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Delegation of authority and its impact on the development of administrative skills of staff in the Student Activities Section

Ibero-American Journal of Exercise and Sports Psychology

Research - (2021) Volume 16, Issue 4

Delegation of authority and its impact on the development of administrative skills of staff in the Student Activities Section

Amer Hussein Ali1*, Sajit Majeed Jafar2 and Nabil Hussein Abbas2
*Correspondence: Amer Hussein Ali, Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Karbala University, Iraq, Email:
1Physical Education and Sports Sciences, Karbala University, Iraq
2College of Education for Woman, Al-Qadisiyah University, Iraq

Received: 17-Aug-2021 Published: 30-Sep-2021

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to identify delegation and its impact on the development of management skills among the heads of the Student Activity Section in the universities of AL-Furat Al-Awsat. Researchers have used the descriptive method in the survey for its relevance to the research problem is one of the most used approaches in the study of social phenomena, and to achieve the study objectives, a tool (scale) was utilized. Researchers have distributed the scale to the research community members, which are (129) from AL-Furat alawsat University Student Activities Division. Researchers point out that the heads of student activity divisions enjoy an appropriate degree of competence. There is a strong relationship between the administrative organization of the trainers and the level of delegation of powers, and that the delegation of powers effectively contributes to the development of human leadership skills, strengthening human relationships, and raising the level of time management and management skills of trainers. The study recommended the necessity to grant division officials full powers to be able to complete the work to the fullest and to increase the delegation of powers gives an increase in confidence to complete the training work and achieve good results and achievements, and to work on finding a system to follow up the process of delegating powers and not waiting for the officials to carry out the entire mission as well as encouraging the Student Division officials to demand the best conditions for important achievements.

Keywords

Delegation, powers, skills, administration, student activity

INTRODUCCIÓN

Administrative delegation is one of the most important and prominent management constants that I have highlighted in the area of modern management thinking, as it has a significant impact on the promotion of the quality of the performance of the President and subordinates, and hence the progress and evolution of the Organization as a whole where it develops the capacities of subordinates, particularly those at the middle and immediate levels because it is difficult to train subordinates to take risks in decision-making on their own, and only through delegation of authority. Besides, delegating powers also aims to encourage the appropriate and efficient use of human and financial resources and the establishment of institutions that are more flexible and responsive, and thus consolidate performance in general. Also, it involves the development of the capabilities and potentials of leaders especially the middle and direct leaderships, because it is difficult to train subordinates to take risks in self-reliance issuing orders, this can only be done by delegating the powers. Management skills are a critical element in the performance of workers of organizations and institutions in all their forms and sports institutions in particular and develop themselves in line with modern strategies in developing human and financial resources. The primary purpose is to improve their performance and to improve the performance of the institution or organization as a whole (Hamed, 2002). The importance of the research lies in the fact that it discusses a topic of utmost importance and vitality, which is delegation and its impact on the development of managerial skills for the performance of employees, especially under the conditions that sports institutions face, from the development and continuous high achievements, which requires management to devise and investing strategies to formulate policies and strategies that deal with these circumstances in appropriate ways to achieve the objectives of the skills and administrative activities of the individuals working within these institutions ”(Sami, 2010).

Research problem: Any development in the management comes from different ways and means, such as innovating new methods or introducing change procedures at work or in the organizational structure, developing methods that would organize administrative work and achieve the best ways, since we have always seen that administrative work has been muddled and not done as a result of the lack of delegation of authority to personnel in institutions, it seems that overcoming sudden and emergency crises and administrative problems can be done through delegation of authority to personnel in institutions or any other administrative area.

Research objectives: 1- Configure the authority delegation scale. 2- Recognition of delegation of authority and its impact on the development of management skills of the staff of the Department of Student Activities from the point of view of the heads of the student activities divisions of the universities of AL-Furat al-awsat.

Research domains

- Human domain: Heads of Student Activities Division for the Universities of AL-Furat al-awsat.

- Time-domain: December 2, 2018, until April 3, 2019.

- Spatial domain: The headquarters of the student activities departments in the universities of AL-Furat al-awsat.

Methodology

Research methodology: The descriptive approach was used in the survey method for its suitability and the nature of the problem at hand (Mahjoub, 2002: 263).

