Research - (2021) Volume 16, Issue 4
Special exercises for offensive tactical skills and their impact on developing the speed and accuracy of some basic skills in youth footballAli Saad Abdul Hameed*, Matham Habeeb Sabhan and Wameedh Shamil Kamil
*Correspondence: Ali Saad Abdul Hameed, Physical education and sports sciences, University of Baghdad, Iraq, Email:
Received: 18-Jun-2021 Published: 30-Aug-2021
The game of football is very important, especially in the lives of peoples and their leaders. It is the first in the world and certainly the interest in it differs from other sports by linking the science of training with the sciences of physiology, movement and other sciences. The basic principles of physical, skill, planning, psychological as well as mental training are the base from which the whole process. Due to the importance of tactical preparation because of its great importance for team games, including football. The aim of the research is to identify and prepare special exercises for the offensive tactical skills used, and the study will be on young football players, numbering (20) players. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences in favor of the post-tests of the experimental group, and the conclusion was that the exercises used had a positive role in developing the level of basic skills. The researcher recommends the use of special exercises for offensive tactical skills because they are most closely related to the course of play during the match and to the development of basic football skills.
Football. Handling. Scoring. Youth club. Football skills
Sport is of great importance in the lives of peoples and countries. The competition has become to get results and many championships. By relying on science that is closely related to its impact on building sports in general. Countries that are moving at a steady pace through planning and programming for sports sciences are the ones that get outstanding achievements and results. The game of football is very important, especially in the lives of peoples and their leaders, and it is the first in the world. Certainly the interest in it differs from other sports by linking the science of training with the sciences of physiology, movement and other sciences (ali et al, 2020)
The basic principles of physical, skill, planning, psychological as well as mental training are the base from which the whole process is based, and all these foundations are very important and lead to a single destination ( BARBU et al, 2015). The importance of schematic numbers because of its great importance for team games, including football, because it is the largest container that contains all the above constants and foundations. The special exercises have the tactical skills and linking them together to form schematic sentences, and then the tactical performance occurs in its general form. Basic skills require accuracy, mastery, and knowledge as well as tactical skills. Special exercises are considered to influence the tactical performance to develop the players' ability with the speed and accuracy required by the football player to intertwine basic and tactical skills and physical and even psychological qualities (Mghamic et al, 2019 ). These features are also good and bad when used. Its interconnectedness gives aesthetics, suspense and understanding, leading to full tactical performance by scoring goals in the most wonderful way. The plan is to provide the players with the ability to perform the various game plans as well as the information and knowledge related to them to an adequate extent. This enables them to behave well in the various and changing situations during matches (Abd Al-Hussein et al, 2019). The level of performance of the players varies from one to the other and who masters the basic ball skills that help the tactical skills to prepare the skill is an important aspect of preparing the football player. It mainly aims to master the basic skills of the game. Without the players mastering the basic skills well, it is difficult for them to implement plans effectively, which does not enable the team to perform well in the match (Shamardin and Khorkavyy, (2015). Where it is best suited to achieve a high level of planning performance that differs from other peers and applies what the coach wants from him to perfection. The importance of the research is highlighted by developing special exercises for offensive tactical skills and their impact on developing the speed of some basic skills for youth in football that were not previously used in tactical performance in football Praça and Greco (2019).
