Original Research Article - (2022) Volume 17, Issue 6
Aggressive Behavior And Its Relationship To The Phenomenon Of Bullying Among Young Football Players Aged (17-19) YearsAhmed Thare Hani11*, Muwafaq Obayes Khudhair2 and Hayder Talib Jasim3
*Correspondence: Ahmed Thare Hani1, College of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
The purpose of this paper is to identifying the level of aggressive behavior among young football players aged (17-19) years, identifying the level of bullying among young football players aged (17-19) years , and identifying the relationship between aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying among young football players aged (17-19) years. The researchers used the descriptive approach in the style of correlational relations due to its suitability to the nature of the research problem. As the research community was identified, they are the players of the Baghdad Youth Clubs / Premier League teams at the ages of (17-19) years in football for the season (2021/2022) by (305) players representing the clubs (Al-Shorta, Air Force, Al-Zawraa, Al-Talaba, Amanat Baghdad, Al-Karkh, Al-sinaa, oil, electricity) by (30-35) players for each club, and the research sample was chosen by the intentional method and by (18) players from each of the Baghdad Youth Clubs Premier League so that the number of the sample is (162) and by (53.11%) of the research community To be divided into (2) players for the survey sample, (100) players for the scientific foundation's sample, and (60) players for the application sample. One of the most important results reached by the researcher is that: The aggressive behavior scale proved effective in measuring the phenomenon of young soccer players, and the bullying scale proved effective in measuring the phenomenon of bullying among young soccer players. One of the most important recommendations recommended by the researchers is that: Using the two scales to find out the levels of aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying among players, because of its significant impact on social cohesion among the team, and attention to the psychological preparation of young age groups to reduce the level of aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying in order to qualify them for higher levels in the future.
Sports psychology. Sports exercise. Sports medicine.
The development that the world has reached today in all areas of life reflects the importance of human creative abilities, as well as the importance of all sciences and sports psychology in particular, all of which contribute to the development of the sports field.
The football game is one of the sports team games that require preparation and psychological preparation so that the player can control his emotions and adjust his behaviour as a result of the situations and psychological states he is exposed to accompanied by emotion and excitement during training and during matches due to the influences of the environment. And one of the interests of sports psychology is the study of human behaviour in his behaviour and actions in daily life and when practicing sports activity. This behaviour is not devoid of some hostile manifestations, especially during sports competitions that need contacts, and this behaviour may reach roughness and violence among players in the face of their competitors and their feeling of directing harm to the competitor, especially when special cases occur such as frustration, loss and turning away from winning, and this is what is called behaviour aggressive (Cratty , B. Vaink . 1970).
The roots of aggressive behavior extend to the football fields, despite the existence of disciplinary laws and penalties that fall on players, which are supposed to limit the phenomenon. Competition has an impact on the behavior of the players, as aggressive behavior leads to the deterioration of the social values that we target from playing sports.
And that many aggressive behaviors are the result of the rapid development witnessed by the world, whose effects are reflected on the behavior of people in all aspects and are affected by negative behaviors and phenomena, including the phenomenon of bullying, which has become a semi-general phenomenon and is considered as a very dangerous educational and social problem in our societies, which has negative consequences on the educational and sports process, and adaptation Our children, their mental health, and their social relationships. Bullying and the aggression it carries towards others, whether it is physical, verbal, social, psychological, or electronic, are among the problems that have negative effects, whether on the bully, the victim, or the environment.
Bullying affects the security and psychological structure and social relations of the team, as we find the victim of the bully deprived of participation and socially rejected and feels fear, anxiety and uncomfortable and hesitant in sports participation and exercises, also the bullies have a significant share of the negative effects on them, as they may be subject to deprivation or expulsion from the team, or show deficiencies In benefiting from the exercises, he may also engage in aggressive actions, and this is what we are looking for through our research.
Therefore, the importance of the research comes through the role of the psychological aspect as one of the main requirements in the game of football, as it qualifies the player to perform the physical, motor and skill aspects at appropriate rates. Therefore, the researchers decided to study the aggressive behavior and its relationship to the phenomenon of bullying, which is one of the important phenomena of that behavior, especially among young players, as they are going through a dangerous age stage, which is adolescence.