The research community and sample: The research community has been identified, they are the officials of the student divisions at AL-Furat al-awsat Universities (Karbala - Kufa - Babel - Diwaniyah - Al Samawa), who are (129) officials.

Tools used in the research: The following tools have been used: The questionnaire, Arabic sources and references and Information network.

Steps for making scales:

• Preparing the initial formula for the scale: Through the researchers reviewing of the studies, researches, and literature related to the topic of the research, the researchers identified three areas of the scale:

Measuring the level of delegation of powers in the student activities section.

Characteristics of the administrative organization within the institution.

The relationship between the level of delegation of powers and the development of leadership skills among workers.

It was presented to a group of experts to indicate the extent of its validity, after collecting the forms it was found that the domains are suitable through the use of the (Ca 2) test under the level of significance (0.05) and at the degree of freedom (1) = (3,84).

• Preparing scale paragraphs: Following a review of the sources and references, a series of paragraphs was reached in the initial form, which amounted to 44 paragraph in three areas:

The field of measuring the level of delegation of powers in the Student Activities Department (18) paragraphs.

The field of characteristics of the administrative organization, (12) paragraphs.

The field of the relationship between the level of delegation of powers and the development of leadership skills among workers (14 paragraphs).

• Paragraphs validity: To recognize the validity of the paragraphs, the researchers presented them to a group of experts and specialists. The number of paragraphs was (44) paragraphs. After retrieving the questionnaires from the experts, the researchers collected and emptied the data, where the (Ca 2) test was used under the level of significance (0.05) and at the degree of freedom (1) = (3.84). The results showed the validity of all prepared paragraphs.

• Statistical analysis of paragraphs

- The two groups (external consistency): To identify the distinguishing ability of the scale paragraphs, the researchers used the two peripheral groups, as the researchers verified the ability of the paragraph to distinguish using this method through the construction sample of (90) officials by following the below steps: 1- Total grades are arranged in descending order. 2- Determination of (27%) of the questionnaires that received lower grades and (27%) of the forms that obtained higher grades. Thus, two groups of researchers were formed, each of which consisted of (24) officials.3 -The coefficient of discrimination was calculated for all (44) items of the scale through the use of the (T) test for independent samples. The test (t) of the two independent samples was then applied to determine the statistical significance between the mean of the upper and lower sets of paragraphs. The value (t) of the validity of the paragraphs was adopted by comparing the tabular value (2.01) at the degree of freedom (46) and the level of significance (05), it was shown that all paragraphs are distinct.

• Internal consistency

1. The paragraph’s relation to the domain: This method is considered one of the most scientifically accepted means of calculating the internal consistency of the paragraphs in measuring this matter. ”(Al-Rousan, 1999: 27) Thus,“ each of the paragraphs follows the same path as the areas of the scale as a whole ”(Issawi, 1985: 101) Thus, the researchers extracted the simple correlation coefficients (Pearson) between the scores of the paragraphs and the domain of the scale of the delegation of powers, and to reach the statistical significance, they were compared with the tabular value of (0.217) at the degree of freedom (88) and the level of significance (0 and 05). It was found that all the paragraphs are significant.

2. The relevance of the paragraph to the overall score of the scale.

The two researchers extracted the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) between the score of each paragraph and the total score, and after completing the statistical treatments by using the correlation coefficient and extracted the results through (t) calculated compared to the tabular (t) score of (0.217) under the significance level (0.05) and at the degree of freedom (88), all the paragraphs were significant.

3. Domain correlation with the total score of the scale.

The researchers calculated the simple correlation coefficient (Pearson) for the degree of each field with the total score of the scale.

Scientific indicators of the scale: This has been done through the use of validity and reliability coefficients in the research procedures.

Final Application of Scale: After the scale was prepared in the final form, it was applied to the targeted sample which mounted (39) officials in the Student Activities Division, and the total of its paragraphs was (44) items distributed into three domains.

• Statistical Methods:

The researchers used the following statistical methods:

1. The arithmetic mean.

2. Standard deviation.

3. Ka-square 2.

4. Percentage

5. T-test for two independent samples.

6. Pearson simple correlation coefficient.

Results

Displaying the results of the paragraphs in the field of measuring the level of delegation of powers in the activities section (Table 1)

Table 1. Shows the frequencies and percentages of the responses of the individuals of the research sample to the paragraphs of the field measuring the level of delegation of powers in the student activities section.

