Margaret, 1994: 40) Motor learning studies have been concerned with revealing the role of each of the mental processes and the impact of some emotional states on them, as well as studies concerned with motor response time, sensory, visual, and auditory stimuli, interpretation of feedback, which is one of the most important determinants of motor learning in sports science, and interpretation of motor response physiologically by type and The intensity of the displayed stimulus, as well as the interpretation of the Western school of motor learning by adopting the sensory (Adam) theory, which physiologically explained that increasing the strength of nerve impulses depends on increasing the repetition based on the interpretation of (Thorndike) theory and behavioral scientists of the conditioned response(214 Sell & Other, 2005:). Likewise, “the most accurate movements are very necessary for a person, and how to practice or perform them is an important step that lies in the good learning of them with the correct repetition, and therefore it is noted that there is a big difference between beginners and skilled when performing any apparent behavior, as the beginner needs to organize the appropriate nervous signaling, and it must be known that Repetition (the number of times of performance) alone is not enough for the required learning process to occur, because the process relies on observation and follow-up of performance and a sense of performance, as well as rehearsing it in an optimal way and at the appropriate angle, to notice some complex movements that need mastery to be performed, such as how to transfer the momentum of the movement of body parts and distribute body weight Controlling speed and accuracy with purposeful agreement, gracefully and aesthetically pleasing movement, so that the performance process after completing the learning process is automatic or what is called mastering the skill completely, and an example of this is the performance of serving from the bottom in volleyball in competitions, as students face different circumstances that they may not have learned before, but he can Whoever automatically bypasses it as a result of his repeated application of it with the proven effect of the correct responses. (54 Barry, 2006: 1)
"The activation of attention has a positive impact on the activation of memory in the brain, it increases perceptions, especially auditory and visual perception, and helps to prepare the mind for accepting or mobilizing information, storing and retrieving it in a way that allows or helps the required response to appear, and this activation depends on the type and strength of the stimulus or sedative that the individual receives And advanced psychological studies confirm in this regard that activation can occur, whether it is forced or at the desire of the individual, but it is not possible to activate the brain forcibly and obtain desired responses of receptors for that activation. Thus, the importance of research is determined by the need to find relationships between what is at the forefront of mental processes in the light of the specificity of the educational environment for studying volleyball, and learning the skillful performance of this game by adopting modernity and objectivity by analogy, to provide support for those in charge of motor learning and increase their ability to set priorities for these mental processes and the extent to which they are related to this skillful performance.
The multiplicity of stimuli in the classroom environment for the lesson of physical education and the diversity of its forms necessitates the need to control and organize it for the students, just as drawing motor programs to implement what is required to perform the volleyball skills requires an increase in the level of divided attention, as attention is needed to increase the distribution of senses towards the various stimuli related to performance Skills to receive information and respond to directions or the speed of implementation of the motor program, to place a responsibility on the academics to delve into studies that advance targeting modernity. From the limits of the experience of the two researchers and the academic knowledge in the field of teaching and motor learning, they noticed the apparent weakness of the female students of the fifth preparatory grade in some preparatory schools of the Directorate of Education of Karkh / 2 in their learning of the skillful performance of some volleyball skills, especially the skills of serving from the bottom, receiving the serve and preparing, and the actual need to measure divided attention As a result, they delved into this problem in order to contribute to the scientific efforts to raise the educational process to better level.
1. Identifying the level of divided attention by the cognitive system of Al-Rihakom among fifth-grade middle school students.
2. Identifying the level of performing the skills of serving from below, receiving the serve, and preparing for volleyball among the fifth middle school students.
3. Identifying the relationship of divided attention to learning the performance of serving skills from below, receiving the serve, and preparing for volleyball among the fifth middle school students.
• There is a significant correlation between the results of the divided attention test and the results of the performance learning tests of each of the skills of serving from below, receiving the serve and preparing for volleyball in the research sample.
Human boundaries: Fifth grade middle school students in Al-Aqila Preparatory School for Girls for the academic year (2021-2022).
Time limits: for the period from (3/4/2022) to (11/4/2022).
Spatial borders: Al-Karkh / Al-Saydiya / Al-Aqila Preparatory School for Girls / Volleyball Court Square.
Research Methodology and Field Procedures
In accordance with the problem of the study and the achievement of its objectives, the descriptive approach was adopted in the manner of correlational studies, which is defined as "research that is concerned with determining the existing relationships between variables and there is no activation of the variables - nothing more than an investigation of the extent of the correlation of the variables, and when there is a relationship between two variables we say that they are linked, and the strength of the relationship is described ) and its direction by means of a quantitative indicator called the correlation coefficient. saad, 2013:426)) and this is what Danya Salman confirmed (Danya, 2019:20)) and also a reference to it (faek, 2017:34) and also a reference to it by Alia Muhammad Ali and Dr. Intisar Awaid (Alyaa, & Dr. Intisar, 2021: 46) Mohammed, N, MazinHadiKzar, Al-Selmi, 2021:3) and also (Al-Selmi, A.D.H., Ooudah, I.G., subhi Mutar, N., & Owaeed, 2022:5) agreed.