The psychological factor had and still has a great influence in achieving sporting achievements, as well as helping the athlete to lead himself and overcome the difficulties he faces, and get involved in society. Educational and sports within its walls are many aggressive behaviors as a result of the rapid development witnessed by the world, whose effects were reflected in the behavior of people in all aspects and fields, including youth football teams, which led to the emergence of many behavioral deviations, which take many forms, including (behavioral, social, cognitive and psychological), which leads to disruption of the training process and the social relationship between the players and thus affects their cohesion to be reflected in the results of the team, as we find that these behaviors are increasing among young players as a result of their mixing with each other and the age stage in which they live, which is adolescence, and that this aggressive behavior may be matched by a group Disciplinary penalties may lead to depriving the player of participating in a number of matches, which leads to a decrease in the level of the player and may lead to more complex psychological disorders. The researchers believe that the phenomenon of bullying may be one of the causes of the formation of aggressive behavior among players or is the spark that ignites aggression. at the players. This was confirmed by the researchers with the existence of the problem of bullying and its impact on the behavior of the adolescent individual and his interaction with his family, by looking at some literature and previous studies, so they decided to study the relationship between aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying, and perhaps the results of the current study will help us in limiting this phenomenon and behavior in the future.
• Identifying the level of aggressive behavior among young football players aged (17-19) years.
• Identifying the level of bullying among young football players aged (17- 19) years.
• Identifying the relationship between aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying among young football players aged (17-19) years.
• There is a statistically significant relationship between aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying among young football players aged (17-19) years.
• Human field: Football players for Baghdad Al-Shabab Clubs, ages (17- 19) years, in football for the season (2021/2022).
• Time field: (2/3/2022) to (17/5/2022)
• Spatial field: Baghdad youth clubs stadiums
Research Methodology and Field Procedures
The researchers used the descriptive approach in the style of correlational relations due to its suitability to the nature of the research problem. Community and sample research:
As the research community was identified, they are the players of the Baghdad Youth Clubs / Premier League teams at the ages of (17-19) years in football for the season (2021/2022) by (305) players representing the clubs (Al-Shorta, Air Force, Al-Zawraa, Al-Talaba, Amanat Baghdad, Al-Karkh, alsinaa, oil, electricity) by (30-35) players for each club, and the research sample was chosen by the intentional method and by (18) players from each of the Baghdad Youth Clubs Premier League so that the number of the sample is (162) and by (53.11%) of the research community to be divided into (2) players for the survey sample, (100) players for the scientific foundation's sample, and (60) players for the application sample.
Devices, tools used, and means of collecting information:
The researcher used the following devices and tools:
Arabic and foreign sources and references, aggressive behavior scale, bullying phenomenon scale, legal football field, papers, pens, whistle, data recording form, Sharp calculator.
Field research procedures:
Determine the search variables:
Aggressive behavior scale (Jassim. 2002):
After examining many scientific references, the researchers relied on the aggressive behavior scale prepared by Amer Saeed Jassim, which includes (28) items located in seven domains, namely (hatred, attack, arousal speed, suspicion, verbal aggression, rejection, aggression indirect) , this scale is characterized by its validity to measure the level of aggressive behavior of players in Iraq, as it was conducted on football club players, (The first and last paragraphs have nothing to do with the scale, but were intended to accept or not accept the questionnaire by the respondent, and generally it is given for answering (yes) to the positive paragraphs (one point). and for the answer (no), no degree is awarded, and on the contrary, the negative paragraph was dealt with in Appendix 1 (Appendix 1).
|1||I am ready to answer all questions truthfully and honestly.|
|2||I feel comfortable when I smell the ones I hate.|
|3||I hate people who compete with me to get anything I want.|
|4||I love revenge on those who hurt me.|
|5||I hate the person who refuses to help me and I hate him.|
|6||Respond to the attack with a bigger attack.|
|7||I start hitting when I feel a quarrel.|
|8||If I don't fight, I will never get my right.|
|9||My color blushes when I fail to achieve a certain thing.|
|10||I get upset over the simplest things.|
|11||I almost cry if someone blames me for something I did not do.|
|12||I revolt quickly if people do not believe me and I tell the truth.|
|13||I get angry quickly if a friend teases me with something I don't like.|
|14||People describe me as a skeptic.|
|15||I feel that people are suspicious of my actions.|
|16||People help each other to share their interests.|
|17||I speak strongly with the one who annoys me or provokes me.|
|18||I talk to others in a rough manner when they don't understand me.|
|19||If someone insults me, I respond in kind.|
|20||The sharpness of my tongue makes others fear me.|
|21||Respond kindly to the abuses of others to correct them.|
|22||I rebel against the people I hate.|
|23||I refuse to prefer a responsible colleague to me.|
|24||I am very objectionable.|
|25||I scream at home for trivial reasons when I'm upset.|
|26||Hit my hand hard on anything nearby if I miss a certain situation.|
|27||Discredit my opponent in front of others.|
|28||I am sure I answer all statements clearly.|
Scale of bullying phenomenon (Habib. 2022):
The scale of the bullying phenomenon was used to measure the phenomenon of bullying among young football players for first-division clubs for the season (2021-2022), and it was achieved using the methods of discriminatory validity and validity, as well as confirming the stability of the scale through testing, re-testing, and the alpha coefficient. The bullying phenomenon scale consists of (48) phrases, In front of each statement, there are three levels of response, which are (always - sometimes - never), as the tester puts a mark (correct) in the field that he deems appropriate for the answer that corresponds to it, and the degree of the scale ranges from (1-3) degree the final score of the scale is the sum of the scores of all the expressions, especially since the maximum scores for the scale of bullying phenomenon, so the closer the score of the individual is to these limits, the more bullying and his behaviour (Appendix 2).