Esthetics, suspense and fun can only be found in the game of football, as it is the enjoyment of the player and the spectator through the rapid performance of basic and tactical skills and the required accuracy. In addition to physical performance and psychological and mental state. One of these important matters in the training process and its continuation is the tactical skills. How to train it because it needs long and continuous times from the first preparation periods until the end of the competitions (Sattorov and Saidov, 2021). Through the researcher’s experience as a coach and player for national teams and clubs. Observing the youth teams and reviewing some of their curricula, it was found that most of our teams, especially the youth, lack and weak interest in training. These important tactical skills that express the coach's thinking and the players' potential, and if any, are weak and insufficient. It is not consistent with the size of these skills and their impact on all stages of public and private preparation and competitions, simple and tainted by weakness in performance and inaccuracy (Krutsch et al, 2018; Kawthar et al, 2021). This is due to the lack of emphasis on mastery and practice, and its connection to the completed tactical performance and the general level of the team to achieve good results. The exercises all emphasize basic skills, physical qualities, and neglect of tactical skills. The training methods are different and the neglect of an important and influential aspect constitutes a defect in the complete and correct training process in football. From here, the researcher decided to study this problem and develop appropriate solutions to it by developing special exercises for offensive tactical skills in developing the speed and accuracy of some basic skills in youth football. The moin objectivs of the is stody is to prepare exercises for the offensive tactical skills of youth in football. As well as Recognizing the effect of offensive tactical skills on the speed and accuracy of some basic skills in youth football
1- There are statistically significant differences between the pre and post tests for the experimental and control groups
2- There are statistically significant differences between the pre and post tests in favor of the post tests.
The researcher used the experimental method using the design of the two groups to suit the nature of the research, where the research community was chosen in a deliberate way for the youth group under 19 years in football. The sample was also chosen intentionally, and they are Al-Sina’a Sports Club players for the period from 15/3/218 to 16/5/2018. The research sample consisted of (30) players in Al-Sina’a Sports Club, and the actual players in the tests were (20) players out of a total of (24), and (4) players were excluded due to absence and injury.
• It is the first technical mechanism and the basis for the integrated tactical performance based on basic skills and means maneuvering and stability in individual movements. As well as collective skills, offensive or defensive, according to the variables of playing situations. As well as performance with speed and accuracy by employing the technical capabilities of the players and dispose of them with or without a ball
Tactical skills are divided into offensive and defensive skills : The offensive skills are - wall handling - all kinds of bonding - changing direction - opening (spreading) - creating a void - intersection - possession - changing playing positions - linking - penetration.
The used tests
First test / 30-second bouncy handling on the wall
Purpose of the test/measurement of handling speed and accuracy
The second test / rolling test between (10) poles back and forth
The purpose of the test is to measure the ability to roll speed and accuracy by changing direction
The third test / scoring towards a target divided into squares
The purpose of the test/measurement of scoring speed and accuracy towards the target
Results and Discussion
The table below shows the equivalence of the two groups in the variables investigated (Table 1).
|Control group||Experiment group|
|Variables||Unit||Pre test||Post test||Temperature||T value||Value function||Function|
|Handling||Repeating||1.360||1.948||1.611||1 .523||18||0.739||0.470||Not meaningful|
Presentation of the arithmetic means and standard deviations of the pre and post tests and the value of the t-test and its significance for the control and experimental groups (Table 2).
The results that were presented in Table (2) above for the experimental group showed that the calculated (t) value of the scoring was (5.103) with a significant level of (0.001) which is less than the error level.
|Control Group||Variables||Unit||Pre test||Post test||Temperature||T value||Function value||Function|
|S A||S A|
The results also showed the calculated rolling t-value, which amounted to (4.588) and a significant level of (0.001), which is less than the error level.
It also showed the calculated t-value, which amounted to (7000) and with a significant level (0.000), which is less than the error level.
This indicates that there are significant differences between the pre and post tests in favor of the post tests
This is because the level of significance for all tests was less than the error level (0.05). Which indicates On the occurrence of a significant development in the post-tests. The researcher attributes this development to the fact that the construction of exercises in particular was based on a scientific method in codifying the training loads that are commensurate with the level of the research sample members. The principles of training science were relied on in shaping the exercises used, which included special exercises, which led to the development of the level as a result of what happened to the players in terms of adaptation through their use. Also, the development in the tactical skills and basic skills has a clear impact on the development of the level of the players in the performance of the variables by choosing to train on special exercises that fit the nature of the sample.” (46:2) Choosing the appropriate exercises enables the trainer to develop skillful and harmonious qualities in a timely manner. Himself working on the player's mastery of skills. Presentation of the arithmetic means of the post-test and the value of t-test and its significance for the control and experimental groups (Table 3).