Research community and its sample
The limits of the current research community are represented by the students of the study problem themselves, in accordance with their observation without measurement, and accordingly, it is represented by the students of the fifth preparatory stage in Al-Aqila Preparatory School for Girls within the formations of the General Directorate of Education Al-Karkh / 2 who are continuing in the regular work hours for the year (2021-2022). (104) female students, (30) female students were randomly selected, with a rate of (28.846%), for achieving the purposes and procedures of the research. And she emphasized the definition of the research methodology, Safa Abdel-Karim Sadiq and Prof. Dr. Naglaa Abbas Nassif (safa & Najlaa, 2022:22), and Abbas also referred to it (Abbas, 2021:34), and Pinilla also referred to it (Pinilla, 2019:114).
Equipment, tools and means used in the research experiment:
• one (1) RehaCom Cognitive System, German-made.
• A video camera (z5) for recording long and short films, consisting of a recording cassette, a processor, and a temporary and permanent storage memory (for shooting tests and documentation) (1 Japanese-made Canon).
• One (1) camera support.
• Compact discs (CD) number (3).
• A volleyball court of legal sizes.
• Volleyballs (Micas) with international specifications, with a mass of (270) grams, number (15).
• 5 cm wide adhesive tape.
• The two pillars are (9) feet (270) cm high for girls.
• A rope parallel to the net with a length of (6) meters.
• Divided attention.
• Performing the skill of serving from below.
• Performing the skill of receiving the transmission with two hands from below.
• Performing the skill of the front setting over the head.
Measurement and Procedures
The two researchers adopted their test using the RehaCom Cognitive System (Hoda, 2019:28). Which is one of the most important systems of modern psychological laboratories with high accuracy by objective measurement, and it is a diagnostic and treatment tool, and appropriate tests can help in particular to identify weaknesses or cognitive deficiencies, and this system consists of a set of tests and units (examination units, and training programs).
• The maximum score for the test: (100) and the hypothetical mean (50)
• Unit of measure: degree.
The two researchers also relied on filming tests for the accuracy of the transmission skill facing from below, (Muhammad & Hamdi, 1997:167), and this test was used by Dr. Hamdallah.
Dr. Hamadullah Abid, 2019: 118). And the skill of receiving transmissions with two hands from below (Muhammad & Hamdi, 1997: 243) has used this test. Dania Salman and M. Shaimaa Jaafar (M.Dania & Shaymaa, 2022:56), and it was also used by Haneen Muhammad Hussein and Prof. Dr. Mona Talib Al-Badri (Haneen & Muna, 2021:58), and also Saa Sami Abdullah and Prof. Dr. Lama Samir (Saaea & Dr. Luma, 2020:4 (Tammara & DrMauahp, 2020: 131: Tamara Ahmed Yas and Dr. Mawaahp Hamid Noman used it, and volleyball preparation skills (Muhammmmad & Hamdi, 1997: 167) to evaluate the performance of female students from three evaluators according to the evaluation form of (10) divided degrees ( 3) for the preparatory section, and (5) for the main section, and (2) for the final section for each skill, as the two researchers applied the skill tests and filmed them with a video camera (Z5) to record long and short films consisting of a recording cassette, a processor, and a temporary and permanent storage memory (for filming the tests and documentation), and the imaging was stored on CDs and was shown to the three evaluators.
The two researchers also conducted an exploratory experiment on (8) female students from the same research community and outside the main sample before starting the tests in Al-Aqila Preparatory School itself, and they did not face any significant obstacles. Tahreer Soori, & Dr. Muhanned Soori, 2021: 3) The divided attention test was conducted by means of the RehaCom Cognitive System at the Center for Research and Psychological Studies at the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research located in the Baghdad University Complex / Al-Jadriya for the period Sunday from (3/4/2022) Until Thursday (4/7/2022) by (6) students per day, then filming tests were conducted for performing the skill of forward facing from below, performing the skill of receiving the transmission with two hands from below, and performing the front setting skill from above the head for two consecutive days from Sunday ( 10/4/2022) until Monday (11/4/2022), to evaluate the students’ performance by presenting them to three assessors.
After the data were collected from the tests, the data were classified into the program (Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet) and then the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) system to extract each of the percentage values, the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the skewness coefficient, and the correlation coefficient ( Person) simple.
