Full Length Research Article - (2023) Volume 18, Issue 2
Geographical Notions of the Scientific Research Products of Dr. Yousef Yahya TamaasNada Jawad Mohammed Ali*
*Correspondence: Nada Jawad Mohammed Ali, College of Education for Girls, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 02-Mar-2023 Published: 16-Mar-2023
Many discussed the intellectual awakening of the Arab nation and wrote about the prominent figures of Arab and Iraqi geographical thought. The research aims to clarify the personas and contributions of the academic Prof. Dr. Yousif Yahya Tumas, who provided Arab and international geographical thought with research, works and literature that contribute to building our contemporary lives. The researcher relied on the materials in libraries as well as about entering the file of Dr. Yousif at the University of Baghdad - College of Education for Girls, as well as meeting with those close to him.
Among his paramount contributions is his participation in the seventies with the Ministry of Planning in his study on the subject of roads and related to measuring the average speed of the means of transport in two ways, which at the time is the most recent in the world and the first in Iraq, as traffic movement is a necessary indicator to determine the importance of roads and highlight its role in transporting people from the starting place to the target place, as well as the significance of the area to which the movement is attracted, and confirms that he is one of the geographers who depended a lot on applied geographical studies with a utilitarian trend and using quantitative and statistical methods with treatments and according to the need of the subject, as well as his writings in various geographical disciplines.
Our professor won a number of awards and appreciation letters, the most important of which is the medal of the French Geographical Society and a diploma of honor in the French Geographical Society. Moreover, he is among the only three Arabs who received this distinction.
The presented research included three topics, the first included the research problem, hypothesis, objective and significance of the research, the second was the scientific and professional biography of Prof. Dr. Yousif Yahya Tumas. As for the third topic, it is the scientific specialization and the intellectual approach of Prof. Dr. Yousif Yahya Tumas and what he presented to geography, as well as the impact he left on contemporary geographical thought, his philosophy, and his various scientific interests.
Geographical thought. Yousif Yahya Tumas. Contemporary geography. Geographical figures. Cities. Regional and urban planning
Human geography is one of the departments of geography, which means the study of the interrelationships between people and the surrounding environment, and focuses on the spatial organization in which people's lives, activities and interactions with nature are shaped. Many have researched the intellectual vigilance of the Arab nation and written about the media of Arab and Iraqi geographical thought.
The research aims to give a glimpse into the life and personal contributions of the academic researcher Prof. Dr. Youssef Yahya Tamaas, who provided the Arab and international geographical thought with works that contribute to building our contemporary lives. Prof. Dr. Youssef Yahya's writings were characterized as changing and renewed in terms of content, curriculum and goals, and this made him able to understand the constituent system of the place , so it became necessary to review the history of the efforts of this professor, who actively contributed to the development of the march of geography, whether inside the country or at the level of the Arab world through his active role in supervising projects and research on the planning and development of many regions of Algerian cities and villages and he was credited with solving problems of a geographical nature.
Problem of the research
The problem of the study revolves around the following questions: -
1. Did Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas play an influential role in the Iraqi and Arab geographical school?
2. Did he have a specific approach to geography, what is his philosophy and how does he think?
3. What are the additions made by Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas to the geographical school in Iraq and in the Arab world?
4. What are his main interests?
• Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas has played a prominent and influential role in the geographical school through his intellectual products and contributions to research methods in geography and his role in keeping pace with contemporary curricula in geography.
• He used most of the available approaches, so he did not adhere to a specific approach. In one author, you find more than one approach ,and he has an intellectual and philosophical view in analyzing topics
• - Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas presented many and prominent additions to the geographical school in Iraq through his works of scientific value in geography and economics, whether through books or published scientific research or through the graduation of many professors and researchers from his students who have learned from him during the period he studied in Iraqi and Arab universities.
• He has a long history in reviving the Islamic geographical heritage,through his contributions and numerous publications and researches.
The research aims to identify a distinguished Iraqi scientific figure with a great deal of science and knowledge, as he is one of the scientists and thinkers of Iraq in the fields of geography, as he represented a scientific encyclopedia in geography and scientific research methods.
Introducing Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas and highlighting his philosophy, thinking, additions and contributions to research methods, general geography, urban Geography , regionalism and urban planning.
Data resources: The research sources relied on
1. The personal files of Prof. Dr. Youssef .
2. The personal interviews were conducted by Dr. Salah Mohsen Jassim ,Prof. Dr. Rafal Ibrahim Taleb, and I had the honor to be one of his students at the Bachelor of Arts Faculty – University of Baghdad and my supervisor at the master's and doctoral students at the course stage,as well as library sources related to the subject of study
The Practical Framework
Biography of Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas
Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas was born on July 7, 1948 and grew up in Hasan Pasha, Al-Safina neighborhood,Adhamiya , Baghdad ,from a middle-class family.He was influenced by his father a lot despite the simplicity of his culture. He was born in 1913 and worked as a day labourer and died in 1981 , as most of the Iraqis at that stage, as his father was not a degree holder, but he learned honesty and integrity from him and derived determination and there is no impossible word in life. This had a great impact on the construction of his personality. His mother was born in 1935 and was characterized by simplicity and despite her young age, but she was one of the mothers who urge her sons to study and learn and is still alive. our professor got married at the age of 28 in 1976 and he had a beautiful journey called a marriage trip in which he toured between Baghdad, Cairo, Tunisia and Algeria. He gave birth to five males and two females. His first son was Qutaiba, a graduate of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Sarah, a graduate of Science, the Department of Computing, and completed the Master in bad for South Korea. As for twins ( Mohammed and Yousr), they graduate of the Faculty of Engineering, Yousr, a graduate of Languages , and the latest graduate of the Faculty of Medicine, Osama, he practiced as a doctor (Figure 1).
