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Administrative climate and its relationship to psychological stress among workers in Baghdad Premier League football clubs

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2021) Volume 16, Issue 6

Administrative climate and its relationship to psychological stress among workers in Baghdad Premier League football clubs

Hayder Talib Jasim1*, Alameer Hayder Hussein2 and Samer Saad Ibrahim1
*Correspondence: Hayder Talib Jasim, Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
1Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq
2General Directorate of Education in Baghdad- Al-Karkh 2, Ministry of Education, Iraq

Received: 04-Nov-2021 Published: 22-Dec-2021

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identifying the administrative climate and its relationship to psychological stress among workers in Baghdad Premier League football clubs. The researchers used the descriptive approach to suit the nature of the problem. As the research procedures were carried out on a sample of (97) individuals from the administrative corporations, all of them from the governorate of Baghdad were chosen by the intentional method. The exploratory experiment sample represented (10) individuals, while the application sample was (87) individuals, and the results showed a correlation between Administrative climate and psychological stress, so the researchers recommended the need for managers to provide a good and appropriate administrative climate free of psychological pressures because it provides an appropriate environment to raise confidence and the ability to perform their administrative work more effectively and the need for managers to enter programs and development and training courses on modern management methods and to inform them of the latest developments reach the science in the field of sports management.

Keywords

Administrative climate; Psychological stress; Administrative corporations and football coaches

Introduction

The modern administration and its continuous development has effectively helped in upgrading many sports institutions in general, and since the game of football is currently one of the most important popular games in the world, the institutions responsible for it must rise administratively in line with that modern development, so an appropriate administrative climate must be provided. For the success of this game within any sports institution, as the administrative climate is the internal working environment of sports institutions, and when this climate is at a distinguished level, it contributes effectively to show the moral and functional behavior of individuals working in any sports institution, and the administrative climate is one of the most common branches of human knowledge among people. It has also become an essential basis for understanding and avoiding many obstacles, which in turn works to provide highly accurate technical jobs with a high level of performance and a high degree of efficiency and a direct contributor to providing appropriate conditions for all workers to show serious and distinguished work in their institutions, and that the administrative climate varies from one organization to another. According to the different conditions, services and principles prevailing among workers, which in turn affect their behavior, and the administrative climate is a measure For the future of the sports institution in all its dimensions, and if the institution was able to create an appropriate administrative climate in which it can reach its goals, and this is also achieved by removing workers within the institutions, whether coaches or administrative Corporations, from all stresss, whether within the club or in their social life, and that the feeling of psychological stability for individuals, In turn, it leads to the achievement of job performance at a high level, and that their sense of their importance to their institutions will contribute to increasing their belonging to the sports institution and work with maximum effort to make the club a success, and there is the exact opposite. And the administration, on the other hand, generates other psychological stresss on the shoulders of the workers inside the club, which in turn leads to a decrease in affiliation and a lack of sense of responsibility towards the club, which shows negative results in all the joints of the club or any sports institution.

The administrative climate is one of the most important of these variables, which directly affects the achievement of its objectives. Robbins and Clatter affirm the climate that “the manager’s ability to motivate workers to be one team is an indicator of effectiveness, as the team’s achievement outweighs the individual’s” (Robbins and Clatter, 1998) (1).

Psychological stress also has negative outcomes, as mentioned (Al-Bayraqdar, 2011) (2) that a person may face certain problems and as a result of these problems, he feels psychological stress and that he is involved and there is no solution in front of him to get rid of this situation, and this may generate psychological problems, including low self-esteem and problems Psychological health.

Hence the importance of providing the appropriate administrative climate among the employees of sports clubs, including administrative corporations and football coaches, and its relationship to the psychological stresses that may face them, and how to face these stresss to generate and deal with the appropriate climate and benefit from the administrative process, which generates the success of the joint work between them to focus on the success of the sports institution Increasing its ability to continue and develop in the interest of the game of football and improve sporting achievement.

Research problem

While noting a defect in the administrative climate of the administrative corporations and football coaches working in Baghdad clubs There are many psychological stresses that they suffer from, which makes the administrative climate unsuitable for work and thus negatively affects their performance. The presence of the administrative climate is muddy and full of psychological stresss that strain the relationship between the manager and his employees or between the employees themselves, whether administrative corporations and football coaches, which works to not achieve The desired objectives of the institution in general.