Results and Discussion
Results are shown in tables (Tables 1 & 2).
|Researched variables||Measuring unit||Total marks||Number||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Skewness|
|Transmit reception skill||degree||10||30||4.23||0.935||0.581|
|Perform blocking skill||degree||10||30||5.4||1.102||0.272|
|Researched variables||Total marks||Arithmetic mean||Standard deviation||Factor (Person)||Degree (Sig)||Significance value|
|Transmit reception skill||10||4.23||0.935|
|Perform blocking skill||10||5.4||1.102|
|The unit of measure (score) n = 30 degrees of freedom (28) The level of significance (0.05) is significant if (Sig) > (0.05).|
From a review of the results of Table (2), the two researchers attribute the emergence of a statistically significant correlation between divided attention and the performance of each of the performance of the three skills under study to the nature of the educational tasks in the physical education lesson, especially volleyball, which requires learners to distribute their attention towards the stimulus required to focus on during performance. Which helped their mental ability to improve the level of that division in the distribution towards the stimulus through divided attention, and no matter how simple or complex the matter is during the educational unit, directing attention of one of its types is by focusing on the stimulus to complete the rest of the mental operations necessary to draw the motor program, and thus the attention is given to the specific stimulus It is a basis for building the motor program to perform the skill of the learner. "The process of kinetic linkage is the ability of the athlete to coordinate the partial movements of his body with each other in space and time, and the movement and performance of this coordination when confronting the competitor or using the tool" (Hoffmann, 2012: 66).
"The teacher and the learner must define the characteristics of good performance so that the practitioner can be organized to be able to diagnose errors so that they are not repeated and difficult to modify" (Saleh, 2003: 116).
“Improving the level of physical performance is one of the tasks of every coach who makes efforts to achieve it in the best way, just as every player tries to reach it, as the emergence of fatigue is a physiological problem facing the human body and the players in particular, which negatively affects their physical and skill performance, in addition to being the main cause Loss of accuracy and concentration and confusion of neuromuscular control (Jack, 2016: 11).
Also, “the development of mental skills must go hand in hand with the development of the elements of physical fitness, and that skills such as focusing attention, mental visualization, mental retrieval, and others must be planned for their development, such as strength, flexibility, and speed, and that integration in preparation, especially in the early stages, must work on developing skills.” Physical and skillful as well as mental and emotional, and neglecting such preparation impedes the achievement of achievements at the competitive level (Muhammad, 2001:6).
Where the two researchers concluded
1. Fifth grade middle school students have an acceptable level of divided attention.
2. The fifth preparatory grade female students have a level of skill performance for each of sending, receiving and preparing, and it needs improvement.
3. Divided attention is associated with a high positive relationship with the performance of the skills of serving, receiving and preparing in volleyball.
The two researchers recommended the following
1. It is necessary to pay attention to the adoption of measurement technology in psychological laboratories to support the motor learning process in the lesson of physical education.
2. It is necessary to pay attention to the development of the capabilities of physical education teachers and their knowledge of how to use the cognitive system of Rehacom to support the motor learning process in the lesson of physical education.
3. The Ministry of Education must pay more attention to activating the mechanisms of cooperation with the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research regarding the development of the capabilities of physical education teachers within the continuing education courses.
First: Divided Attention Test
• Objective of the test: measuring attention divided in more than one task or multiple tasks and activities at one time and in a short period of time.
• Equipment and assistants: RehaCom Cognitive System, specialized in laboratory psychometrics.
• Description of the test and procedures: This test measures the process of divided attention accurately, as it was designed with a high degree of honesty, and in it the laboratory must respond to auditory and visual stimuli in a parallel manner represented by tasks, which are:
• Visual task: In this part of the task, a square containing (5) circles appears on the screen, all with a hole on one side of the circumference. The locations of the holes may change, but the circles do not change. The tester must click and react on the keyboard when one of the circles is displayed within the square. Five closed.
• Auditory task: the tester hears two simultaneous high and low frequency sounds, with the appearance of circles, and the tester has to react as quickly as possible just by hearing the sound in the form of a tone that is repeated twice in succession.
• As the tester begins with an exercise, and in order to pass it successfully, the subject must interact with the relevant audio and visual stimuli, after which the actual test begins, and the tester must observe the shape displayed on the screen, which consists of five circles with openings in changing positions when the circuit is closed, and press the button OK button simultaneously, high and low beeps are displayed alternately, and when the same tone sounds twice in a row, only then respond with a reaction by clicking (OK).
• Duration of the test: (3) minutes, except for the exercise phase.
• Data analysis and recording: Two types of values are calculated:
• The value of divided auditory attention: It is calculated by the
standard value of the number of reactions and omissions, which means the number of missing responses to the auditory, even and identical stimuli.
• The t-value of divided visual attention: is the number of times of visual omissions, i.e. the number of interactions missing for a relevant visual stimulus.
• The maximum score for the test: (100) and the hypothetical mean (50).
• Unit of measure: degree.
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