Scientific and professional background
Dr. Youssef graduated from primary school in 1960as he moved between the schools of Al-Ahli and Mahdia, and in 1963 he graduated from Yarmouk Intermediate,and in 1965 he graduated from the preparatory stage of the struggle and was ranked first among his peers (Y.Y. Tamaas, Private Conversation,February,2017).
He joined the Faculty of Education and his desire was when choosing the English language department, but during the test and interview it was noted that he had the highest degree in geography and the committee felt that he should enter the Department of Geography as he was convinced by it and acquainted with their opinion , our professor obtained the first place in the four stages of the university he was superior and one of the distinct elements known to the professors, distinguished by the power of observation , and the inimitable mentality, and this is one of the most important specifications of geographical work.
Our doctor is apprenticed by a group of the first group of professors of geography and of the auxiliary materials from them from the end of the term, and some of them are alive, God extended in their ages, such as Dr. Hassan Aliwi Al-Khayyat, Dr. Ali Mohammed Al-Mayah, Dr. Ibrahim Shawkat, Dr. Abdul Wahab Al-Dabbagh and Dr. Mohammed Rashid and Dr. Ahmed Habib Rasoul and Dr. Mohammed Hamed Al-Taie ,Dr. Ibrahim Sharif ,Dr. Ahmed Najmuddin ,Dr.Naji Abbas ,Dr.Tawfiq Hussein Al-Khashab.
Professors without specialization are dr. Jaber Abdul Hamid Jaber Department of Educational Psychology and Dr. Jawad Ali, Abdullah Al-Fayyad and Dr. Naji Hassan, Dr. Fadel Hussein from the History Department.
Dr. Youssef worked in the Ministry of Education as a teacher immediately after graduation and he joined the graduate studies in 1972,after taking a study leave from the ministry at that time, and she received a master's degree in 1974 and was entitled (Daily Shopping Patterns Of Perishable Goods In Baghdad City) Shopping Patterns Of Perishable Goods In Baghdad City Under the supervision of Dr. Hamid Hassan Taher, a teacher at the University of Maysan and Dr. Sabih Youssef Taher, a teacher at the University of Mosul. Munther Abdul Majeed Al-Badri, a teacher at the University of Baghdad, and Dr. Fayrouz Mahmoud Hassan.
He then obtained a mission to the University of Constantinople, which was in 1975 and continued as a teacher until 1979, at the University of Constantinople in Algeria, where he studied the subject of urban planning during the period of the mission and in the opinion of the doctor that the subject and its curricula are more developed compared to Iraq.
After that, his services were transferred to the University of Baghdad, and that was in 1981 in the Faculty of Arts/ Department of Geography, where he was nominated to complete his doctorate at the end of 1993 and completed the requirements in 1997, and his thesis was entitled ((Spatial distribution of religious land uses in the city of Baghdad )) . Saleh Faleh Hassan Al-Hiti has obtained a distinction and is the first graduate to receive a distinction rate with the recommendation to print his thesis.
He studied several disciplines of preliminary studies: Urban Geography, Life, Seas and Oceans, Eurasia, Europe, Environment, Regional Planning, Arab Homeland, Iraq, Research Methods. The graduate subjects were urban problems, environmental problems, geographical thought, and historical geography.
He supervised a group of master's theses and doctoral theses in a variety of disciplines of geographical thought, cities and environment ,and contributed to the discussions of many students of master's and doctoral studies alike, and has contributed to several scientific conferences abroad and within the country amounted to 26 conferences.
The Most Important Certificates
The scientific certificates obtained by Prof. Dr. are
1. Bachelor of Geography /Faculty of Education - University of Baghdad 1969.
2. Master / Center for Urban and Regional Planning – Faculty of Engineering – University of Baghdad 1974.
3. Ph.D. Faculty of Arts – University of Baghdad 1997.
4. Diploma of honor of the French Geographical Society in February 2001.
5. He received the medal of the French Geographical Society in 2001 for his research efforts,knowing that he is the only Iraqi and the third Arab to receive this medal ,and he is one of the 58 people in the world who received this medal, which is reliable in the French Yearbooks in 2002.
6. Winter Course on Geographic Technologies from the University of Mayes in Germany with distinction in 2004.
7. Certificate of Scientific Qualification in Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing from Stony Brook University - New York /United States in March 2006.
8. Certificate of Appreciation from the Stony Brook University Archaeological Society/New York -United States in 2006/Archaeological Conference Iraqis (Figure 2).
Scientific and Career Positions
As for the most important scientific and functional positions held by Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tahamas
1. Teacher in secondary education in the education of Baghdad Al-Karkh.
2. Assistant Director of Al-Mamoun Preparatory School for Boys in Karkh Education.
3. Professor in the Department of Geography – Faculty of Earth Sciences/ University of Constantinople in Algeria for the years 1975-1979.