|control group||experimental group|
|Variables||Unit||post test||Pre test||Temperature||T value||Value function||Function|
In addition, the exercises were similar to the situations and situations of playing, and this led to the development of the players even in matching their movements with the ball, and then performing the skills without errors. The greater the interest in providing training similar to the situations of the competition, the better the correct skill could be taught (46:2). Through continuous load with different stresses, performance has become a good and effective mechanism for acquiring skills with speed and accuracy. The training ripple using intensity and the use of high interval training method and repetitive training were also significantly affected by the combination of speed and accuracy of the tactical skill exercises. The development of the level of players with rapid performance and high accuracy to develop the basic skills that came as a result of using these new and effective special exercises. It is developed in a scientifically correct and orderly manner that depends on the correct performance and accustoming the players to act quickly with the appropriate tactical skills at the right time because of its importance As the player knows to think and aim quickly, slow thinking and hesitation allow the defending opponent to intervene to spoil the scoring (87:1).
The researcher attributes the existence of significant differences between the basic skill tests to the special exercises carried out in the main part of the experimental group based on the foundations and principles of training science.
The specificity of the effectiveness was taken into account to reach the adaptation, taking into account the increase in the load in a scientific and logical way and its gradation.
All these principles led to the success of the tactical skill exercises and an increase in the level of the basic skills of the experimental group. The researcher prefers the moral results in all the above-mentioned special exercises for the tactical skills, which contained many diversity in their use, which affected the development of the skill of scoring, rolling, handling, quick execution and with high accuracy. (Taha Ismail (and others 1989) (5: 91) confirms that the development of motor skills is always linked to raising the level of combinatory abilities, and the presence of abilities is a facilitating factor for skill development (and through our review of all tables, it can be noted the moral differences in skill tests, which flow from the achievement of skill Scoring with high speed and accuracy If the special exercises give the tactical skills the ability to connect the motor The ability to link the basic skills intertwined with the tactical skills to reach the full tactical performance through the diversity of the tactical sentences to excite the players and increase their motivation towards progress and raise their level. The training is empty without the goal having a share in it, and because these exercises are designed in an atmosphere similar to the real game, and this is consistent with (Salim 1988) (4: 76) the scoring exercises must be formed on the goal so as to conform to the real conditions that occur in the matches as much as possible, if the exercise contains some situations Surprising variables in which we find the player surrounded by defenders from several directions to try to block the roads in front of him or to seize the ball and scatter it from between the feet Also, accuracy has an active role in scoring, which cannot be successful without it. This is what became clear to the experimental group players by performing tactical exercises with high accuracy for the skill of scoring.
When training on these two qualities, the other must be taken into account. For example, by developing accuracy, speed can be developed, and this is what many coaches did not adopt in preparing their players on this basis. The formula of dual and mutual development is what characterizes the modern training process (35:8)0. The player's mastery of the duties within the special exercises prepared by the researcher pushes him to exercise and to play with greater enthusiasm. Reach him to the highest technical levels and be a winning card in a trained hand to implement his ideas and plans during official competitions, and he points to this (Allawi 1994) (7: 412). Complete mastery of motor-skills, since it is the ultimate goal of the skill-planning preparation process on which access to the mathematical levels is based. Whatever the level of the physical attributes of the athlete, and whatever moral and voluntary traits he is characterized by, he will not achieve the desired results unless all of this is linked to mastery in sports motor skills. There are significant differences in favor of the post-test for the experimental group. As the continuous planning skills exercises, intensity and training volume based on sound scientific foundations had an effective impact in developing this test. The homogeneity that appeared on the teamwork between the players during the performance of this test led to the development of the ability to perform better, and the special exercises that depended mainly on regular repetition helped to improve and develop the application of special skills. In order to overcome this, it is necessary to develop the tactical skills that make up the basic skills, and this means increasing the adequacy of the work of implementing these tactical skills and increasing the consistency between them and in accordance with what is required by the basic skill performance, as Essam Abdel-Khaleq mentions. To reach the good compatibility of the movement, this is achieved by repetition and exercise, the movement becomes more accurate, and the individual is more in control of the performance while performing the good tactic without errors (23:6). The special exercises also helped to develop the linkage of the planning skills, which in turn was reflected in the compatibility between them. It is known in football that when you implement any skillful performance you participate in it. In addition to the foregoing, the researcher believes that the tactical skills cannot succeed unless the basic skills are performed with accuracy and high speed and the implementation of the tactical duty in football