Paragraphs Achieved Somewhat Achieved Not Achieved Estimated total Weighted mean Relative weight the sequence of the paragraph in the field
Number Ratio Number Ratio Number Ratio
Employees can act completely in your absence. 32 40 26 32,5 22 27,5 170 2,12 70,83 15
The bulk of your work can be done with workers. 40 50 17 21,25 23 28,75 177 2,21 73,75 10
There is enough time to talk to workers about the wages of work 37 46,25 27 33,75 16 20 181 2,26 75,41 7
The employees constantly interfere to ask about some decisions or instructions 39 48,75 18 22,5 23 28,75 176 2,20 73,33 11
The assigned work can be completed on the specified dates without having to work overtime 42 52,5 16 20 22 27,5 180 2,25 75 8
The authorization granted to employees is commensurate with their abilities and times. 38 47,5 23 28,75 19 23,75 179 2,23 74,58 9
The work delegated to subordinates is not being re-performed. 31 38,75 25 31,25 24 30 167 2,08 69,58 16
Problems in assigning workers to other jobs or responsibilities 25 31,25 30 37,5 25 31,25 160 2 66,66 18
Employees who are authorized to perform work on scheduled dates. 45 56,25 20 25 15 18,75 190 2,37 79,16 1
Workers rejoice when you ask them to do any other job. 47 58,75 14 17,5 19 23,75 188 2,35 78,33 3
There's time for business planning and other administrative tasks. 35 43,75 25 31,25 20 25 175 2,18 72,91 12
Train workers on an ongoing basis. 43 53,75 17 21,25 20 25 183 2,28 76,25 5
You have the skill to set goals. 33 41,25 27 33,75 20 25 173 2,16 72,08 13
Don't get too busy with routine work. 28 35 29 36,25 23 28,75 165 2,06 68,75 17
Every worker in the Working Group has an equal amount of workload. 42 52,5 18 22,5 20 25 182 2,27 75,83 6
Monitor subordinates' errors resulting from work completion 31 38,75 29 36,25 20 25 171 2,13 71,25 14
There are standards for performing work which are adhered to by the subordinates 45 56,25 15 18,75 20 25 185 2,31 77,08 4
Your workers will adequately abide by your directions 44 55 21 26,25 15 18,75 189 2,36 78,75 2

Presentation of the results of paragraphs in the area of administrative organization characteristics within the enterprise (Table 2).

Table 2. Shows the frequencies and percentages of the responses of the individuals of the research sample to the paragraphs in the area of administrative organization characteristics within the enterprise.

Paragraphs Achieved Somewhat Achieved Not Achieved Estimated total Weighted mean Relative weight the sequence of the paragraph in the field
Number Ratio Number Ratio Number Ratio
There is a clear and specific job description for each worker 35 43,75 27 33,75 18 22,5 177 2,21 73,75 9
There are sound systems for following up on delegation within the department 51 63,75 15 18,75 14 17,5 197 2,46 82,08 3
The delegated staff enjoys full powers to perform his work 40 50 15 18,75 25 22,5 175 2,18 72,91 10
There is clarity and stability in work systems, methods and procedures 51 63,75 19 23,75 10 12,5 201 2,51 83,75 1
There are parallels between authority and responsibility. 39 48,75 15 18,75 26 32,5 173 2,16 72,08 11
There is a parity between the additional tasks that are delegated 49 61,25 18 22,5 13 16,25 196 2,45 81,66 4
The working procedures are very clear. 50 62,5 20 25 10 12,5 200 2,50 83,33 2
The administrative and functional organization of the leadership is stable 44 55 18 22,5 18 22,5 186 2,32 77,5 5
Senior management circulates information to subordinates on an ongoing basis. 33 41,25 25 22,5 22 27,5 171 2,13 71,25 12
Communications have ease and flexibility 43 53,75 15 31,25 22 27,5 181 2,26 75,41 6
Senior management makes clear its policy vision. 37 46,25 25 22,5 18 22,5 179 2,23 74,58 7
Senior management provides modern equipment at the enterprise to perform tasks. 42 52,5 14 17,5 24 30 178 2,22 74,16 8

Presentation of the results of the paragraphs on the relationship between the level of delegation of authority and the development of leadership skills among workers (Table 3).