4. Scientific researcher at the General Directorate of Educational Planning – Ministry of Education.
5. Assistant lecturer in the Department of Geography - Faculty of Arts – University of Baghdad 1981.
6. Teacher in the Department of Geography in 1984.
7. Assistant Professor in the Department of Geography 1988.
8. He was awarded the title of professor on23/3/1993.
9. Secretary of the Iraqi Geographical Society for the years 1988-1992.
10. President of the Iraqi Geographical Society for the 1992-2002 electoral cycle and for three consecutive sessions.
The most important scientific activities
1. President of the Fourth Iraqi Geographical Conference in 1992.
2. President of the Fifth Iraqi Geographical Conference in 1993.
3. President of the Sixth Iraqi Geographical Conference in 1994.
4. President of the Seventh Iraqi Geographical Conference in 1995.
5. President of the Eighth Iraqi Geographical Conference 1996.
6. Secretary of the Council of the Faculty of Arts 1997-2000AD
7. Assistant Dean for Administrative Affairs 1998.
8. Assistant Dean for Scientific Affairs and Graduate Studies for the years 2000-2004.
9. Head of the Department of Geography – Faculty of Arts - University of Baghdad 2005.
Through which I used him as one of the members in the establishment of geographical departments in Iraqi universities and he was also used to open graduate studies within Iraqi universities (Y.Y. , Tamaas, special interview, March,2017),(File, miscellaneous papers).
Scientific Specialization and Intellectual Approach of Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas
Dr. Youssef's scientific specialization and geographical thought have emerged since the beginning of his writings and he dealt with many research geographical topics from his own perspective, depending on the scientific knowledge he received at the hands of many of the first geographical researchers who carry the geographical thought from different schools (European and American), as the doctor was distinguished by his departure from the beliefs of the old schools and his adherence to the ideas of modern schools of the concept of geography. This is what characterized him with talent, acumen and selfconfidence made him have the ability to create. However, despite his use of the quantitative method in his research and within his methodology, he refused to exaggerate and apply it only to mathematical equations, shapes and illustrations. From his point of view, it leads to geographical distances from its location and correct work.
Dr. Youssef moved away from all that is urgent and my time and I think it is a whirlwind and then go towards the original geographical thought and among his sayings (((All the modern vocabulary of food security, quantitative, globalization, remote sensing and geographic information systems is what is the most urgent vocabulary on geography and then go away)))(Tamas. Y.Y. Private Conversation, March 2017) and indeed was not written in this direction, although it is one of the topics that appeal to researchers.
And the same vision, there are other Iraqi geographers who followed the same vision, trying to limit these means, considering them a deception in the robe of mourning, covering up ignorance and leading to the loss of the essence of geography ( Al-Samak,2021).
Published Research and Studies
Intellectual output represents the fruit of the mind of the researcher and the thinker and reflects a picture of his historical and cultural scientific development and reflects the status of his homeland in societies within scientific and civilizational societies, and thus represents a national wealth m Governments duty attention and preservation (Abdullah Al-Qadir and Muhammad, 2007).
The doctor has more than fifty (50) researches and studies published in many scientific journals in Iraq and the Arab world in Egypt ,Syria, Kuwait ,Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Jordan , diversified in various human geographical fields, which distinguishes him from other books in various disciplines with scientific presentation of some of them Table 1 (Table 1).
|No.||Title||Journal Name||Place of Publication||Year||Area|
|1||Measuring the speed of cars on public roads in Iraq||Ministry of Planning||Iraq||1972||Transfer|
|2||Regional disparity in the distribution of health services in Iraq||Journal of the Syndicate of Health Professionals||Iraq||1975||Geography Services|
|3||Regional disparity in the distribution of kindergartens in Iraq||Iraqi Red Crescent Society Magazine||Iraq||1981||Geography Services|
|4||Regional disparity in the distribution of kindergartens in Jordan||Arab Town Magazine/Arab Towns Organization||Kuwait||1981||Geography Services|
|5||Regional disparity in the distribution of educational services in Iraq||Arab Research and Studies Institute||League of Arab States||1984||Geography Services|
|6||Environmental Standards in Kindergarten Planning in Iraq||Journal of Generational Studies||Kuwait||1986||Urban Geography|
|7||Spatial distribution of health services in Saudi Arabia||Journal of Gulf and Gezira Studies.||Kuwait||1988||Geography Services|
|8||Proposed transport projects in the city of Baghdad (Baghdad Metro)||Arab Town Magazine/Arab Towns Organization||Kuwait||1988||Geography of urban transport|
|9||Parking in cities " Principles and foundations"||Journal of Arab Towns Organization/Arab Towns Organization||Kuwait Issue 29||1988||Geography of urban transport|
|10||Green Zones in Cities||Cultural Magazine/University of Jordan||Jordan||1988||Urban Geography|
|11||The Role of Arabs in the Development of Marine Sciences||Center for the Revival of Scientific and Arab Heritage||Iraq||1988|| Geographical reasoning|
|12||City and traffic accidents||Arab City Magazine/Arab Organization of Cities||Kuwait||1989||Geography of urban transport|
|13||Regional Planning in Iraq||the Journal of Gulf and Arabian Peninsula Studies||Kuwait||1990||Combined|
|14||Desertification and Arab Economic Integration||Journal of Arab Studies||Beirut||1990||Environment|
|15||The concept of geography and its importance||Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society||Iraq||1996||Combined|
|16||Geographical Studies in Iraq||Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society||Iraq||1995|| Geographical reasoning|
|17||Baghdad Religious Radiation Center||Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society||Iraq||1996||Urban|
|18||the Philosophy of Geography||Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society||Iraq||1995|| Geographical reasoning|
|19||Fossil fuels and environmental pollution||Journal of the Syrian Geographical Society||Syria||1997||Environment|
|20||The Quantitative Trend in Geography between Objectivity and Exaggeration||Journal of Literature / Journal of Geographical Research||of Algeria|| Geographical reasoning|
|21||Urban ramming incidents in Anbar Governorate||Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society||Iraq||1997||mass transit|