Research objective

- Preparing and applying a measure of psychological stress facing workers in Baghdad Premier League football clubs.

- Implementation of the administrative climate scale for workers in the Baghdad Premier League football clubs.

- Knowing the relationship of the administrative climate with the psychological stress of workers in the Baghdad Premier League football clubs.

Research methodology and field procedures

Research Methodology

The researchers used the descriptive approach using the survey method and comparative studies.

Community and sample research

The research community included all the administrative corporations and football coaches working in the Baghdad Premier League football clubs for the marking (2019-2020) and their number was (110) individuals representing (9) clubs within the governorate of Baghdad. 97) Individuals, and this sample represented (88.18%) of the total research population (Tables 1,2).

Search tool

Administrative Climate Scale

The researchers used a modified version of the tool (Jihad et al., 2012) (3) used to assess the prevailing administrative climate among youth managers and workers in youth directorates and centers in the northern region of Jordan, and its relevance with the research community under study, as the tool of this study consisted of a questionnaire divided into two parts: Information section A priority for workers in directorates and youth centers, and a section that includes (29) phrases and includes keys for selection (always, often, sometimes, rarely, never).

Table1: The research sample.

No. Club Sample number
1 Oil 11
2 Air  Force 12
3 Al Zawraa 14
4 Al Talaba 9
5 Al hedod 10
6 Alsinaat Alkahrabaiya 11
7 Alshorta 11
8 Amant Baghdad 10
9 Alkahrabaa 9
Total 97

Table 2: The distribution of the research sample.

Sample No.of sample
Exploratory experience sample 10
Metrics  application sample 87

Table 3: The results of the Pearson correlation coefficient show the relationship
between the administrative climate, between the administrative climate and
psychological stress among workers in Baghdad clubs, the premier league for
football.

No. Scale Mean Standard  deviation Pearson correlation real difference Type sig
1 Psychological  stress scale 104.3218 4.37619 - 0.321 0.046 Sig
2 Administrative Climate Scale 107.8161 4.50459

Psychological stress scale

The psychological stress scale was prepared based on a scale from the study (Al-Hajjar and Dukhan, 2006) (4) psychological stress and its relationship to psychological toughness among Islamic college students, where the scale consisted of (28) phrases distributed over one domain and three alternatives to choose are (applicable, sometimes applicable, not applicable, never).

Honesty two tools

To make sure of the honesty of the two research tools, the researchers relied on apparent honesty, recalling (Sawsan Shaker Majeed, 2014)(5). The research means that the scale is what it measures, which is the general appearance of the test or its external image in terms of the type of vocabulary, how it is formulated, and the clarity of this vocabulary and the two research tools have presented A group of experts and specialists from administration, organization, sports psychology, testing and measurement to determine the clarity, integrity and validity of the statements to measure what they were designed for, in order to develop the two standards and modify their expressions or add what they deem appropriate. The experts agreed to accept the administrative climate scale as it is without deletion or the amendment is as in Appendix No. (2). as for the psychological stress scale, some phrases have been modified and deleted, and (28) phrases have been kept that fit with the research problem as in Appendix No. (3).

Stability of the two tools

The stability of the test means “the extent of accuracy or consistency with which the test measures the phenomenon for which it was developed” (Muhammad Nasr Al-Din Radwan, 2006) (6), As it relied on the internal consistency method (Cronbach's alpha): the equation was applied to the exploratory experiment’s number (10) and using the statistical bag for social sciences, and it appeared that the value of the stability coefficient of the administrative climate scale is (0.76), and this value gives a high indication of the stability of the scale Which indicates the possibility of its reliability, and the results of the psychological stress scale showed that the stability coefficient is equal to (0.81), which is also a high value indicating the stability of the scale.

Measurement procedure

After making sure of the honesty and stability of the two research tools, the researchers distributed the two scales, namely (the administrative climate scale) and (the psychological stress scale) on (8-17/1/2020), the research sample consisted of (87) individuals from administrative bodies and coaches in Premier League football clubs and it was ensured that it was filled out accurately and they were given enough time to answer all the expressions of the two scales.

Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).

Presentation, analysis and discussion of the results

Presentation and analysis of the results of the Pearson correlation coefficient, the relationship between the administrative climate and psychological stress among workers in Baghdad Premier League football clubs.

It is evident from Table (3) that there is a statistically significant relationship at the significance level (0.05) between the administrative climate and psychological stress among workers in Baghdad Premier League football clubs, and this is evident through the Pearson correlation value (-0.321). And that the relationship is explained by a good administrative climate that should be free of psychological stresses so that employees can perform their duties in the best way.

Discuss the results

The results showed that there is a relationship between the administrative climate scale and psychological stress. Researchers believe that this moral relationship between the administrative climate and psychological stress has an important role among the workers in the union, including administrators and trainers, in how to deal in an official and central manner in order to determine the powers of work and take care of providing an appropriate atmosphere suitable for the work undertaken. On them, this will certainly lead to success in work, because centralization has a role in developing work and developing it. The researchers attribute this to the fact that management is the basis and that controls all decisions, and that successful management is the one that provides the appropriate climate away from psychological stress, as the more The administration is full of psychological stresss, the impact of this on the functioning of the administrative process, and confirms (Al-Tawil 1999)(7) that the organizational climate that prevails in an organization is an important dimension in shaping the behaviors of its members . The lower the percentage of psychological stress and the appropriate administrative climate and the spirit of cooperation and trust, the results will be positive, as (Kanaan 1995) (8) confirms that the value of each of these factors varies from one job to another and from time to time and according to changing circumstances, but the failure of one of these five management elements means a decrease in the climate The administrative environment for subordinates, as the proper organization can achieve high morale among its members with the rest of the elements,and stresses (Hammoud 2002) (9) “creating a purposeful work atmosphere that preserves the means of stability and stability for both individuals and the organization, as individuals in the effective organizational environment feel their importance at work And their ability to participate in decision-making and contribute to the formulation of policies and plans, and trust prevails between management and individuals.

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusions

- Psychological stress has a direct impact on the administrative climate among the employees of the Baghdad Premier League football clubs.

- The psychological stress of workers in the Baghdad Premier League football clubs appeared clearly through the results of the research.

- The results showed that there is a significant correlation between the administrative climate and psychological stress.

Recommendations

- The necessity for the heads and members of the administrative bodies in the clubs to provide a good administrative climate because it represents the appropriate environment to raise confidence and avoid pressures.

- The need for direct managers at work to obtain new academic qualifications who have qualifications less than a bachelor's degree.

- The necessity for the heads and members of the clubs’ administrative bodies to participate in programs and training courses on modern management methods and to inform them of the latest findings in the field of management.

References

Al-Bayraqdar Taheed Adel Fadel .(2012).sychological stress and its relationship to psychological toughness among students of the College of Education, Journal of Research of the College of Basic Education, Volume 11, College of Education, University of Mosul).

Al-Hajjar Bashir Ibrahim and Dukhan Nabil Kamel; Psychological stress and its relationship to psychological toughness among Islamic college students, Islamic University Journal, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 369-398.

Majeed, Sawsan Shaker. (2014).Foundations of Building Psychological and Educational Tests and Measures, (Depo Center for Education and Thinking, Amman.

Hammoud, Khudair Kazem.( 2002). Organizational Behavior, (Amman, Dar Al- Safa Publishing and Distribution).

Al-Taweel, Hani Abdel-Rahman. (1999). Educational Administration, Concepts and Horizons, (Jordan, Wael House for Printing and Publishing).

Kanaan, Nawaf. (1995). Administrative Leadership, 5th floor, (Amman, House of Culture for Publishing and Distribution).

Maher, Ahmed. (2005). Organizational Behavior: An Introduction to Skills Building, (Alexandria: University House).

Hashem Zaki Mahmoud.( 1989). Human Resources Management, (Kuwait, Dar Al Salasil).

Wadih Yassin Muhammad Al-Tikriti, and Hassan Muhammad Obaid Al-Obaidi. (1999). Statistical Applications in Physical Education Research, (Dar Al- Kutub for Printing and Publishing, University of Mosul, Mosul).

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