The researcher prefers the moral results in all of the above to the special exercises, whose vocabulary contained many exercises for the implementation of quick planning skills. It aims to investigate rapid progress and a direct link between skills, accuracy in execution and speed. Almost no exercise is devoid of these quick skill plans, and under a similar atmosphere, the atmosphere of real play. The researcher designed these exercises according to the style of playing and to repeat these exercises, all of this led to the development of the time for implementing the tactical performance of the players. The continuation of the application necessitates that they implement it in the least appropriate time while playing. The basis of team play is evidence of understanding and harmony between the players on the field and the team whose players are not good at mastering the basic skills and applying them to achieve a specific strategic goal among them, and cannot perform the duties assigned to them on the field. On the contrary, we find that the team whose players master all kinds of skills do not miss many opportunities and this positively affects me in playing. In addition, the aim of implementing special exercises on the experimental group is to enable the members of this group to enjoy participating in the game seriously. Their comprehension of the technical performance model of skills through play and tactics knowledge and comprehension (165:3). The speed and accuracy that were associated with the tactical exercises affected the performance of the basic skill of rolling, and the mastery of rolling led to the diversity in its use and linking the agility and lightness that characterizes the experimental in addition to moving from one place to another by performing the exercises that led to the smoothness of rolling with all the activities in the match. The application of the tactical skills involved in rolling, and the method of moving the ball when moving to apply a specific offensive or defensive position, is one of the important methods in obtaining playing space in team events and running with the ball (76:7), which is the art of using the parts of the foot to roll the ball on the ground while it is under The player's control (68:9) and this was confirmed by the researcher during the application of the quick offensive tactical skills included in his training curriculum. The researcher attributes the reasons for the differences that appeared in the test of the basic skill of rolling to the organization of the exercises and their effectiveness. The training process depends on the organization, which created a state of development in the level of performance of the players through the consistency of the proposed exercises with the capabilities and abilities of the players and this was shown by the experimental results. As for the results of the control group, which all indicated the absence of moral differences, the researcher believes that the reason for this is The adoption of the curriculum followed by the control group on a single pattern in the development of basic skills during the exercise units, which depends on bilateral and triple exercises without a regulated load. As well as the inaccurate organization in the performance of the exercise units and the distance from the scientific method studied in its implementation and for the coach to develop the capabilities of his players and raise their training status. It must reach the outer limits of their physical ability and skill. The coach can put for his players in the program content that suits their skill level, and the skill level largely determines the plans that can be included in the training program” (330:9). Motor skills are necessary and the player needs to implement the playing plans, handling and rolling are among the most important basic principles of the game Football and on its mastery depends to a large extent on the player’s success and prominence. The mastery of this skill depends on the player’s technical abilities and experiences that he gained from training and competitions, and the player who masters it can move the ball to a better position. This is what the members of the control group did not apply, so the results of skill tests were not In the post-tests, it was good compared to the results of the experimental group.
1- The tactical skills exercises had a positive role in developing the level of performance of basic skills and their implementation, represented by the development of the time and accuracy of this performance through the link between speed and accuracy, clearly when applying the performance of the three tests.
2- The exercises used were of good quality, directed and progressive, which brought about an effective and effective change in the implementation of the technical performance of the basic skills, which was reflected in the results of the experimental group in the post-tests.
3- The mastery of offensive tactical skills in football according to a well-studied plan provides an opportunity for the beneficiary team to master the basic skills when implementing the general tactical performance, as regular repetition helped to improve and develop the application of skills for the implementation of these basic tests.
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