|22||Regional differences and ways to measure them(an applied study on Iraq )||Journal of the College of Arts/ University of Baghdad||Iraq||2002||Development geography|
|23||Damask Geography||Al Manhal Magazine||Saudi Arabia||1997|| Geographical reasoning|
|24||Location and position between originality and contemporaryity||Al Manhal Magazine||Saudi Arabia||1997|| Geographical reasoning|
|25||The City in Arab Geographical Thought||Journal of the Faculty of Arts No. 52||Iraq||2001|| Geographical reasoning|
|26||Locusts and Desertification in the Arab World||Arts Magazine/ Baghdad||Iraq||2002||Environment|
|27||Man and the Environment between the Geographical Perspective and the Philosophy of History - A Study in Geographical Thought||Arts Magazine/ Baghdad||Iraq||2003|| Geographical reasoning|
|28||Speed and Spot Speedon Highway 2001||Arts Magazine/ Baghdad||Iraq||Transfer|
|29||Islam and Other Religions in Baghdad||the Iraqi Scientific Academy||Iraq||2002||Population|
|30||Transportation and Arab Economic Integration||Journal of Arab Studies||Beirut||1990||Transfer|
|31||Urbanization and environmental degradation in the Arab world||Journal of Arab Studies||Beirut||1995||Environment|
|32||Determinism, possibility and probability||Journal of the Faculty of Education / Mustansiriya University||Iraq||1995|| Geographical reasoning|
|33||Road Accidents in Qadisiyah Governorate||Geographical Society||Iraq||1997||mass transit|
|Source: The researcher's work based on the published researches of Dr. Yousef Yahya.|
His writings varied and took different topics and can be divided into several areas as follows
Geography of transport and urban transport
• In his research, measuring the rate of speed at the outset, he mentions the difference in the bases used in classifying roads from one country to another according to the difference in the bases used for each classification. They may be classified according to their kinetic importance, including the classification of the famous Swiss engineer Lucorius, as he classified roads into seven categories, where he gave road No. (1) the main road, and the importance ranges up to Road No. (7), which connects the car to the doors of the dwellings , and determined the speed of vehicles on external highways, based on several criteria, including the type of vehicle, the maximum speed limit, the type of road, the speed limits, and whether the road has two separate lanes and is there a middle traffic island or fence (Tamas,1972).
Inland transportation has several researches, the most important of which
• Urban ramming incidents in Anbar Governorate and road accidents in Qadisiyah Governorate, which includes an assessment of roads in urban centers and ways to develop them, as it discusses the density of networks and their morphology within cities, whether major or substreets, the extent of their absorptive capacity and their negative effects of accidents and ramming, as well as what causes road congestion and noise pollution. The two researches used the descriptive approach with the quantitative method (Taamas,1997).
• In his research tagged parking in cities and tagged " principles and foundations" , and through which the doctor explains the idea and types of parking and what factors affect the demand for parking, including the increase in the population and the increase in the number of cars and the range of urban land uses and a range of other economic factors,as well as factors of scientific and technological development, which affects the public transport system as a whole. Thamaas,1997)
• In his research published in 2001, a study talking about the speed of cars in Baghdad (Tamaas,2001) and this research was complementary to his first research (measuring the speed of cars on public roads in Iraq), which was carried out at the request of the Ministry of Transport at the time and was the first Iraqi study of its kind and obtained a letter of thanks from the Minister of Transport for the completion of this type of study (Tamaas.Y.Y., Personal Conversation,February,2017).
Regional Geography and Regional Urban Planning
• By giving planned solutions to address the problem of addressing it in a specific research as happened in 1990.When he wrote about regional planning in Iraq, he pointed out in the research that the characteristics of economic development in Iraq in the period leading up to 1968, the existence of variation in the level of spatial development between the provinces, as the previous period of economic development policies emphasized sectoral development, which is specific to certain sectors and not others, and this had some negative aspects in terms of development efforts concentrated in a limited number of provinces and sectors, which were concentrated in the capital and some other cities such as Basra and Nineveh , The doctor believes that between the period 1968 and after the seventies showed interest and positive in the national development plans and in the distribution of spatial justice between the provinces of the country and this achieves a balance to some extent, and compared the pattern of spatial distribution of investments of national development plans and the spatial distribution of population concentration with the spatial distribution of industrial institutions and areas of cultivated land and educational and health services, and wrote that there is a growing trend to implement the ambition of the concerned and planning authorities to try to reduce the severity of spatial disparities between the provinces of the country, but did not achieve ambition and is still urgent need for support and in order to reduce the disparity, which needs to intensify efforts at all levels Administrative and information to create a floor Correct in planning , regional planning in Iraq The objective of this research is to develop a comprehensive regional development plan that depends on the potential of the regions and their needs and to work for equitable growth between the regions of the same country to reach equitable development between the regions, which aims to reduce differences between regions and achieve regional balance (Phone call to Dr. Youssef on 10/12/2022, shows the strong relationship between geography and planning on the one hand and regional development on the other.) Thamaas ,1990)
• In his research on regional differences and ways of measuring them(an applied study on Iraq), the doctor used statistical data and analysis with the Williamson equation to measure regional differences. He also used a fair concentration ratio to compare the development of population concentration and industrial employment for a certain period. One of the results of the study was that the doctor drew attention to the provinces that received the most investment from others are the developed provinces relative to others such as Baghdad, Basra and others, as well as cumulative investments in development policies. One of the recommendations is the orientation of development investments to reduce differences between Iraqi regions.( Thamaas ,1995).