|1||Use sharp tools to control the players.|
|2||Throw one of the players to the ground.|
|3||I feel the strength of my personality by controlling the players.|
|4||Ignite discord among the players by encouraging them to quarrel.|
|5||Make fun of the players and mock them.|
|6||Tougher players than their ears or hair.|
|7||I vandalize and damage other people's property.|
|8||Make decisions on behalf of weak players.|
|9||I block players with my feet as they pass in front of me.|
|10||Steal some things from the players.|
|11||Forcibly expel some people from the group I'm in.|
|12||Players accused of actions they did not do.|
|13||Incite some players to hate each other.|
|14||I calibrate one of the players with his physical defects.|
|15||I tease a player in various ways.|
|16||Send messages of fear, threatening and contempt for one of the players.|
|17||I play pranks on one of the players and pretend that another student did it.|
|18||I put dirt in the seat of one of the players.|
|19||Encourage some players to make annoying sounds during the lesson.|
|20||Taking players' money by force.|
|21||Spread radiation and lies among some players.|
|22||Attack one of the players and hit him with a stick, chair or pen.|
|23||He made annoying comments about the physical features and general appearance of a player.|
|24||I deliberately refuse a player's desire to befriend me.|
|25||Some players were forced to flee from the school.|
|26||Twist the arm of one of the players and put him in a narrow place, such as the corner of the row or under the seat.|
|27||Taking the players' food by force.|
|28||Look at one of the players angry looks to intimidate or threaten him.|
|29||I make fun of the players, causing them pain and distress.|
|30||I intentionally ignore a player when he talks to me.|
|31||Force my opinion on one of the players.|
|32||I and my friends refuse to play with one of the players.|
|33||I spit on my teammate in front of the players.|
|34||I am jealous of the success of other players.|
|35||I deliberately damage and sabotage things belonging to a player.|
|36||Cursing some players with obscene words.|
|37||I borrow things from players and don't return them.|
|38||Make annoying comments about a player's marks or ability to read and write.|
|39||I stand in front of one of the players and take his turn by force.|
|40||Pay one of the players and sit in his place.|
|41||He called one of the players obscene titles.|
|42||Draw pictures for students on the board and write funny phrases under them.|
|43||I intentionally hide things belonging to the players.|
|44||Whispering with my colleagues and laughing at one of the players.|
|45||Prevent some players from entering the line.|
|46||Some players were forced to smoke.|
|47||I deliberately interrupt players while they are speaking.|
|48||Unhappy features of the players.|
In order to identify the most important obstacles and difficulties that the researchers may encounter in their research, and in order to overcome them in the main experiment, as well as to determine the extent of the efficiency of the auxiliary work team in implementing and managing tests and measurements, the researchers conducted its exploratory experiment on Tuesday and Wednesday corresponding to 15-16/3/2022, on (6) Players selected randomly from the youth football club students. The questionnaire was distributed to measure the phenomenon of bullying on the first day, and on the second day, the aggressive behavior questionnaire was distributed.
Scientific Basis for the Used Tests
Validity and stability of the scales:
Although the scale of aggressive bullying and the phenomenon of bullying is recent, the researchers found the scientific foundations for the scale of scientific honesty after applying it to a special sample of the scientific foundations (100) players from youth clubs, and verifying the stability of the tests, the researcher used the test method and re-tested the same previous sample as it was applied The test was repeated after (15) days. The researchers extracted the correlation coefficient between the scale of bullying phenomenon and aggressive behavior. Table 1 shows the values of the stability and validity coefficient of the scale of bullying phenomenon and aggressive behaviour. The researcher also extracted the discriminatory ability and internal consistency for each of the scales used (Table 1).
|No.||Scales||Stability||self- validity coefficient|
The researcher distributed the aggressive behaviour scale form to the research sample on Sunday, 20/3/2022, and until Tuesday, 17/5/2022, the bullying phenomenon scale form was distributed under the same conditions as the previous tests. After answering, the data of the two scales were emptied. Statistical methods: The search data was processed through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS).