Table 3. Shows the frequencies and percentages of research sample responses to paragraphs of the relationship between delegation of authority and staff leadership skills development.

Paragraphs Achieved Somewhat Achieved Not Achieved Estimated total Weighted mean Relative weight the sequence of the paragraph in the field
Number Ratio Number Ratio Number Ratio
Delegation increases the effectiveness of decentralization in decision-making. 31 38,75 28 35 21 26,25 170 2,12 70,83 7
Delegation leads to the rapid completion of leadership tasks. 35 43,75 23 28,75 22 27,5 173 2,16 72,08 9
Delegation leads to the preparation of future leaderships among subordinates 35 43,75 28 35 17 21,25 178 2,22 74,16 6
Delegation of authority leads to the acceptance of additional actions by subordinates 33 41,25 22 27,5 25 31,25 168 2,1 70 11
The greater delegation, the greater the innovative potential in solving administrative problems. 53 66,25 15 18,75 12 15 201 2,51 83,75 1
Delegation leads to the ability to adapt to an emergency. 28 35 29 36,25 23 28,75 165 2,06 68,75 12
Delegation increases self-reliance in completing work. 32 40 25 31,25 23 28,75 169 2,11 70,41 8
Delegation leads to more sound thinking about how to do business. 50 62,5 20 25 10 12,5 200 2,5 83,33 2
The delegation shall not delay and disrupt the completion of the work due to the absence of administrative leadership 27 33,75 28 35 25 31,25 162 2,02 67,5 14
Delegation saves time at all administrative levels 49 61,25 18 22,5 13 16,25 196 2,45 81,66 3
Delegating motivates workers to plan their time to get work done 29 36,25 26 32,5 25 31,25 164 2,05 68,33 13
Delegation contributes to eliminating isolationism for some workers 48 60 15 18,75 17 21,25 191 2,38 79,58 4
Delegation contributes to a sense of satisfaction and belonging to the work environment 32 40 27 33,75 21 26,25 171 2,13 71,25 10
Delegation provides a human relationship pattern in understanding. 37 46,25 25 31,25 18 22,5 179 2,23 74,58 5

Results

Heads of the Student Activities Division have an appropriate level of delegation of authority.

There is a strong relationship between the administrative organization of trainers and the level of delegation of authority.

The delegation of powers actively participates in developing human leadership skills, strengthening human relations, and raising the level of time management and organization skills of trainers.

Recommendations

Give the people's officials full powers to enable them to complete the work.

Increasing delegation of authority gives greater confidence to complete the training work and achieve good results and accomplishments and work to find a system to follow up the process of delegating powers and not to wait for officials until the implementation of the entire task. Besides, officials of the medical division carry out the tasks and demands to create the best conditions, especially if there is a preparation period for holding important gatherings.

References

Abd al-Rahman Muhammad Issawi: 1985, Experimental Measurement in Psychology and Education, Cairo, Dar Al Maaref University.

Ahmed Ismail Hajji: 2005, Educational Administration and School Administration, Arab Thought House for Publishing and Distribution, Cairo.

Al-Rousan, Farouk: 1999, Methods of Measurement and Diagnosis in Education, 1st Edition, University of Jordan, Amman: Dar Al-Fikr for Printing and Publishing.

Balsam Ahmad al-Samarrai: 2000, Evaluation of the performance of scientific departments in private colleges, College of Education, Master Thesis, Al-Mustansiriya University.

Basem Al-Hamiri: Administrative Skills, Al-Hamed, 2010, Publishing and Distribution House, Amman, Jordan, 1st Edition.

Hamed, Samir: 2002, A scientific vision for managing sports bodies, King Saud University, Riyadh.

Ibrahim Afif Muhanna: 2006, The relationship between the delegation of authority and effective decision-making in academic departments from the viewpoint of faculty members in Palestinian universities, MA thesis, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine.

Samea, Zaid: 2010, The Impact of Organizational Culture on Job Performance, published MA Thesis, Helwan University: Egypt.

Wajih Mahjoub, 2002, Fundamentals of Scientific Research and its Curriculum, Amman: Curriculum Publishing House.

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