• His research on the regional disparity in the distribution of educational services in Iraq, as the study aimed to show the reality of educational services in Iraq and reveal the geographical distribution of educational services and their suitability for population densities. Educational services are one of the events that cities have practiced and provide to their residents, and they have a great impact on the cultural development of societies (Samarrai,2020).
In his research of man and the environment between the geographical perspective and the philosophy of history, the doctor turns towards the philosophy of geography by indicating the trends of geographers between the determinists and the two possibilities, and through my own knowledge of the doctor, who knows him as I know that he is from the harmonious school, so he clarified the alternative to the ecosystem rather than the natural and human disciplines. He stated that geography is defined by spatial analysis, environmental analysis and complex regional analysis, which combines the two, which is a consensual trend, and spatial analysis focuses its attention on the locations and distributions of phenomena and interactions based on the surface of the earth(Ashour,2012). The use of environmental systems that contain in their components the elements of the interconnected and interacting environment with each other in a way that makes them distinct from other systems, and each of which retains its own characteristics (Ghanem, 2013, p. 209) ( Alghanim, 2013, p. 209). As for the regional analysis, the complex analysis, which is the study of places as a spatrical unit of the earth is homogeneous in its phenomena and the application of physical geography studies in general urban studies, whether rural or urban studies, the class of fish remains (2011) .
As for his research, which is marked with determinism, possibility and probability, it deals with the study of geographical schools, and then shows how the French school of possibility came as a response to the German school by recognizing the great role of the human being and what he does by modifying his basic environment, and explains the development of geographical philosophies and their importance in the development of geography, and the importance of the school as a compromise between those schools, it is interpreted as traffic signals, where man walks in defying the natural and human conditions when he has the ability and conditions are favorable and stops when the conditions, whether natural or not, it is a potential school between the two, that gives each school a chance to prove its point through the environmental conditions and factors surrounding the phenomena. Here, he shows when he explains schools and theory of building civilizations. This research shows clearly the development of geographical philosophies and their importance in the development of geography.
In most of his research, he moves us from the stage of clear scientific knowledge to the stage of thinking and geographical philosophy, which helps his readers with new horizons and opens the closed doors, and showed the extent of his interest in geographical thought as the basis of the philosophy of geography.
Man and the environment between the geographical perspective and the philosophy of history - a study in geographical thought, this research is directed towards the moderate environment school because it is the moderate trend between deterministic and potential schools and explains the theory of challenge and response and how a human being can build a civilization when there are difficult circumstances for man to challenge. This theory provides us with a cognitive framework that describes the relationship between man and his environment throughout history. He stated that geography is defined by spatial analysis, environmental analysis and complex regional analysis, which combines the two, so it is a consensual trend, and in which the doctor expresses realism far from the exaggeration in which researchers characterized the possibility and determinism school (Tamas, 2003).
The city in the Arab geographical thought mentions the contributions of the Arabs in which they helped to liberate themselves from Western cultural hegemony and its psychological effects, which had a clear impact on the attempt to decay the civilization of Arab urban thought and its reflection on the Arab city, and shows the interest of the Arabs by focusing on the idea of describing the cities with a historical overview of them and the most important effects in them ,as well as the interest in transport methods in terms of their directions, topography and access roads to those cities(Tamaas, 2001).
The quantitative trend in geography between objectivity and exaggeration , the research shows that the doctor is one of the opponents who are drawn behind the exaggeration of the modern vocabulary of quantity, sensing and information systems without a philosophical and logical basis and turned to a method rather than a method in a prolonged and boring way, Tamaas (2001) pointed out that "it is a way to write a lot ,with a way to do little" (p. 165).
In the philosophy of geography, he wrote about geographical development and referred to it as an independent branch with a methodology. He also referred to the emergence of many geographical studies published in many specialized and general journals inside and outside Iraq. He explained from the analysis of those studies that there is no specific trend that highlights a specific methodological method. In this research, he emphasizes that it is not in the interest of geography to adhere to the methodology and method of research and its means. It is also not possible to diversify and complicate the topics of geography first, and then the multiplicity of methods, means and geographical approaches secondly, as well as the difference of experience, ability and philosophical outlook among researchers (Tamaa, 2001).
Geographical studies in Iraq, a study of research published in the Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society, a critical intellectual study of the research issued by the Iraqi Geographical Society for the period (62-1993) and its number (217), in which the doctor reviewed the achievements of Iraqi geographical researchers published in the Iraqi Geographical Society and for a specific period. The study showed the prevalence of human geographical research, and this is certainly due to the capacity of human disciplines and the renewal and change that accompanies it, and it was the largest share of the specialization of cities followed by geographical thought, and it also showed that the quantitative trend was from its natural geographical share before human specialization.
Trends were classified according to the branches and fields of geography, and research in human geography advanced by (86%), occupying the urban Geography by (28), researching first place and researching geographical thought (26) by second place,while it came in second place by natural geography by (14%). It also addressed the methods by which research was treated. The descriptive approach was dominant by (82%). This high percentage came from the first writings of geographers, followed by the quantitative approach by (18%), which is a new approach in the writings for that stage (Tamas, 1995).