Results and Discussion
The results display the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, hypothetical mean, calculated (t) value, and significance for the two measures of aggressive behaviour and bullying phenomenon (Tables 2 and 3).
|Variables||Mean||Standard deviation||Hypothetical mean||T value calculated||Level Sig||Type Sig|
|Bullying behavior||125.1389||12.52917||98||12.996||0 .00 0||Sig|
|The significance value is significant if it is < (0.05).|
|Variables||Mean||Standard deviation||correlation coefficient (Pearson||Level Sig||Type Sig|
|Aggressive behavior||51.8889||8.78556||0.467 **||0.004||Sig|
Discussing the results of the research:
It turns out that the young players have highly aggressive behaviour by comparing the arithmetic mean of (51.8889), which is higher than the value of the hypothetical mean of (42) degrees. It is a common behaviour in almost all societies, but there are degrees of aggression, some of which are acceptable and some are desirable, such as self-defence and defending the rights of others, etc., and some are unacceptable and considered destructive and disturbing behaviour in many cases. In football stadiums, aggression is undesirable, but it appears in various forms, including verbal and physical abuse of others, as well as their presence within the same team from non-obedience to the rules and instructions from the coach, verbal altercations with colleagues and others.
The results of the bullying phenomenon scale showed a value of (125.1389) for the arithmetic mean, which is higher than the hypothetical mean value of (98) degrees, and this indicates a high general level of bullying behaviour for young players aged (17-19) years. Youth is one of the important stages in life that an individual goes through because he is going through adolescence, as this stage is characterized by many morphological, social and psychological changes, and the sudden changes that occur to adolescents at this stage may affect them negatively. The adolescent is in a struggle between satisfying the needs and between the customs, traditions and family values, and the greater the pressure on him, the greater the conflict, which leads to a disorder in the adolescent's personality and the emergence of unwanted behaviours. Perhaps bullying is one of the most important of these negative behaviours, which is the external expression of pent-up feelings.
As for the result of the association of the aggressive behaviour scale with the phenomenon of bullying, it appeared as a result of the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) with a value of (0.467). A measure of aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying. The researchers attribute this result to the high results of the two variables due to the coaches being away from the educational side and the weak interest in the behavior of the players only. Most of their interest is in how the team wins, and this is illogical in the age group teams. The results of our research mean that the higher the aggressive behavior of the players, the higher the bullying among the team members. This constitutes an imbalance in social cohesion and relations between players, and bullying is common among males and females, but physical assault is more common among males due to the weak physical structure of females, and the form of bullying in males differs from that of females, and constitutes physical bullying (such as pushing, hitting, kicking, spitting, and biting). Destroying property, scratching, and stealing property are forms of bullying in males), or indirect (emotional) forms of bullying in females, such as ignoring, isolating, spreading rumors, destroying friendships between peers, and social rejection of the victim.
Bullying is characterized by individual behavior in certain ways, in order to gain power at the expense of another person, although most definitions share a general feature as aggressive behavior, and the bully is stronger than the victim is. Several studies indicated that social aggression or indirect bullying is characterized by threatening the victim with social isolation. (David D.Jallaue. 1985). This isolation is achieved through a wide variety of methods, including spreading rumors, refusing to mingle with the victim, bullying other people who mingle with the victim, and criticizing the victim's dress style and other perceived social markers. Aggressive behavior in the future and this is what was reached through our study. Our study also indicates that the player who has aggressive behavior will be a bully to his colleagues at the same time.
Conclusions and Recommendations
According to result, the researchers concluded the following:
• The aggressive behavior scale proved effective in measuring the phenomenon of young soccer players.
• The bullying scale proved effective in measuring the phenomenon of bullying among young soccer players.
• High level of aggressive behavior among young soccer players.
• High level of bullying among young players.
• There is a high correlation between aggressive behavior and bullying of young soccer players.
• The higher the level of aggressive behavior among young soccer players, the higher the level of bullying among players.
• The higher the level of bullying among young soccer players, the higher their level of aggressive behavior.
Based on the researchers' conclusions, they recommended the following:
• Using the two scales to find out the levels of aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying among players, because of its significant impact on social cohesion among the team.
• Attention to the psychological preparation of young age groups to reduce the level of aggressive behavior and the phenomenon of bullying in order to qualify them for higher levels in the future.
• Conducting similar studies on other age groups in football as well as for other sports.
• Emphasis on the coaches to notice the phenomenon of bullying among the players and limit it, and pay attention to the educational and psychological aspects, due to its importance in developing performance.
• Conduct training workshops for coaches of age groups to use new methods of training in a way that suits the players' age, capabilities, and motor abilities.
Amer Saeed Jassim. 2002. Constructing a measure of aggression against athletes and rationing it against soccer players and determining its levels and comparing it according to playing centers, PhD thesis, College of Physical Education / University of Baghdad, p. 99.
Cratty, B. Vaink 1970. Psychology the superior Athlets : ( London , The Macmillan (25) company) p 217.
David D.Jallaue 1985. Understanding motor Development in children (Macmillan publishing company, Indiana university).
Haider Shaker Habib. 2022. Recreational sports activity and its impact on reducing the phenomenon of school bullying for middle school students, Master's thesis, College of Physical Education and Sports Sciences / University of Baghdad, p. 114.