In his research on the spatial distribution of health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Tamaas, 1986). The research showed a significant development in health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the period between 1970 (1390AH) and 1980 (1400AH), and this development was accompanied by a positive trend of reducing the disparity in the distribution of health services to different regions of the Kingdom. The number of doctors increased from 1025 to 4882, an increase of 412%. This contributed to reducing the number of people per doctor from 6130 people / doctor to 1569 people / doctor and to make the Kingdom in a privileged position compared to many countries of the Arab world, noting that the increase in the number of non-Saudi doctors was much higher than the increase in the number of non-Saudi doctors was much higher than the increase in the number of Saudi doctors. This increase was accompanied by the increase in other elements of health services represented by the number of hospitals, beds, health centers and health staff. There has also been a positive development in the field of medical specialties, as their diversity and spatial distribution has increased to include all regions of the Kingdom, although the degree of diversity of medical specialties is more evident in the eastern and western regions. There has also been a positive development in therapeutic services represented by surgical procedures, which indicates the qualitative development of health services with a higher degree of equality of opportunity among the various regions of the Kingdom. Despite the great development in the elements of health services, there is still a need to support the general trend in reducing the disparity between the different regions of the Kingdom, and there is still an urgent need to provide a national medical staff that reduces dependence on non-Saudi doctors.
The doctor explained in this research the geographical distribution of the spread of locusts because it is one of the factors that harm the agricultural environment and turn it into a desert environment,explaining the natural environment factors of climate, temperature and humidity to help the reproduction and spread of locusts, explaining its types and most dangerous and shown that it is a threat to agricultural production of more than 61 countries of the world located between two latitudes ( 10°) south (37°) north and between two long lines (17° )degrees west to (73°) east , and the danger of this insect lies in its large numbers and devouring most of the crops and their speed of movement, movement and reproduction from one place to another. (Taamas, 2002, pp. 14-28).
Another research, published in 1997, shows the beginning of the importance of fuel in human life and with technological development shows the methods of extracting fossil fuels and what are the most important uses and what are the harms to the environment and hold responsible for environmental pollution obtained by negative technological progress through the increased use of fossil fuels (Tamaas,1997, pp.101-117)
Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas is part of a group of that seeks to of revive the Islamic geographical heritage and the role of the Arabs in the development of science in general and geography in particular (Hassan, Khadib, 2004, p.43). In 1996, he published a research that touched on Baghdad, the capital, the lighthouse of the world, and Dar al-Salam, which was built by Mansour al-Abbbasi in the Hijri year 145. Its construction took five years to become a center for Arab culture and Islamic radiation to the entire world.
He spoke about the role of the religious factor in the emergence of cities in many human settlements throughout history and pointed out that the main center of worship occupied the heart of the center of the old city and this research is part of his doctoral thesis, as he mentions an important area of Baghdad, Bab al-Sheikh with a long history of Baghdadi since its inception and during its development from where it was an important religious, social and political center in the history of Baghdad (Tamas,1996, pp.17-22).
In his publication Parking in the cities ((Baghdad Metro)) is a suburban train in the Iraqi capital Baghdad and explains that Al-Khilani Square was going to be the main station, as it is mentioned that the initial designs of the Baghdad metro project were developed in 1981 , and it was planned to start the construction of the metro, but the circumstances experienced by the country, from the Iraqi- Iranian war prevented its completion (Tamaas,1988, pp. 85-97),As part of his interest in the field of educational services and environmental standards in the planning of kindergartens in Iraq, he explained in his writings that increasing the flow of students to schools at rates more accelerated than the growth rates in the elements of educational services such as schools, teachers, grades and different school stages. The reality of the geographical distribution of educational services buildings indicates the absence of planning foundations, which must be taken into account in choosing the location of the school and in designing it according to the requirements of each stage of study. Therefore, greater attention must be given to the correct planning foundations in the field of educational services in a way that can contribute to reducing the disparity in the distribution of educational services in the regions of the country, as well as setting a set of foundations for the construction of kindergartens in Iraq in terms of building, location and status These foundations will contribute to raising the level of educational services for this stage in a way that can build and create a future human being, which should correspond to the level of sound scientific planning. (Teamas, 19866, pp.88-96).
In his Damascus research geographically, he researched an Arab Islamic geographical figure and wrote and analyzed their literature as in his research on Damascus , in which he showed the division of the Greek scientist Claudius Ptolemy ( 100-170 AD) for the seven regions, and he mentions with a detailed analysis of his book Sheikh Al-Rabwa, and he also mentions his book Tap the elite of the era in the wonders of land and sea, in which he wrote the sites of the Levantine and Egyptian cities, their importance and morphology, and the wonders of construction such as the pyramids and the towers of Alexandria(Tammas,1997,pp. 38-84). He also mentions building materials and scenes of lighthouses, mosques and mosques scatched in the Arab Islamic countries.
Because of the importance of the Arab city, I single out a research those talks about the Arab city and its importance as capitals of thought and a beacon of science. It is worth mentioning that most of the Arab Islamic cities have a long history and are still full cities, and this is because of their importance. The site that they take indicates a scientific and practical thought that is mixed with field and regional studies, whose importance is shown in the studies of Arab cities such as Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Oran and Granada (Y.Y. Toomas, 2001, pp.88-100).
Achievements of Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas
The most important achievements of Dr. Youssef Yahya Tamaas at the level of urban and regional planning has effective contributions through the supervision of planning research for many cities and villages in eastern Algeria, which is documented in the image (2 ), in which the students of the final year of the geographical department of the Urban Reclamation Branch obtained a diploma in geography . As follows:
1. Reclamation and expansion of Derush Murad.
2. Urban reclamation and development of a map to develop services for Saleh Bay village.
3. Layout of the ring belt of the eastern yield area of the city of Constantinople .
4. Urban reclamation of the vestibule.
5. Reclamation and expansion of Abbas neighborhood.
6. Urban reclamation of the ancient city of Constantinople.
7. Education and health services in Ain Melilla.
8. Planning of Sidi Mesid residential neighborhood.
9. Reclamation and expansion of Zigod Yusuf.
10. Educational services in the city of Constantinople.
11. Reclamation and expansion of Bani Ziyad municipality.
12. Reclamation and expansion of Bani Hamdan Municipality.
From these activities shows the role of our doctor in the development of applied and field studies and shows the extent of the contribution of our professor in the development of regions of Algeria.
The doctor has a contribution to the writing of methodological books that benefit the student in the stages of his study and the most important of those books (Table 2).
|Title||Contribute to the book||Release Year|
|1||Geography of Transport and Trade||Abdiaziz Mohamed atosh||1989|
|2||General Geography of the Continents||Anwar Mahdi Saleh||1990|
|4||General Geography||Yours sincerely,||1995|
|3||Lessons in General Geography||Ali Al-Mayah, Bashir Ibrahim||2002|
In the book Geography of Transport and International Trade, which is a systematic book addressed to the students of colleges, the fourth stage aims to display and analyze transport and international trade. The book included many statistics and maps that show the phenomena related to the geography of transport and trade. Dr. Youssef wrote the first chapter, which included transport and civilizational development, in which he presented the ancient means of transport and transport in the development of transport in the Mesopotamian Valley. The second chapter talked about the characteristics of modern means of transport such as railways, their standards, transport routes, their density, roads, means of water transport, its importance, air routes and lines, and the impact of all of this on economic and social development projects.
The remaining books are directed to the Ministry of Education, especially for primary, middle and middle school students. They complete one stage after another in accordance with the vision of the Ministry of Education to build curricula based on integration and interdependence and focus on the knowledge-based economy and the promotion of the values of Good citizenship based on consolidating the principle of patriotism and building a national personality, and books were developed within the framework of the curriculum development project
The Iraqi educational system is based on scientific foundations that take into account modern educational trends in the fields of population and environmental education, which helps in developing the capabilities of students, where the learner is the focus of the educational process (Table 3).
|1||Mohammed Abbas Hassan Al-Obaidi||Methods of scientific research among Arab Muslims in the fields of natural geography||2001||Thought||PhD|
|2||Israa Mowaffaq Rajab Al-Dulaimi||Land uses in Al-Rashidiya sub-district||2003||Urban||Master's degree|
|3||Amjad Rahim Al Kubaisi||Industrial Job in Fallujah City||2004||Urban||=|
|4||Niran Mahmoud Salman Al-Khalidi||The impact of different levels of Tigris River drainage in changing the river ecosystem between the Muthanna Bridge and the mouth of the Diyala River||2004||Environment||=|
|5||Zuhair Hatem Khammas||Spatial distribution of private hospitals in the city of Baghdad||2005||Urban||Master's degree|
|6.||Alaa Hashem Inside Al-Saadi||Urban land uses in the new Baghdad sub-district||2006||Urban||Master's degree|
|7.||Nada Jawad Mohammed Ali||Industrial Job in Karbala City||2009||Urban||Master's degree|
|8||Rafal Ibrahim Talib Al Qaisi||Efficiency of Spatial Distribution of Secondary Education Schools in Baghdad City||2009||Urban||PhD|
|9||Rasha Mohammed Humaid Al Mufarreji||The internal structure of the city of Shatrah (a study in the urban Geography )||2009||Urban||Master's degree|
|10||Afrah Faisal Hashim||Trends in Physical Geography Studies in Iraq||2011||Thought||Master's degree|
|11||Mayada Farouk Saeed||Urban Land Uses in Al-Mansour Municipality Unit||2012||Urban||Master's degree|
|12||Raja Khalil Ahmed Hassan||Residential Job in Khanaqin City||2012||Urban||PhD|
|13||Amira Mohammed Ali Hamza Saeed Al-Asadi||Efficiency of Spatial Distribution of Public Education Services in Hilla City||2013||Urban||PhD|
|14||Zahraa Abdel Reda||Efficiency of tourism and recreational services in the city of Baghdad ((Baghdad Island Tourism Park as a model ))||2014|| Tourist geography||Master's degree|
|15||Hana Thamer Mansour||Spatial analysis of the dairy industry in Baghdad governorate||2014||Industrial||Master's degree|
|16||Nelly Owaid Meshali Rashid Al Kanani||Land Uses in Al-Rasheed Municipality Department||2014||Urban||PhD|
|17||Hussain Ali Hassan Alsheikhli||Natural Geography in the Thought of Dr. Wafik Hussein Al-Khashab||2016||Thought||Master's degree|
|18||Zainab Qassem Mohammed||Efficiency of public education services in Abu Ghraib district||2018||Urban||Master's degree|
|19||Huda Rahim Sayhud||Random housing in Al-Karkh Municipality unit and its urban repercussions||2018||Urban||Master's degree|
Scientific supervision of thesis and dissertations
Dr. Naseeb has the right to supervise scientific theses and theses, which are: It appears that the supervision of the specialization of cities and everything related to sustainability was a priority in the directions of Dr. Youssef's thought. The results came from the total supervision of the theses and scientific messages in the specialization of cities (14). This indicates his love in the study and planning of cities, as it came at 70% of the total. The addresses differed from the land uses and the industrial and residential jobs provided by cities, and the geospatial analysis in terms of its efficiency or efficiency of its spatial distribution for various fields from hospitals or social services such as secondary education or infrastructure services and the internal structure of the city, and the study of the issue of random housing.
Geographical thought comes in second place with a total of (3) and 15% , and this is what we have seen as graduate students in his intellectual and philosophical orientations in his presentation of the topic, trying to make students think outside the box if characterized by a very high culture. This helped him a lot in directing students towards study, research and investigation in the subject of geographical thought. His method of asking an intellectual question may be from the first chapter of the book or binding to find the answer in the last chapter. This gave us the motivation of the love of reading and the continuous search for philosophical answers to geography and schools of thought
The other specialties are industrial and environmental, as well as geo-tourism, with a total of one each and 5% for each specialization.
Joint and extractive research by Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas
The doctor has several researches between the joint and the student with graduate students, whether it is a doctorate or a master's degree, and we mention the publication on the website of the Journal of Education for Girls
1. Characteristics of tourism and recreational services and their role in the development and development of society(Baghdad Island Tourism Park as a model) (Hassan, Z.G. and Tammas,Y.Y. (2015)) This research showed the importance of tourist geography as one of the subtle specialties of human geography. The study shows the importance of such studies as a basic pillar for achieving socio-economic development, which aims at human comfort as breathing lungs in cities. 2. The natural components of the dairy products industry in Baghdad Mansour,H.Th and Thammas, Y. E.(2016).The research touches on the most important natural elements that contributed to the establishment and prosperity of the dairy products industries. The geographical location comes primarily in terms of importance as well as the surface of the earth, the level and climate of temperatures, winds, rain and relative humidity, as well as water resources, all of which worked as natural elements that helped in the settlement of those industries. We see the diversity of theses and research in their disciplines with the diversity of topics, sites and research methods, most of which followed the historical, descriptive and analytical approach and with the use of the statistical method and according to the need for research, and this is what gave the encyclopedic advantage to the doctor in his multiple researches.
The contribution of Prof. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas has a prominent and clear impact on the scientific and cultural process, and the advantage of diversity in the subspecialties and curricula was the prominent characteristic in all his studies.
The results of the study can be summarized as follows:
1. He is one of three geographers to have received the award of honor from the French Geographical Society.
2. Application of the first-of-its-kind equation in Iraq within its study of road density and speed of cars .
3. The encyclopedia of Prof. Dr. appears in his research and writings .
4. Dr. Yousef Yahya Tamaas is didn’t like using modern techniques to see that it distances geography from its nature and concept.
5. He contributed significantly to the enrichment of the Arab Library through his various works and in different disciplines.
6. His writings were objective and realistic ,in an easy scientific manner.
7. Use it for several solid scientific approaches, if varied according to the needs of the research .
8. He contributed greatly to the inheritance of geography inside and outside the country through his research and supervision of scientific theses, which were characterized by originality .
9. Follow the original and sober scientific method in the steps of his research
10. The use of statistical means according to the need of research and nonaccess to equations and numbers away from the real goal of geography. One of the most important recommendations is to identify and search for geographical personalities and scientific peaks to benefit from their scientific and research journey to be a candle that will light up future generations.
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Thammas , Y. E.(1988).. Proposed Transport Projects in Baghdad City (Baghdad Metro), Arab Towns Organization, Kuwait.
Thammas , Y. E.(1995).. In Philosophy of Geography , Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society: Al-Ani Press, 165-187.
Thammas , Y. E.(1995)..Geographical Studies in Iraq, Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society,28,34-50.
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Tumas, Y.Y. (1988). The proposed transportation projects in the city of Baghdad (Baghdad Metro), Arab Towns Organization, Kuwait.
Tumas, Y.Y. (1995). In Philosophy of Geography, Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society: Al-Ani Press, 165-187.
Tumas, YY (1995). Geographical Studies in Iraq, Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society, 28, 34-50.
Tumas, Y.Y. (1996). Baghdad, a religious center of radiation, Journal of the Iraqi Geographical Society, 1996.
Tumas, Y.Y. (2001). Quantitative trend in geography between objectivity and exaggeration, Journal of Geographical Research, College of Education for Girls / University of Kufa, 2 (1), 171-178.
Tumas, Y.Y. (2002). Locusts and Desertification in the Arab World, Journal of the College of Arts, Journal of the College of Arts/ University of Baghdad, 62,211-226.
Tumas, Y.Y. (2003). Man and the Environment between the Geographical Perspective and the Philosophy of History, Journal of the College of Arts, University of Baghdad, 57.1-15.
Tumas, Y. Y. and Mansour H. T. (2016). Natural Ingredients for Dairy Industry in Baghdad Governorate, Journal of the College of Education for Girls, 27(2), 753-770. Available via the link https://jcoeduw.uobaghdad.edu.iq/index.php/journal/article/view/1901.